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Phylogeny of the Neotropical genus Acestrorhynchus (Ostariophysi: Characiformes) based on nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequences and morphology: A total evidence approach

PRETTI, Vania Q.; CALCAGNOTTO, Daniela; TOLEDO-PIZA, Monica; ALMEIDA-TOLEDO, Lurdes F. de
Fonte: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE Publicador: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.73%
Acestrorhynchus is the sole genus of the family Acestrorhynchidae which includes 14 species currently recognized as valid. Species of Acestrorhynchus comprise small-to-medium sized piscivorous fishes and have been traditionally grouped on the basis of well-defined color patterns. A recent phylogeny, based on morphological characters, could not resolve the phylogenetic affinities of A. heterolepis and the relationships among the species of the clade formed by A. abbreviatus, A. altus, A. falcatus, A. lacustris, and A. pantaneiro. The simultaneous analysis of two mitochondrial genes (16S and ATP synthase subunits 6 and 8) and one nuclear intron (S7) was able to resolve the latter clade, but the position of A. heterolepis remained unresolved. The combination of the molecular and morphological data sets in a total evidence analysis resulted in a well-resolved hypothesis regarding the phylogenetic relationships of Acestrorhynchus species. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.; Capes; Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); FAPESP[05/55733-6]; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); FAPESP[01/01235-4]; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Furnas Centrais Eletricas; Furnas Centrais Eletricas; RIOMAR; RIOMAR; UNIR; UNIR

Systematics of the Neotropical Genus Leptodactylus Fitzinger, 1826 (Anura: Leptodactylidae): Phylogeny, the Relevance of Non-molecular Evidence, and Species Accounts

Sá, Rafael O. de; Grant, Taran; Camargo, Arley; Heyer, W. Ronald; Ponssa, Maria L.; Stanley, Edward
Fonte: São Paulo Publicador: São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.89%
A phylogeny of the species-rich clade of the Neotropical frog genus Leptodactylus sensu stricto is presented on the basis of a total evidence analysis of molecular (mitochondrial and nuclear markers) and non-molecular (adult and larval morphological and behavioral characters) sampled from > 80% of the 75 currently recognized species. Our results support the monophyly of Leptodactylus sensu stricto, with Hydrolaetare placed as its sister group. The reciprocal monophyly of Hydrolaetare and Leptodactylus sensu stricto does not require that we consider Hydrolaetare as either a subgenus or synonym of Leptodactylus sensu lato. We recognize Leptodactylus sensu stricto, Hydrolaetare, Adenomera, and Lithodytes as valid monophyletic genera. Our results generally support the traditionally recognized Leptodactylus species groups, with exceptions involving only a few species that are easily accommodated without proposing new groups or significantly altering contents. The four groups form a pectinate tree, with the Leptodactylus fuscus group diverging first, followed by the L. pentadactylus group, which is sister to the L. latrans and L. melanonotus groups. To evaluate the impact of non-molecular evidence on our results, we compared our total evidence results with results obtained from analyses using only molecular data. Although non-molecular evidence comprised only 3.5% of the total evidence matrix...

Análise filogenética das abelhas corbiculadas (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apinae): uma análise de evidência total; Phylogenetic analysis of corbiculate bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apinae): an analysis of total evidence

Galeano, Zioneth Judith Garcia
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/05/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.84%
Este trabalho avaliou as relações de parentesco entre as abelhas corbiculadas (Apini) utilizando a evidência total disponível: dados morfométricos tradicionais, dados de morfometria geométrica, dados morfológicos, dados comportamentais e dados moleculares. Fontes que historicamente se mostraram incongruentes. Os problemas metodológicos que cada fonte de caracteres oferece foram investigados e corrigidos na análise filogenética de evidencia total. Todos os dados foram analisados com métodos de parcimônia. Vinte e quatro espécies de Apini e quatro espécies dos grupos externos foram analisadas. As análises filogenéticas de onze medidas corporais tradicionais sugeriram grande interferência do tamanho corporal das espécies nos resultados. Ao corrigir esse efeito do tamanho, os dados morfométricos puderam ser utilizados como caracteres filogenéticos confiáveis. O caráter obtido a partir da morfometria geométrica foi altamente convergente na análise filogenética, apesar da relação entre a forma da asa e do tamanho do corpo das espécies aparentemente terem uma restrição filogenética. As análises dos dados moleculares sugeriram a interferência da escolha dos grupos externos nos resultados, diferentes hipóteses filogenéticas surgiram quando se incluiram duas especies mais distantes de Apini nos grupos externos. Com os grupos externos mais distantes...

Portuguese version of the evidence-based practice questionnaire

Pereira, Rui; Guerra, Ana; Peixoto, Maria José; Martins, Teresa; Barbieri, Maria do Céu; Carneiro, António Vaz
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.76%
1. Objectives: Evidence-based practice is defined as the process by which nurses make clinical decisions using the best available scientific evidence, according with their clinical experience and patient preferences in the context of available resources. The Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire (EBPQ) developed by Upton & Upton (2006) was designed to collect information and opinions on the use of evidence-based practices by health professionals and is validating its important so that it can be utilized in a generalized mode. Its application is now currently and several versions are available in most common languages. This study aims to present and describe the exploratory process of linguistic and cultural validation for the Portuguese population of the EBPQ, including the review of its psychometric properties. 2. Methods: We developed a cross-sectional study. For linguistic and cultural adaptation was made a translation and a retroversion according to the usual standards. To determining the psychometric characteristics of EBPQ we used the Principal Component Analysis with orthogonal Varimax rotation method. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha value. The statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0...

The philosophy of total evidence and its relevance for phylogenetic inference

Rieppel,Olivier
Fonte: Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.82%
The test of congruence under total evidence as used in systematics has been tied to a Popperian philosophy of science, but is here shown to be related to the coherence theory of truth in metaphysics and thus to coherentism in epistemology. Since the test of congruence is coherentist, the contextual (theoretical) background of initial character conceptualization cannot be ignored as is suggested by some proponents of the total evidence approach. The relative merits of a total evidence approach versus conditional data set partitioning are considered, and whereas both have their merits and drawbacks, either approach requires causal grounding of character statements (statements of homology), at least approximately and defeasibly. The conclusion is that character congruence is a necessary, but not also a sufficient, condition for phylogeny reconstruction.

Total Evidence, Average Consensus and Matrix Representation with Parsimony: What a Difference Distances Make

Levasseur, Claudine; Lapointe, François-Joseph
Fonte: Libertas Academica Publicador: Libertas Academica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/02/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.82%
Matrix representation with parsimony (MRP) can be used to combine trees in the supertree or the consensus settings. However, despite its popularity, it is still unclear whether MRP is really a consensus method or whether it behaves more like the total evidence approach. Previous simulations have shown that it approximates total evidence trees, whereas other studies have depicted similarities with average consensus trees. In this paper, we assess the hypothesis that MRP is equally related to both approaches. We conducted a simulation study to evaluate the accuracy of total evidence with that or various consensus methods, including MRP. Our results show that the total evidence trees are not significantly more accurate than average consensus trees that accounts for branch lengths, but that both perform better than MRP trees in the consensus setting. The accuracy rate of all methods was similarly affected by the number of taxa, the number of partitions, and the heterogeneity of the data.

A Total-Evidence Approach to Dating with Fossils, Applied to the Early Radiation of the Hymenoptera

Ronquist, Fredrik; Klopfstein, Seraina; Vilhelmsen, Lars; Schulmeister, Susanne; Murray, Debra L.; Rasnitsyn, Alexandr P.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.82%
Phylogenies are usually dated by calibrating interior nodes against the fossil record. This relies on indirect methods that, in the worst case, misrepresent the fossil information. Here, we contrast such node dating with an approach that includes fossils along with the extant taxa in a Bayesian total-evidence analysis. As a test case, we focus on the early radiation of the Hymenoptera, mostly documented by poorly preserved impression fossils that are difficult to place phylogenetically. Specifically, we compare node dating using nine calibration points derived from the fossil record with total-evidence dating based on 343 morphological characters scored for 45 fossil (4--20 complete) and 68 extant taxa. In both cases we use molecular data from seven markers (∼5 kb) for the extant taxa. Because it is difficult to model speciation, extinction, sampling, and fossil preservation realistically, we develop a simple uniform prior for clock trees with fossils, and we use relaxed clock models to accommodate rate variation across the tree. Despite considerable uncertainty in the placement of most fossils, we find that they contribute significantly to the estimation of divergence times in the total-evidence analysis. In particular, the posterior distributions on divergence times are less sensitive to prior assumptions and tend to be more precise than in node dating. The total-evidence analysis also shows that four of the seven Hymenoptera calibration points used in node dating are likely to be based on erroneous or doubtful assumptions about the fossil placement. With respect to the early radiation of Hymenoptera...

A revised dated phylogeny of the arachnid order Opiliones

Sharma, Prashant P.; Giribet, Gonzalo
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.79%
Dating the Opiliones tree of life has become an important enterprise for this group of arthropods, due to their ancient origins and important biogeographic implications. To incorporate both methodological innovations in molecular dating as well as new systematic discoveries of harvestman diversity, we conducted total evidence dating on a data set uniting morphological and/or molecular sequence data for 47 Opiliones species, including all four well-known Palaeozoic fossils, to test the placement of both fossils and newly discovered lineages in a single analysis. Furthermore, we investigated node dating with a phylogenomic data set of 24,202 amino acid sites for 14 species of Opiliones, sampling all extant suborders. In this way, we approached molecular dating of basal harvestman phylogeny using different data sets and approaches to assess congruence of divergence time estimates. In spite of the markedly different composition of data sets, our results show congruence across all analyses for age estimates of basal nodes that are well constrained with respect to fossil calibrations (e.g., Opiliones, Palpatores). By contrast, derived nodes that lack fossil calibrations (e.g., the suborders Cyphophthalmi, and Laniatores) have large uncertainty intervals in diversification times...

Public Finance, Governance, and Growth in Transition Economies : Empirical Evidence from 1992-2004

Pushak, Taras; Tiongson, Erwin R.; Varoudakis, Aristomene
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.78%
This paper revisits the early empirical literature on economic growth in transition economies, with particular focus on fiscal policy variables-fiscal balance and the size of government. The baseline model uses a parsimonious specification, drawn from Fischer and Sahay (2000), of economic growth as a function of initial conditions, stabilization, liberalization, and structural reform. The paper expands the data used in previous analyses by up to 10 years and finds unambiguous evidence that fiscal balance matters for growth, while confirming other previous findings on the correlates of economic growth in transition economies. In addition, the paper extends the baseline model and explores potential sources of nonlinearities in the relationship between growth and public finance. A key finding is that determinants of growth may vary in relative importance, depending on the underlying institutional quality. The evidence indicates that there could be higher growth payoffs from macroeconomic stability and public expenditure in countries characterized by relatively better public sector governance as measured by relevant indicators. In addition...

Total disc replacement in the lumbar spine: A systematic review of the literature

Freeman, B.; Davenport, J.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.81%
The current evidence for total disc replacement was assessed by performing a systematic review of the published literature. This search identified two randomised controlled trials (RCTs), two previous systematic reviews, seven prospective cohort studies, eleven retrospective cohort studies and eight case series. The RCTs involved the use of the Charité artificial disc and the Pro-Disc II total disc replacement. All papers analysed were classified according to their level of evidence as defined by the Centre for Evidence Based Medicine, Oxford, UK (www.cebm). For degenerative disc disease at L4/5 or L5/S1, both the clinical outcome and the incidence of major neurological complications following insertion of the Charité artificial disc were found to be equivalent to those observed following a single level anterior lumbar interbody fusion 2 years following surgery. However, only 57% of patients undergoing total disc replacement and 46% of patients undergoing arthrodesis met the four criteria listed for success. The range of flexion/extension was restored and maintained with the Charité artificial disc. The role for two or three level disc replacement in the treatment of degenerative disc disease remains unproven. To date, no study has shown total disc replacement to be superior to spinal fusion in terms of clinical outcome. The long-term benefits of total disc replacement in preventing adjacent level disc degeneration have yet to be realised. Complications of total disc replacement may not be known for many years. There are numerous types of disc prostheses and designs under study or in development. Well designed prospective RCTs are needed before approval and widespread application of this technology.; Brian J. C. Freeman Contact and James Davenport; The original publication can be found at www.springerlink.com

IDET: A critical appraisal of the evidence

Freeman, B.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.77%
Smith and Nephew (Endoscopy division, Andover, MA, USA) have estimated that 60,000 Intra-Discal Electrothermal Therapy (IDET) procedures have been performed world wide up to June 2005. Despite the large number of procedures performed, a critical appraisal of the evidence of efficacy of IDET has not appeared in the literature. This paper reviews the current evidence of clinical efficacy for IDET obtained via a systematic review of the literature. Studies were included if they used at least one of four specified primary outcome measures; pain intensity as assessed by a visual analogue score (VAS), global measurement of overall improvement, back specific functional status such as Oswestry disability Index (ODI) and return to work. Levels of evidence were assigned according to the hierarchy described by the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (www.cebm.net). Papers addressing possible mechanisms of action of IDET were not considered as the focus of the literature review was clinical effectiveness. Eleven prospective cohort studies (level II evidence) were reported on a total of 256 patients with a mean follow-up of 17.1 months (range 12–28 months). The mean improvement in the VAS for back pain was 3.4 points (range 1.4–6.5) and the mean improvement in ODI was 5.2 points (range 4.0–6.4). A total of 379 patients were reported in five retrospective studies (level III evidence). Between 13 and 23% of patients subsequently underwent surgery for low back pain within the study period. Two randomised controlled trials of IDET have been reported in the literature. The first randomised 64 patients (37 to IDET...

The effect of early oral feeding compared to standard oral feeding following total laryngectomy: a systematic review.

Martin, Stephanie Kay
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.77%
Pharyngocutaneous fistula is reported to be the most common early complication following total laryngectomy with significantly increased morbidity and mortality rates as well as increased resource utilisation. Post-operatively, the presence of a pharyngocutaneous fistula can double the length of an average patient hospital stay. Multiple risk factors for pharyngocutaneous fistula have been investigated in the literature. Common clinical practice is to delay the introduction of oral feeding following surgery to reduce the formation of a pharyngocutaneous fistula. The objective of this review was to identify and synthesise the best available evidence on the effects of early oral feeding compared to standard oral feeding following total laryngectomy on the incidence of pharyngocutaneous fistula and hospital length of stay. This review considered studies that included adults who commenced early oral feeding following total laryngectomy surgery. The intervention of interest was early oral feeding defined as oral intake in the first 6 days post-operatively. The comparator was standard care defined as oral intake from day 7 onwards. Outcome measures of interest included the incidence of pharyngocutaneous fistula and hospital length of stay. A three tier search strategy was undertaken across 10 major databases. Nine studies in total met the inclusion criteria and on the basis of appraisal...

Harmonising evidence-based medicine teaching: a study of the outcomes of e-learning in five European countries

Kulier, R.; Hadley, J.; Weinbrenner, S.; Meyerrose, B.; Decsi, T.; Horvath, A.; Nagy, E.; Emparanza, J.; Coppus, S.; Arvanitis, T.; Burls, A.; Cabello, J.; Kaczor, M.; Zanrei, G.; Pierer, K.; Stawiarz, K.; Kunz, R.; Mol, B.; Khan, K.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.81%
BACKGROUND We developed and evaluated the outcomes of an e-learning course for evidence based medicine (EBM) training in postgraduate medical education in different languages and settings across five European countries. METHODS We measured changes in knowledge and attitudes with well-developed assessment tools before and after administration of the course. The course consisted of five e-learning modules covering acquisition (formulating a question and search of the literature), appraisal, application and implementation of findings from systematic reviews of therapeutic interventions, each with interactive audio-visual learning materials of 15 to 20 minutes duration. The modules were prepared in English, Spanish, German and Hungarian. The course was delivered to 101 students from different specialties in Germany (psychiatrists), Hungary (mixture of specialties), Spain (general medical practitioners), Switzerland (obstetricians-gynaecologists) and the UK (obstetricians-gynaecologists). We analysed changes in scores across modules and countries. RESULTS On average across all countries, knowledge scores significantly improved from pre- to post-course for all five modules (p < 0.001). The improvements in scores were on average 1.87 points (14% of total score) for module 1...

Multinational evidence-based recommendations for pain management by pharmacotherapy in inflammatory arthritis: integrating systematic literature research and expert opinion of a broad panel of rheumatologists in the 3e initiative

Whittle, S.L.; Colebatch, A.N.; Buchbinder, R.; Edwards, C.J.; Adams, K.; Englbrecht, M.; Hazlewood, G.; Marks, J.L.; Radner, H.; Ramiro, S.; Richards, B.L.; Tarner, I.H.; Aletaha, D.; Bombardier, C.; Landewé, R.B.; Müller-Ladner, U.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; B
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.8%
OBJECTIVE: To develop evidence-based recommendations for pain management by pharmacotherapy in patients with inflammatory arthritis (IA). METHODS: A total of 453 rheumatologists from 17 countries participated in the 2010 3e (Evidence, Expertise, Exchange) Initiative. Using a formal voting process, 89 rheumatologists representing all 17 countries selected 10 clinical questions regarding the use of pain medications in IA. Bibliographic fellows undertook a systematic literature review for each question, using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL and 2008-09 European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)/ACR abstracts. Relevant studies were retrieved for data extraction and quality assessment. Rheumatologists from each country used this evidence to develop a set of national recommendations. Multinational recommendations were then formulated and assessed for agreement and the potential impact on clinical practice. RESULTS: A total of 49,242 references were identified, from which 167 studies were included in the systematic reviews. One clinical question regarding different comorbidities was divided into two separate reviews, resulting in 11 recommendations in total. Oxford levels of evidence were applied to each recommendation. The recommendations related to the efficacy and safety of various analgesic medications...

Hypothetico-deductivism in systematics: fact or fiction?

Rieppel,Olivier
Fonte: Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.86%
Phylogenetic systematics (the cladistic analysis of phylogenetic relationships) is not hypotheticodeductively structured (in the sense of a covering law model of scientific explanation). If it were, there would be no reason to call for total evidence, since that requirement is automatically satisfied in a deductively structured explanation. Instead, the appeal to the requirement of total evidence in phylogenetic systematics indicates that phylogenetic inference is inductively, or abductively, structured. The principle of total evidence has been invoked to render inductive inference an argument as strong as it can be, but for this to be the case the total evidence must also be relevant evidence, i.e., evidence 'of the right sort' relative to the state of affairs to be explained. Character congruence is a necessary condition for phylogenetic inference, but not also a sufficient condition. What is required in addition is the causal grounding of character statements in theories of inheritance, development and function.

Determinación sexual en primates neotropicales: el caso de los monos aulladores; Sex determination in neotropical primates: the example of the howler monkeys

Steinberg, Eliana Ruth
Fonte: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires Publicador: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; tesis doctoral; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2011 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.71%
La Cariosistemática permite comparar taxa relacionados, en particular especies. Una variable de análisis con valor diagnóstico es el tipo de sistema de determinación sexual. En este Trabajo de Tesis se analizaron monos aulladores del género Alouatta con sistemas de determinación sexual múltiple resultado de translocaciones Y-autosoma. Se los comparó con otros 3 Ceboidea (Cebus, Saimiri y Aotus) y con dos Hominoidea (Pan troglodytes y Homo sapiens) ante la diversidad de patrones de determinación sexual, en particular en machos. Se realizó la primera caracterización del cariotipo de Alouatta pigra que mostró 2N=58, X_1X_1X_2X_2 / X_1X_2Y_1Y_2. Se estudió conservación genómica por FISH con las sintenias 3/15 y 3/21 evidenciando que estas asociaciones no estarían conservadas en las especies mesoamericanas A. pigra y A. palliata. Este estudio junto al de homeologías cromosómicas, mostró que los autosomas involucrados en las translocaciones que darían origen a los multivalentes sexuales en las especies sudamericanas y mesoamericanas serían distintos. En el marco conceptual de “Evidencia Total”, el análisis combinado de variables moleculares y cromosómicas resolvió las relaciones de parentesco entre las especies de aulladores de ambos orígenes americanos...

Bayesian total evidence dating reveals the recent crown radiation of penguins

Gavryushkina, Alexandra; Heath, Tracy A.; Ksepka, Daniel T.; Stadler, Tanja; Welch, David; Drummond, Alexei J.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/06/2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.82%
The total evidence approach to divergence-time dating uses molecular and morphological data of extant and fossil species to infer phylogenetic relationships, species divergence times, and macroevolutionary parameters in a single coherent framework. Current model-based implementations of this approach lack an appropriate model for the tree describing the diversification and fossilisation process which can result in erroneous conclusions. We address this shortcoming by providing a total evidence method implemented in a Bayesian framework. This approach uses a mechanistic tree prior to describe the underlying diversification process that generated the tree of extant and fossil taxa. Previous attempts to apply the total-evidence approach have used tree priors that do not account for the possibility that fossil samples may be direct ancestors of other samples. The fossilised birth-death process explicitly models the diversification, fossilisation, and sampling processes and naturally allows for sampled ancestors. This model was recently applied to estimate divergence times based on molecular data and fossil occurrence dates. We incorporate the fossilised birth-death model and a model of morphological trait evolution into a Bayesian total-evidence approach to dating species phylogenies. We apply this method to extant and fossil penguins and show that the modern penguins radiated much more recently than has been previously estimated...

Synergistic effects of combining morphological and molecular data in resolving the phylogeny of butterflies and skippers

Wahlberg, Niklas; Braby, Michael; Brower, Andrew; de Jong, Rienk; Lee, Ming-Min; Nylin, Soren; Pierce, Naomi; Sperling, Felix; Vila, Roger; Warren, Andrew; Zakharov, Evgueni
Fonte: Royal Society of London Publicador: Royal Society of London
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.68%
Phylogenetic relationships among major clades of butterflies and skippers have long been controversial, with no general consensus even today. Such lack of resolution is a substantial impediment to using the otherwise well studied butterflies as a model group in biology. Here we report the results of a combined analysis of DNA sequences from three genes and a morphological data matrix for 57 taxa (3258 characters, 1290 parsimony informative) representing all major lineages from the three putative butterfly superfamilies (Hedyloidea, Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea), plus out-groups representing other ditrysian Lepidoptera families. Recently, the utility of morphological data as a source of phylogenetic evidence has been debated. We present the first well supported phylogenetic hypothesis for the butterflies and skippers based on a total-evidence analysis of both traditional morphological characters and new molecular characters from three gene regions (COI, EF-1α and wingless). All four data partitions show substantial hidden support for the deeper nodes, which emerges only in a combined analysis in which the addition of morphological data plays a crucial role. With the exception of Nymphalidae, the traditionally recognized families are found to be strongly supported monophyletic clades with the following relationships: (Hesperiidae + (Papilionidae + (Pieridae + (Nymphalidae + (Lycaenidae + Riodinidae))))). Nymphalidae is recovered as a monophyletic clade but this clade does not have strong support. Lycaenidae and Riodinidae are sister groups with strong support and we suggest that the latter be given family rank. The position of Pieridae as the sister taxon to nymphalids...

Hypothetico-deductivism in systematics: fact or fiction?

Rieppel, Olivier
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Museu de Zoologia Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Museu de Zoologia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2008 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.9%
A sistemática filogenética (ou análise cladística das relações filogenéticas) não é estruturada de uma maneira hipotético-dedutiva (no sentido de um modelo de lei de explanação científica abrangente). Se esta fosse, não haveria razão de apelar para o princípio de evidência total, já que este requisito encontra-se automaticamente preenchido em uma explanação estruturada de forma dedutiva. Alternativamente, a demanda pelo requisito de evidência total na sistemática filogenética indica que a inferência filogenética é estruturada de forma indutiva ou até mesmo abdutiva. O princípio de evidência total foi invocado no sentido de transformar a inferência indutiva em sistemática em um argumento tão forte quanto possível, mas para que isto ocorra o princípio de evidencia total deve representar também evidência relevante, isto é evidência "do tipo certo" em relação ao assunto a ser esclarecido. A congruência de caracteres constitui-se em uma condição necessária à inferência filogenética, mas não deve ser vista como uma condição suficiente para esta última. O que parece faltar é uma base causal na definição de caracteres em teorias de herdabilidade, desenvolvimento e função.; Phylogenetic systematics (the cladistic analysis of phylogenetic relationships) is not hypotheticodeductively structured (in the sense of a covering law model of scientific explanation). If it were...

The philosophy of total evidence and its relevance for phylogenetic inference

Rieppel, Olivier
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Museu de Zoologia Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Museu de Zoologia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2005 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.86%
O teste de congruência baseado em evidência total, como é usado na sistemática, foi atrelado à filosofia Popperiana de ciência, mas aqui se demonstra estar relacionado à teoria coerentista da verdade na metafísica e a teoria do coerentismo na epistemologia. Como o teste de congruência é coerentista, a base contextual (teórica) da conceitualização inicial de caracteres não pode ser ignorada como sugerido por alguns proponentes da abordagem de evidência total. Os méritos relativos apresentados pelas abordagens de evidência total e de partição condicional do conjunto de dados são considerados. Apesar das duas abordagens apresentarem seus méritos e desvantagens, ambas necessitam de um embasamento causal para definição dos caracteres (definição de homologia), ao menos de forma aproximada e falseável. A conclusão é que a congruência de caracteres representa uma condição necessária, mas não suficiente para a reconstrução filogenética.; The test of congruence under total evidence as used in systematics has been tied to a Popperian philosophy of science, but is here shown to be related to the coherence theory of truth in metaphysics and thus to coherentism in epistemology. Since the test of congruence is coherentist...