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Ciclo de vida de Proprioseiopsis cannaensis (Muma) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) com diferentes tipos de alimentos; Life cycle of Proprioseiopsis cannaensis (Muma) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on different types of food

BELLINI, Marcos R; ARAUJO, Ralf V de; SILVA, Edmilson S; MORAES, Gilberto J de; BERTI FILHO, Evoneo
Fonte: Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil Publicador: Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.59%
Several annual and perennial crops are severely attacked by mites from the family Eriophyidae, Tenuipalpidae and Tetranychidae. A suitable alternative commonly used in several countries for the control of these pest mites involve the use of predatory mites in the family Phytoseiidae. The phytoseiid fauna in the Brazilian natural vegetation is very rich, but nothing is known about the biology of most of these species, as it is the case with Proprioseiopsis cannaensis (Muma). The objective of this study was to determine biological parameters of P. cannaensis fed on pest mite species such as Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead) (Eriophyidae), Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Tenuipalpidae) and Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae). To enable a comparison for different food sources, one of the treatments consisted of pollen from Typha angustifolia L. The study was conducted in the laboratory at 25 ± 1ºC, 80 ± 10% RH and Photophase of 12h. Proprioseiopsis cannaensis did not complete the development when it was fed on P. oleivora. Its fecundity was very low with all other food sources (maximum of 3.3 eggs/female with pollen of T. angustifolia). The values of r m for P. cannaensis were -0.05, -0.09 and 0.002 when fed on B. phoenicis, T. urticae and pollen respectively. The unsatisfactory results from the four types of food sources do not permit us to conclude that P. cannaensis utilizes mites from the family Eriophyidae...

Enterotoxigenic and genetic profiles of Bacillus cereus strains of food origin in Brazil

ARAGON-ALEGRO, Lina Casale; PALCICH, Gabriela; LOPES, Graciela Volz; RIBEIRO, Vinicius Buccelli; LANDGRAF, Mariza; DESTRO, Maria Teresa
Fonte: INT ASSOC FOOD PROTECTION Publicador: INT ASSOC FOOD PROTECTION
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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65.52%
In Brazil. the incidence of Bacillus cereus outbreaks is unknown, and there is little information about B. cereus occurrence in food. In addition, data on toxin production and genetic characterization of the B. cereus isolates cannot be found. This pathogen causes two distinct types of toxin-mediated foodborne illnesses known as diarrheal and emetic syndromes. Diarrheal syndrome has been linked to three different enterotoxins: two protein complexes, hemolysin BL (HBL) and nonhemolytic enterotoxin (NHE); and an enterotoxic protein, cytotoxin K (cytK). Emetic syndrome is related to cereulide, a toxin encoded by the ces gene. In this study, NHE and HBL production capacities of 155 strains of B. cereus isolated from Brazilian food products were evaluated with an immunoassay. Strains were also tested for the presence of the genes of the HBL and NHE complexes, cytK, cytK-1, cytK-2, and ces, using PCR. HBL was detected in 105 (67.7%) strains and NHE in 154 (99.4%) strains. All the strains harbored at least one gene of the NHE complex, while 96.1% of them were positive for at least one of those of the HBL complex. Genes cytK1 and ces were not detected. All strains showed toxigenic capacity and could represent a risk for consumers if good practices are not followed. This is the first report on toxigenic and genetic profiles of B. cereus strains isolated in Brazil.

Desenvolvimento e avaliação da usuabilidade de um recordatório de 24 horas estruturado e computadorizado para acompanhamento do consumo alimentar de escolares; Developing and evaluation of the usability of a structured and automated 24-Hour Recall to evaluate school children food intake

Ferri, Bruna Furer
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/12/2011 PT
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Introdução: A avaliação do consumo alimentar de crianças e adolescentes representa um desafio na pesquisa epidemiológica. O Recordatório de 24 horas (R24h) é considerado um ótimo método para coletar dados dietéticos e é muito utilizado no acompanhamento alimentar da população. Porém requer entrevistadores altamente treinados, o que dificulta o uso em pesquisas de grandes amostras. Objetivo. Desenvolver um Recordatório de 24 horas estruturado e computadorizado (R24ec) para a avaliação do consumo alimentar de escolares e testar a usabilidade deste sistema. Métodos. Os alimentos escolhidos para o R24ec foram pré-definidos a partir de um banco de dados secundário. O R24ec inclui seis refeições prédefinidas, embutidas em questões que contextualizam as rotinas e locais do dia anterior. Contém ainda uma lista de alimentos dividida em grupos alimentares e subgrupos. Durante a entrevista, itens não listados podem ser adicionados em espaço previsto para este uso. A base de dados de composição de alimentos é composta pela tabela TACO. O R24ec ainda inclui um atlas fotográfico, contendo diferentes tipos de alimentos que serve como auxílio visual para que os entrevistados possam selecionar os tamanhos de porções. Realizou-se um teste com o R24ec em uma escola pública de Guarulhos com 73 escolares. A usabilidade foi testada por 17 profissionais da área da tecnologia da informação através de um questionário que avalia a usabilidade de sistemas utilizando a lógica Fuzzy baseado na ISO. Resultados. Foi desenvolvido um instrumento computadorizado contendo uma lista de aproximadamente 120 alimentos com média de três tamanhos de porções. Dos escolares pesquisados...

Produção científica sobre segurança dos alimentos no contexto da segurança alimentar no Brasil: período de 2000 a 2012; Scientific production about food safety in the context of food security in Brazil: period 2000-2012

Oliveira, Renata Maturino de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/09/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.66%
O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar descritiva e criticamente a produção científica brasileira em ‘segurança dos alimentos’, no período de 2000 a 2012, utilizando para as buscas de trabalhos 47 descritores no português brasileiro e língua inglesa. Utilizou as bases de artigos indexados: Scielo - método Google Acadêmico, Scielo método Integrado, CAB Abstract, Scopus, Web of Science, LILACS, Food of Science and food and process e BINAGRI. Do total de trabalhos identificados no tema ‘segurança dos alimentos’ no contexto da Segurança Alimentar, houve predominância de estudos sobre alimentos, manipuladores, equipamentos/utensílios e ambiente; os tipos de estabelecimentos mais frequentemente focados nos estudos foram: restaurantes, churrascarias, lanchonetes e bares; as naturezas de estudo mais utilizadas pelos pesquisadores foram: check-list para avaliar boas práticas de higiene e manipulação, entrevistas, observações in loco e visitas técnicas; houve predomínio de trabalhos provenientes das regiões Sudeste e Sul; as entidades públicas federais e estaduais são as que mais investem nas pesquisas acadêmicas; predominaram trabalhos sobre alimentos, manipuladores e equipamentos/ utensílios e ambiente nas regiões Sudeste e Sul; Apesar da ampla variedade de Objetos de Estudo...

Detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis using real time PCR, immunocapture assay, PNA FISH and standard culture methods in different types of food samples

Almeida, Carina; Cerqueira, L.; Azevedo, N. F.; Vieira, M. J.
Fonte: Elsevier; Elsevier BV Publicador: Elsevier; Elsevier BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.6%
Several methods for the rapid and specific detection of Salmonella in food samples have been described. Here, we compare 4 of those methods in terms of assay time, procedure complexity, detection limit, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. Milk, eggs and mayonnaise samples were artificially contaminated with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis cell concentrations ranging from 1 × 10- 2 to 1 × 102 CFU per 25 g or ml of food. Samples were then pre-enriched and analyzed by either: i) real-time PCR, using the iQ-Check Salmonella kit; ii) immunocapture, using the RapidChek SELECT Salmonella; iii) a peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) method and iv) the traditional bacteriological method ISO 6579:2002. All methods were able to detect Salmonella in the different types of food matrixes and presented a similar detection level of 1 CFU per 25 g or ml of food sample. The immunocapture and the PNA FISH methods proved to be very reliable, as their results were 100% in agreement with the ISO method. However, real-time PCR presented a significant number of false positives, which resulted in a specificity of 55.6% (CI 95%, 31.3 – 77.6) and an accuracy of 82.2%(CI 95%, 63.2 – 91.4) for this method. Sensitivity was 100% since no false negative results were observed. In conclusion...

Behavior of the vegetable crops section in three types of food retail stores in Campo Grande, Brazil

Lima-Filho,Dario de O; Hokama,Anderson S; Spanhol,Caroline P
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Horticultura Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Horticultura
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2009 EN
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65.5%
The behavior of the fresh fruits and vegetable produce section was evaluated, under the point of view of the consumer, in three types of food retail stores in Campo Grande, Brazilian southeast: a grocery store ("quitanda"), a supermarket, and an open-air market. A quantitative-descriptive survey was conducted with 120 individuals, responsible for purchasing fresh fruit and vegetable produce for their homes. To accomplish that, twelve variables were investigated and adapted from the parameters used in the SERVQUAL model, in which the attributes of the retail outlet are pointed out, such as store hygiene and cleanliness and manner by which produce is displayed; employee training traits, such as courtesy and helpfulness; and quality, price range, and variety of the produce for sale. The results reveal that shopping for grocery is done weekly; 80% of the shoppers interviewed do their shopping in supermarkets and 94% do theirs in open-air markets. The open-air market had the best results in the attributes for which they were evaluated when compared with the grocery store and the supermarket. The study also points out that the older the shopper the more often he/she does grocery shopping.

Growth and survival of dorado Salminus brasiliensis (Pisces, Characidae) post-larvae cultivated with different types of food and photoperiods

Schütz,Jackson Haroldo; Nuñer,Alex Pires de Oliveira
Fonte: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar Publicador: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2007 EN
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65.49%
The effect of food and photoperiod on dorado (Salminus brasiliensis) post-larvae growth and survival was investigated using the following treatments: LD (Light: Dark) 24:0 + Artemia nauplii (A), LD 24:0 + fish prey (F), LD 14:10 + A, LD 14:10 + F, LD 0:24 +A and LD 0:24 + F. Prochilodus lineatus larvae were used as fish prey. Higher survival rates were registered in fish prey treatments (P<0.05) and were not influenced by photoperiod whereas in Artemia treatments, the survival was very low, but directly proportional to light increase (P<0.05). The better growth in LD 0:24 was related to a safe-energy strategy that reduced energy consumption whereas in LD 24:0, the higher energy consumption reduced the growth. In intermediate photoperiod, the post-larvae did not define a strategy to capture preys, using alternatively the static safe-energy and the swimming consuming energy, which caused higher heterogeneity in growth.

Effects of food type, feeding frequency, and temperature on juvenile survival and growth of Marisa cornuarietis (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

Selck, Henriette; Aufderheide, John; Pounds, Nadine; Staples, Charles; Caspers, Norbert; Forbes, Valery
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/06/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.67%
The present experiments are part of a larger study designed to investigate the influence of husbandry parameters on the life history of the ramshorn snail, Marisa cornuarietis, in order to identify suitable husbandry conditions for maintaining multi-generation populations in the laboratory for use in ecotoxicological testing. In this paper we focus on the effects of a combination of food types and feeding frequencies (i.e., the frequency with which the snails were offered food) on juvenile growth and survival at different temperatures. Offspring produced in the laboratory by wild specimens of M. cornuarietis, from Puerto Rico, were used to test the effects of three types of food (lettuce, alginate with fish food, alginate with snail mix) fed at three frequencies (given ad libitum on 4/4, 2/4, or 1/4 d) on juvenile survival and growth. The 4-d feeding regimens were repeated four times, giving a total of 16 d for the experiments. The experiments were conducted at two temperatures (22° and 25°C) under a 12 h light:12 h dark photoperiod. Juvenile growth rates increased with increasing feeding frequency for all food types. The most rapid growth rates occurred in the high-frequency lettuce treatments and the slowest growth rates in the low-frequency lettuce and alginate with snail mix treatments. Juvenile snails grew faster at 25° than at 22°C...

Evaluation of Three Swabbing Devices for Detection of Listeria monocytogenes on Different Types of Food Contact Surfaces

Lahou, Evy; Uyttendaele, Mieke
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.65%
Listeria monocytogenes can adhere to different types of food contact surfaces within a food processing environment. Therefore, environmental sampling devices should be capable of detecting unacceptable contamination. In this study, a sponge-stick, foam spatula and an environmental swab were evaluated on their ability to detect low concentrations of L. monocytogenes on different types of food contact surfaces. A cocktail of four L. monocytogenes serotypes was inoculated with a concentration of 100 CFU/250 cm2 onto stainless steel (SS), high density polyethylene (HDPE) and rubber surfaces in a 250 cm2 area. Immediately after inoculation and after 1 h exposure, the surfaces were swabbed with the different swabbing devices. The results of the study show only minor differences in the ability of the swabbing devices to detect L. monocytogenes. All devices were capable to detect the contamination immediately after inoculation. However, when the surfaces were allowed to air-dry for 1 h, L. monocytogenes was undetected in 11.1% of the samples (n = 27) with the sponge stick, in 7.4% of the samples (n = 27) with the foam spatula and in 3.7% of the samples (n = 27) with the environmental swab, especially on SS surfaces. The detection ability of the different devices for L. monocytogenes can be concluded to be rather high on different types of food contact surfaces.

Is This Symptom Even a Food Allergy?: Clinical Types of Food Protein-induced Enterocolitis Syndrome

Hwang, Jin-Bok
Fonte: The Korean Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Publicador: The Korean Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.6%
Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is an under-recognized non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergy. The diagnosis of FPIES is based on clinical history, sequential symptoms and the timing, after excluding other possible causes. It is definitively diagnosed by an oral food challenge test. Unfortunately, the diagnosis of FPIES is frequently delayed because of non-specific symptoms and insufficient definitive diagnostic biomarkers. FPIES is not well recognized by clinicians; the affected infants are often mismanaged as having viral gastroenteritis, food poisoning, sepsis, or a surgical disease. Familiarity with the clinical features of FPIES and awareness of the indexes of suspicion for FPIES are important to diagnose FPIES. Understanding the recently defined clinical terms and types of FPIES is mandatory to suspect and correctly diagnose FPIES. The aim of this review is to provide a case-driven presentation as a guide of how to recognize the clinical features of FPIES to improve diagnosis and management of patients with FPIES.

The Ethics of Food Production and Regulation of “Misbranding”

Hoffman, Selena
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Paper (for course/seminar/workshop)
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.54%
As consumers have become more conscious of the ethical implications of food choices, the food industry has capitalized on our concern by introducing labels that appeal to our moral sensibilities. Labels such as “free range” and “cage free” influence the purchasing decisions of consumers because these labels suggest production methods with fewer harmful ethical implications, whether with regard to animal welfare or environmental sustainability. In response to consumer demand for more ethical food choices, production method labeling has become widespread. Nevertheless—and despite pervasive regulation of other types of food labeling— oversight of production methods claims is virtually nonexistent. Thus, consumers rely on labels such as “free range” to make purchasing decisions, without knowing what “free range” really means. The misbranding provisions of FDA’s and USDA’s authorizing statutes grant the agencies the ability to prohibit claims that are “false and misleading in any particular.” Under these provisions, the agencies could regulate production method claims to protect American consumers who are concerned about the ethical implications of what they eat. This paper explores the challenges to using the misbranding provision to regulate labeling of production methods—and how the provision might be used to protect consumers from false and misleading production method claims.

De-centering the text: Exploring the potential for visual methods in the sociology of food

Power, Elaine
Fonte: Journal for the Study of Food and Society Publicador: Journal for the Study of Food and Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1012518 bytes; application/pdf
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.54%
In our culture, the image has become more powerful than the word, and perhaps more than ever, both social agents and social researchers “know more than we can say” in words. Yet sociological knowledge production and representation remain firmly rooted in text. In this paper, I argue that visual methods, such as film, photography and video, can expand knowledge production in the study of food and society, and represent that knowledge more richly and forcefully. In their capacities to evoke the sensual, non-rational, and material aspects of life, visual methods are well suited to the study of a subject such as food, which encompasses social processes from the embodied and tacit experiences of preparing and consuming food, to complex global configurations of power. I begin with the limitations of logo-centric sociology. Concentrating on photography, I move to a brief history of this method in sociology and discuss epistemological issues related to the contemporary post-foundationalist practice of visual sociology. Finally, I turn to a discussion of three main types of visual research activities: producing visual images; collaborating with research participants to produce visual images; and examining pre-existing images.

Diversification in the first year of food life.; Diversificação alimentar no primeiro ano de vida.

Silva, Ana Isabel; Unidade de Saúde Familiar Nova Salus - ACES Grande Porto VIII, Gaia, Portugal.; Aguiar, Hélder Gabriel
Fonte: Ordem dos Médicos Publicador: Ordem dos Médicos
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; article; article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/12/2011 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.65%
Diversifying food during the first year of life is an extremely important step for the adequate nutritional status of infants and their physical and psychological development, functioning as a means of transition from lactation to feed the family. Despite the introduction of food diversification is a necessary step for human development, some issues still exist today, not only for the initiation but also in relation to the proper sequence for the various types of food, causing different perspectives and ways of acting on part of clinicians.To determine the best time for the start of food diversification and the best time to introduce certain foods.Bibliographic search of the literature in English and Portuguese, from January 2004 to May 2010 through Medline / Pubmed sites and Evidence Based Medicine. Twenty-five of fifty-eight articles were selected, given the full availability of publications and relevance to the topic.The food diversification should never start before 17 or after 2 6 weeks. There is no current evidence that delaying the introduction of any antigen after six months reduces the risk of food allergy, asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema, even if there is family history of allergy. It is prudent to avoid the introduction of both prior (less than four months) and late (more than seven months) of gluten and a gradual introduction will reduce the risk of celiac disease...

Television food advertising: counterproductive to children's health? A content analysis using the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating

Zuppa, Julie A.; Morton, Heather N.; Mehta, Kaye P.
Fonte: Dietitians Association of Australia Publicador: Dietitians Association of Australia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.63%
OBJECTIVE: To undertake a content analysis of the types of foods advertised during programs, which have particular appeal to children and in timeslots where children are likely to be watching television and to assess conformity with the recommendations of the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE). SETTING: Adelaide, South Australia METHODS: Sixty-three hours of programs classified as 'C' (programs specifically produced for children six to 13 years of age) or 'G' (programs for general viewing, suitable for children to view without adult supervision) were videotaped. Advertisements with the intent of selling were included in the analysis. Food advertisements were coded for type of food (using the AGHE), network stations, program classification and viewing time. STATISTICS: A chi-squared test was used to see if any difference existed between the network stations, viewing times and program classification for certain types of food advertising. RESULTS: There were 544 food advertisements: 21% percent for core foods; and 79% for non-core foods of the AGHE. Fast foods, chocolate and confectionery made up almost 50% of food advertisements shown on television. CONCLUSIONS: Television food advertising did not support the recommendations for healthy eating contained in the AGHE. Child viewers were exposed to a television environment that predominantly promotes foods high in fat...

The food retail environment surrounding Canadian schools and its impact on overweight and obesity

Seliske, Laura Marie
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 1637756 bytes; application/pdf
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.75%
Background: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Canadian youth has increased considerably over the past few decades. In spite of considerable efforts, individual-level behavioural modification strategies have not been successful at preventing and treating obesity in youth. Research is emerging that has shifted attention to the environmental-level determinants of obesity. There is some evidence that the number and types of food retailers in a given neighbourhood may impact obesity risk in the individuals living in that neighbourhood, but little is known about the impact of the food retail environment on Canadian youth. Objectives: 1) To describe the food environment surrounding the school neighbourhoods of Canadian youth (grades 6 to 10), and, determine whether access to food retailers around schools differs by area-level SES. 2) To determine whether the number and type of food retailers surrounding schools is related to the overweight status of the students attending those schools. Each of these objectives was explored in a separate manuscript. Methods: A trend test was performed to determine if exposure to food retailers varied by neighbourhood socioeconomic status (SES) for 188 schools across Canada. Logistic regression was performed using a multilevel modeling approach to determine if an association existed between exposure to food retailers and overweight and obesity in the 7...

Fine-grained analysis of aspects, sentiments and types of attitudes in restaurant reviews; Análise de aspectos, sentimentos e tipos de atitude em avaliações sobre restaurantes

Chaves, Marcirio Silveira; Laurel, André; Sacramento, Nélia; Pedron, Cristiane Drebes
Fonte: Universidade do Algarve Publicador: Universidade do Algarve
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.49%
This paper presents a novel approach based on the Appraisal Theory to analyze user-generated, open-ended online restaurant reviews. We selected reviews (N=1100) from restaurants of two Portuguese touristic regions and focus, through content analysis, on the recognition of the main aspects, sentiments and types of attitude mentioned in such reviews. We also measure the interrater agreement on the recognition of the types of attitude. The main findings show that Quality of Food, Staff and Communication, Price and Atmosphere are the most frequent aspects mentioned in the reviews. Positive appreciation is the attitude expressed in most of the sentences. Most of the reviews present a positive evaluation of the restaurants. The interrater agreement among raters on the recognition of the types of attitude ranges from 0.82 to 0.92. Results reveal the main aspects that restaurateurs should take into account to make decisions in order to improve the business as a whole.; Este artigo apresenta uma nova abordagem baseada na Teoria de Avaliação para analisar avaliações online abertas e geradas pelo utilizador sobre restaurantes. Foram selecionadas avaliações (n = 1.100) de restaurantes de duas regiões turísticas portuguesas e focamos, através de análise de conteúdo...

Resistance to β-lactams in bacteria isolated from different types of Portuguese cheese

Amador, Paula; Fernandes, Rúben; Prudêncio, Cristina; Brito, Luísa
Fonte: International Journal of Molecular Sciences Publicador: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 ENG
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65.42%
The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of beta-lactam-resistant bacteria in six different types of Portuguese cheese. The numbers of ampicillin resistant (AMP(r)) bacteria varied from 4.7 x 10(2) to 1.5 x 10(7) CFU/g. Within 172 randomly selected beta-lactam-resistant bacteria, 44 resistant phenotypes were found and 31.4% were multidrug resistant. The majority (85%) of the isolates identified belonged to the Enterobacteriaceae family. The presence of the bla(TEM) gene was detected in 80.9% of the tested isolates. The results suggest that without thermal processing of the milk and good hygienic practices, cheese may act as a vehicle of transfer of beta-lactam-resistant bacteria to the gastrointestinal tract of consumers.

The effects of integration and organization on investment decisions and performance : theory and evidence from the pharmaceutical industry

Guedj, Stéphane Ilan
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 133 leaves; 598423 bytes; 550543 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.34%
This thesis explores different aspects of the effect the organization and the level of vertical integration of an organization have on the investment decisions the firm takes and subsequently the effect of such decisions on the performance of the firm. This thesis uses the biopharmaceutical industry in order to investigate these issues due to the heterogeneity of organizations and of the levels of integration that can be observed in this industry. The first chapter is joint work with David Scharfstein. This chapter compares the clinical trial strategies and performance of large, established ("mature") biopharmaceutical firms to those of smaller ("early stage") firms that have not yet successfully developed a drug. We study a sample of 235 cancer drug candidates that entered clinical trials during the period 1990-2002 and were sponsored by public firms. Early stage firms are more likely than mature firms to advance drug candidates from Phase I to Phase II clinical trials. However, early stage firms have much less promising clinical results in their Phase II trials and their Phase II drug candidates are also less likely to advance to Phase III and to receive Food and Drug Administration approval.; (cont.) This pattern is more pronounced for early stage firms with large cash reserves. The evidence points to an agency problem between shareholders and managers of single- product early stage firms who are reluctant to abandon development of their only viable drug candidates. By contrast...

Consumers' willingness to pay for organic and local food: an experimental study using structural equation modeling

Chen, Xinwei
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.65%
Bernard, John C.; Among the fastest growing food trends in the US is the consumption of organic and local food. This thesis studied the psychological determinants of willingness to pay (WTP) and purchase behavior for different types of organic and local food. Besides, the framework and hypotheses derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) were tested by the empirical data collected from an auction experiment. Specifically, attitudes, norms and perceived behavior control were modeled to impact consumers' WTP and purchase behavior by using structural equation modeling (SEM). The data used in this study was from an auction experiment conducted in the Experimental Economics Laboratory for Policy and Behavioral Research at the University of Delaware. Eleven experimental sessions including auctions and questionnaires were conducted in 2010 and a sample of 128 was attained. The agricultural products included egg, tomato, beef and milk. For the analysis, two methods were applied, factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on identification of latent factors representing consumers' perception of organic and local food. Then the SEM method was applied to the test of latent factors and their relationships with consumers' WTP and purchase behavior for organic and local food under the framework of the TPB model. Comparisons between organic and local food and different types of food within organic and local version were also made. Results supported the applicability of the TPB to the understanding and prediction of consumers' intentions and behaviors for organic and local food. In general...

Tabelas de composição química de alimentos: análise comparativa com resultados laboratoriais; Food composition tables: laboratory comparative analysis

Ribeiro, Pérola; Morais, Tânia Beninga de; Colugnati, Fernando Antonio Basile; Sigulem, Dirce Maria
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/04/2003 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.64%
OBJETIVO: Avaliar a concordância entre os valores de macronutrientes e energia de alimentos analisados em laboratório com os dados apresentados em tabelas e softwares de composição de alimentos em uso no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados 11 alimentos totalizando 701 amostras. Foram selecionadas para comparação três tabelas e dois softwares de composição de alimentos. Foi aplicado o teste t de Student univariado, que consistiu na comparação entre a média dos valores obtidos em laboratório e o valor único e constante de cada tabela ou software, com significância no nível de 5%. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se que dependendo do alimento, do nutriente estudado e da tabela ou software escolhido para a comparação, ocorreram diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre os dados analisados em laboratório e os dados de tabelas e softwares. Para os alimentos estudados, foi observado: duas tabelas mostraram tendência à superestimação dos teores de proteína e HCT, enquanto uma outra superestima os teores de HCT; um dos softwares tendeu a superestimar os teores de lipídios e, consequentemente, o valor energético total, e em um outro software todos os nutrientes foram subestimados em relação aos valores obtidos em laboratório. CONCLUSÕES: Concluiu-se que é fundamental a elaboração de uma tabela brasileira de composição de alimentos...