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Spatio-temporal patterns of throughfall and solute deposition in an open tropical rain forest

ZIMMERMANN, Alexander; GERMER, Sonja; NEILL, Christopher; KRUSCHE, Alex V.; ELSENBEER, Helmut
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.13%
The brief interaction of precipitation with a forest canopy can create a high spatial variability of both throughfall and solute deposition. We hypothesized that (i) the variability in natural forest systems is high but depends on system-inherent stability, (ii) the spatial variability of solute deposition shows seasonal dynamics depending on the increase in rainfall frequency, and (iii) spatial patterns persist only in the short-term. The study area in the north-western Brazilian state of Rondonia is subject to a climate with a distinct wet and dry season. We collected rain and throughfall on an event basis during the early wet season (n = 14) and peak of the wet season (n = 14) and analyzed the samples for pH and concentrations of NH4+, Na+, K+, Ca2+ Mg2+,, Cl-, NO3-, SO42- and DOC. The coefficient 3 4 cient of variation for throughfall based on both sampling intervals was 29%, which is at the lower end of values reported from other tropical forest sites, but which is higher than in most temperate forests. Coefficients of variation of solute deposition ranged from 29% to 52%. This heterogeneity of solute deposition is neither particularly high nor particularly tow compared with a range of tropical and temperate forest ecosystems. We observed an increase in solute deposition variability with the progressing wet season...

Disproportionate single-species contribution to canopy-soil nutrient flux in an Amazonian rainforest

Germer, Sonja; Zimmermann, Alexander; Neill, Christopher; Krusche, Alex V.; Elsenbeer, Helmut
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV; AMSTERDAM Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV; AMSTERDAM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
28.08%
Rainfall, throughfall and stemflow were monitored on an event basis in an undisturbed open tropical rainforest with a large number of palm trees located in the southwestern Amazon basin of Brazil. Stemflow samples were collected from 24 trees with a diameter at breast height (DBH) > 5 cm, as well as eight young and four full-grown babassu palms (Attalea speciosa Mart.) for 5 weeks during the peak of the wet season. We calculated rainfall, throughfall and stemflow concentrations and fluxes of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+,, Cl-, SO42-, NO3- and H+ and stemflow volume-weighted mean concentrations and fluxes for three size classes of broadleaf trees and three size classes of palms. The concentrations of most solutes were higher in stemflow than in rainfall and increased with increasing tree and palm size. Concentration enrichments from rainfall to stemflow and throughfall were particularly high (81-fold) for NO3-. Stemflow fluxes of NO3- and H+ exceeded throughfall fluxes but stemflow fluxes of other solutes were less than throughfall fluxes. Stemflow solute fluxes to the forest soil were dominated by fluxes on babassu palms, which represented only 4% of total stem number and 10% of total basal area. For NO3-, stemflow contributed 51% of the total mass of nitrogen delivered to the forest floor (stemflow + throughfall) and represented more than a 2000-fold increase in NO3- flux compared what would have been delivered by rainfall alone on the equivalent area. Because these highly localized fluxes of both water and NO3- persist in time and space...

Differences in throughfall and net precipitation between soybean and transitional tropical forest in the southern Amazon, Brazil

Baese, Frank; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Neill, Christopher; Krusche, Alex V.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV; AMSTERDAM Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV; AMSTERDAM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.03%
The expansion of soybean cultivation into the Amazon in Brazil has potential hydrological effects at local to regional scales. To determine the impacts of soybean agriculture on hydrology, a comparison of net precipitation (throughfall, stemflow) in undisturbed tropical forest and soybean fields on the southern edge of the Amazon Basin in the state of Mato Grosso is needed. This study measured throughfall with troughs and stemflow with collar collectors during two rainy seasons. The results showed that in forest 91.6% of rainfall was collected as throughfall and 0.3% as stemflow, while in soybean fields with two-month old plants, 46.2% of rainfall was collected as throughfall and 9.0% as stemflow. Hence, interception of precipitation in soybean fields was far greater than in intact forests. Differences in throughfall, stemflow and net precipitation were found to be mainly associated with differences in plant structure and stem density in transitional forest and soybean cropland. Because rainfall interception in soybean fields is higher than previously believed and because both the area of cropland and the frequency of crop cycles (double cropping) are increasing rapidly, interception needs to be reconsidered in regional water balance models when consequences of land cover changes are analyzed in the Amazon soybean frontier region. Based on the continued expansion of soybean fields across the landscape and the finding that net precipitation is lower in soy agriculture...

Interceptação da chuva nas espécies de Sibipiruna (Caesalpinia pluviosa DC.) e Tipuana (Tipuana tipu O. kuntze); Rainfall interception in species of Sibipiruna (Caesalpinia pluviosa DC.) and Tipuana (Tipuana tipu O. Kuntze)

Silva, Luzia Ferreira da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/06/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.22%
Os estudos sobre o clima vêm adquirindo grande importância na área ambiental, principalmente em relação à qualidade do ar (poluição atmosférica), ao conforto térmico (ilhas de calor) e aos impactos pluviais (geradores de inundações urbanas). Nesses últimos, as chuvas causam muitos transtornos para a população e órgãos públicos competentes, devido aos eventos extremos, que estão acontecendo em toda parte do mundo. Esses eventos ocorrem desde uma chuva com muita intensidade, em curto espaço de tempo, até seca prolongada em certos lugares. O fato é preocupante e mesmo com tantas controvérsias sobre o assunto, é necessário um manejo, principalmente no sistema hidrológico, que se adeqüe a cada situação e que os prejuízos causados pelas enchentes não se tornem mais devastadores do que atualmente. Como a arborização pode amenizar tais efeitos impactantes, nesse propósito, foi realizado um estudo no campus da ESALQ/USP, durante o período de janeiro a fevereiro de 2007, para medir a interceptação da água da chuva pelas copas das árvores e verificar como algumas espécies poderiam minimizar enchentes em áreas urbanas. O processo de interceptação da água da chuva foi analisado em duas espécies muito comumente usadas na arborização urbana...

Composição da precipitação bruta e da precipitação interna (throughfall) em florestamentos de plantas introduzidas na planície costeira do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, e sua utilização no monitoramento das precipitações atmosféricas

Casartelli, Maria Regina de Oliveira
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.73%
Estudou-se a composição química da precipitação bruta e da precipitação interna em sítios rurais, suburbano, urbanos e industriais, com diferentes níveis de impacto antropogênico, nas regiões de Rio Grande e de Porto Alegre (Rio Grande do Sul), com cobertura florestal semelhante, durante o ano de 2002, para avaliar a deposição seca e úmida. Determinou-se o pH, a condutividade elétrica, o carbono orgânico dissolvido, as concentrações de cátions (Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, Na+, NH4 +) e ânions (Cl-, F-, NO3 -, SO4 2- e PO4 3-) e de metais traço (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb e Zn). Os valores de pH foram menores nos sítios rurais do que nos sítios industriais. A deposição anual de Ca e P no sítio industrial de Rio Grande foi muito maior do que nos outros sítios. A deposição anual de N e S foi maior nos sítios industriais do que nos sítios rurais, mas não se verificou acidificação da precipitação devido à ação neutralizante das espécies iônicas alcalinas. A qualidade da precipitação bruta e da precipitação interna resulta da interação entre os aerossóis marinhos e as emissões industriais. Os metais traço mostraram-se eficientes como marcadores da contaminação nos diferentes sítios impactados. A avaliação das características químicas das precipitações atmosféricas com base na análise da precipitação interna permite indicar com maior contraste a qualidade da precipitação atmosférica de áreas com diferentes níveis de contaminação.; Chemical composition of bulk precipitation and throughfall was assessed in rural...

Precipitação efetiva e interceptação das chuvas por floresta de Mata Atlântica em uma microbacia experimental em Cunha - São Paulo

Arcova, Francisco Carlos Soriano; Cicco, Valdir de; Rocha, Paulo Augusto Bueno
Fonte: Sociedade de Investigações Florestais Publicador: Sociedade de Investigações Florestais
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 257-262
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.86%
São apresentados os resultados de pesquisa que quantificaram a precipitação efetiva e a interceptação das chuvas pelo dossel da floresta secundária de Mata Atlântica na microbacia experimental B, do Laboratório de Hidrologia Florestal Walter Emmerich, em Cunha-SP. No período de um ano foram medidos a precipitação no aberto, a precipitação interna e o escoamento pelo tronco das árvores, totalizando 54 coletas. Um pluviômetro em área aberta e 16 no interior da floresta foram utilizados para quantificação dos dois primeiros processos, respectivamente. Para determinação do escoamento pelo tronco foram instalados dispositivos de espuma de poliuretano em 38 árvores. A água interceptada foi estimada pela diferença entre a precipitação no aberto e a precipitação efetiva. Concluiu-se que, em média, 18,6% da precipitação foi interceptada pela floresta, retornando à atmosfera na forma de vapor. Um montante de 81,2% alcançou o piso como precipitação interna e apenas 0,2% como escoamento pelo tronco. Os fluxos de precipitação interna e escoamento pelo tronco foram maiores no período caracterizado como chuvoso. Os porcentuais de interceptação foram superiores no período pouco chuvoso.; This paper presents data obtained from one year of measurements of gross precipitation...

Interceptação das chuvas em um fragmento de floresta da Mata Atlântica na Bacia do Prata, Recife, PE

Moura, Albert Einstein Spindola Saraiva de; Correa, Marcus Metri; Silva, Elcides Rodrigues da; Ferreira, Rinaldo Luiz Caraciolo; Figueiredo, Adriana de Carvalho; Possas, José Marcelo Cordeiro
Fonte: Sociedade de Investigações Florestais Publicador: Sociedade de Investigações Florestais
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 461-469
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.53%
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); A mata de Dois Irmãos é uma das poucas áreas remanescentes da Floresta Atlântica no Estado de Pernambuco. Nela estão inseridos os açudes do Meio, do Prata e Dois Irmãos que compõem a bacia hidrográfica do Prata. Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a partição das chuvas em um fragmento de Floresta Atlântica na Bacia do Prata em Recife, PE. Para obtenção dos dados de precipitação sob florestas, foram instalados 24 interceptômetros e selecionadas 20 árvores do estrato superior, e 10 árvores do sub-bosque foram escolhidas para obter os dados de escoamento pelo tronco. Encontraram-se perdas por interceptação de 208,3 mm, precipitação efetiva de 1.431,7 mm, precipitação interna de 1.392,4 mm, escoamento pelo tronco das árvores do estrato superior de 6,6 mm e escoamento pelo sub-bosque de 32,8 mm, correspondendo a 12,7%, 87,3%, 84,9%, 0,4% e 2%, respectivamente, do total precipitado de 1.464 mm.; The Dois Irmãos forest is one of the few remaining areas of the Atlantic Forest in the State of Pernambuco. The dams of Meio, Prata and Dois Irmãos, which belong to the Prata Basin, are in it. The objective of this work was to study the rainfall partitioning in a fragment of the Atlantic forest in the Prata basin...

Redistribuição da preciptação em seringueira

Rodrigues, Valdemir Antonio
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 566-575
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.73%
The present work of research was developed in rubber tree plantation, clone RRIM 600, with 15 years of age, in the region of Jose Bonifácio - SP, situated 21°03′ latitude (s), 49°41′ of longitude (w) and 490 altitude of m, to the sum of the micro watershed of the river Barra Grande. The research had the purpose to evaluate the redistribution of precipitations in hidric year 1995/96, esteem the rain precipitation, effective, throughfall, stemflow and the interception by canopies of the rubber tree. They had been installed the open sky and under the canopy of the trees rain gauges and interception of trunk to quantify (mm) the redistribution of rains. The annual average rain precipitation was of 1053,6 mm, the throughfall of 699,4 mm and stemflow for the 92,3 mm. the interception by canopies and the precipitation effective had resulted in 261,9 and 791,7 mm; being these respectively 24.9% and 75.1% of the rain precipitation in the rubber tree.

Ability of Cistus L. shrubs to promote soil rehabilitation in extensive oak woodlands of Mediterranean areas

Simões, M. Paula; Madeira, M.; Gazarini, L.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 48721 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.73%
To assess the ecological function of Cistus salviifolius (CS) and C. ladanifer (CL) shrubs in evergreen oak woodlands, a study was conducted over a 4-year period in southern Portugal. Annual potential return of bio-elements to the soil through litterfall and throughfall, and necromass on soil surface under shrub canopies were assessed along with the dynamics of leaf litter decomposition. Soil bulk density and soil-water retention at different soil matric potential were measured at 0–5 and 5–10 cm depth, and soil chemical properties were determined at 0–5, 5–10, 10–20 and 20–30 cm depth beneath canopies and at barren spaces. Litterfall was higher for CL (4.4–4.6 Mg DM ha−1 year−1) than for CS (3.3–3.8 Mg DM ha−1 year−1). Annual amount of N returned to the soil through litterfall of CS (22.9 kg N ha−1 year−1) was higher than by that of CL (17.2 kg N ha−1 year−1), whereas the return of P in CL (4.1 kg P ha−1 year−1) was higher than in CS (2.1 kg P ha−1 year−1). Leaf decomposition was faster for CS (k= −0.87) than for CL (k=−0.44). N release was also faster for CS than for CL, while that of P was much faster for CL than for CS. Throughfall proportions were 61% of bulk rainfall for CS and 79% for CL. Annual return of Cl−...

Concentrações e fluxos de nutrientes no gotejo e escorrimento do tronco de Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.

Madeira, M.; Abreu, F.G.; Pereira, E.
Fonte: Sociedade de Ciências Agrárias de Portugal Publicador: Sociedade de Ciências Agrárias de Portugal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.96%
The effect of the ash-tree (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl) crown on characteristics of throughfall and stemflow solutions was assessed in wet pastures located in north eastern Portugal. The amounts de gross rainfall, throughfall and stemflow were measured continuously and samples were periodically collected to determine pH, dissolved organic C (DOC) and N (DON), and nutrients. The annual fluxes of DOC, DON, Cl, K, Na, Ca, Mg and P in gross rainfall were, respectively, 3.93, 0.92, 0.20, 0.06, 1.81, 2.40, 1.11, 1.16, 0.29 and 0.06 g m-2, while those regarding throughfall were 4.42, 0.20, 1.82, 1.82, 0.31, 0.54, 0.62 and 0.20 g m-2; the flux of N-NH4 + was nil and that of N-NO- 3 was negative (-0.03 g m-2). The fluxes in relation with stemflow were small if expressed on a tree crown projection area basis, but can be much greater if the actual area affected is considered. The amounts and distribution of nutrients turned to the soil by throughfall and stemflow may lead to soil chemical characteristics differentiation beneath tree crowns-------------------Avaliou-se a concentração e os fluxos de nutrientes no gotejo e no escorrimento do tronco de freixo (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl), num lameiro do Nordeste de Portugal. A precipitação bruta...

Throughfall in different forest stands of Iperó, São Paulo

Gasparoto,Esthevan Augusto Goes; Tonello,Kelly Cristina; Shinzato,Emily Tsiemi; Valente,Roberta de Oliveira Averna
Fonte: UFLA - Universidade Federal de Lavras Publicador: UFLA - Universidade Federal de Lavras
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.86%
In forestry, throughfall (Pi) is that fraction of rainfall that runs directly through the tree canopy and reaches the ground. It is characterized as the main source of water supply in a watershed. This study aimed to analyze the dynamics of throughfall in three types of forest stands, namely Eucalyptus cloeziana, Pinus sp. and seasonal semideciduous forest (FES), all located in Ipanema National Forest, in the municipality of Iperó-SP. In each stand, a 300 m² plot was established in which ten rain gauges were installed for monitoring throughfall, and three rain gauges were installed in an open area adjacent to the stand for measuring gross precipitation (P). At the end of 25 observations, it was observed that, relative to P values, Pi values were 76.2% in semideciduous forest (FES), 85.1% in E.cloeziana forest and 84.0% in Pinus sp forest. In addition, comparing these stands, a larger leaf canopy coverage and consequently greater capability for water retention was noted in the semideciduous forest. However, no statistical differences were observed (P<0.05) between the stands of interest regarding throughfall.

Kinetic Energy of Throughfall in Subtropical Forests of SE China – Effects of Tree Canopy Structure, Functional Traits, and Biodiversity

Geißler, Christian; Nadrowski, Karin; Kühn, Peter; Baruffol, Martin; Bruelheide, Helge; Schmid, Bernhard; Scholten, Thomas
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/02/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.53%
Throughfall kinetic energy (TKE) plays an important role in soil erosion in forests. We studied TKE as a function of biodiversity, functional diversity as well as structural stand variables in a secondary subtropical broad-leaved forest in the Gutianshan National Nature Reserve (GNNR) in south-east China, a biodiversity hotspot in the northern hemisphere with more than 250 woody species present. Using a mixed model approach we could identify significant effects of all these variables on TKE: TKE increased with rarefied tree species richness and decreased with increasing proportion of needle-leaved species and increasing leaf area index (LAI). Furthermore, for average rainfall amounts TKE was decreasing with tree canopy height whereas for high rainfall amounts this was not the case. The spatial pattern of throughfall was stable across several rain events. The temporal variation of TKE decreased with rainfall intensity and increased with tree diversity. Our results show that more diverse forest stands over the season have to cope with higher cumulative raindrop energy than less diverse stands. However, the kinetic energy (KE) of one single raindrop is less predictable in diverse stands since the variability in KE is higher. This paper is the first to contribute to the understanding of the ecosystem function of soil erosion prevention in diverse subtropical forests.

Throughfall in different forest stands of Iperó, São Paulo; Precipitação interna em diferentes povoamentos florestais em Iperó, SP

Fonte: UFLA - Universidade Federal de Lavras Publicador: UFLA - Universidade Federal de Lavras
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.86%
In forestry, throughfall (Pi) is that fraction of rainfall that runs directly through the tree canopy and reaches the ground. It is characterized as the main source of water supply in a watershed. This study aimed to analyze the dynamics of throughfall in three types of forest stands, namely Eucalyptus cloeziana, Pinus sp. and seasonal semideciduous forest (FES), all located in Ipanema National Forest, in the municipality of Iperó-SP. In each stand, a 300 m² plot was established in which ten rain gauges were installed for monitoring throughfall, and three rain gauges were installed in an open area adjacent to the stand for measuring gross precipitation (P). At the end of 25 observations, it was observed that, relative to P values, Pi values were 76.2% in semideciduous forest (FES), 85.1% in E.cloeziana forest and 84.0% in Pinus sp forest. In addition, comparing these stands, a larger leaf canopy coverage and consequently greater capability for water retention was noted in the semideciduous forest. However, no statistical differences were observed (P<0.05) between the stands of interest regarding throughfall.

Mechanisms of Soil Erosion Under Forest Vegetation – Throughfall Kinetic Energy as a Function of Forest Succession and Biodiversity in Subtropical Forests in China; Mechanismen der Bodenerosion unter Wald – Die kinetische Energie des Bestandsniederschlages als eine Funktion von Waldsukzession und Biodiversität in subtropischen Wäldern in China

Geißler, Christian
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.28%
This thesis is part of the BEF (Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning) China research unit (DFG FOR 891) “The role of tree and shrub diversity for production, erosion control, element cycling, and species conservation in Chinese subtropical forest ecosystems” founded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) and the National Science Foundation of China (NSFC). The overall aim of the project is to analyze the influence of tree and shrub species diversity on ecosystem functioning and -services. The research approach consists of the combination of research in an experimental forest stand with studies in existing forests. The study area of the present thesis is the Gutianshan National Nature Reserve (GNNR) in Zhejiang Province, P.R. China (manuscript 1). The prevention of soil erosion is a prominent and most important ecosystem service of forests and consequently forest vegetation is regarded as the key control for soil erosion, particularly under the threat of climate change with e.g. increasing rainfall intensities. Yet, little is known about the mechanistic relation of this ecosystem service to biodiversity. As the underlying processes acting in a forest reducing or enhancing soil erosion are rather complex – including e.g. alteration of rainfall properties and forest floor processes - they should be studied separately. Focusing on the former...

Ability of Cistus L. shrubs to promote soil rehabilitation in extensive oak woodlands of Mediterranean areas

Simões, Maria Paula; Madeira, Manuel
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.73%
To assess the ecological function of Cistus salviifolius (CS) and C. ladanifer (CL) shrubs in evergreen oak woodlands, a study was conducted over a 4-year period in southern Portugal. Annual potential return of bio-elements to the soil through litterfall and throughfall, and necromass on soil surface under shrub canopies were assessed along with the dynamics of leaf litter decomposition. Soil bulk density and soil-water retention at different soil matric potential were measured at 0–5 and 5–10 cm depth, and soil chemical properties were determined at 0–5, 5–10, 10–20 and 20–30 cm depth beneath canopies and at barren spaces. Litterfall was higher for CL (4.4–4.6 Mg DM ha−1 year−1) than for CS (3.3–3.8 Mg DM ha−1 year−1). Annual amount of N returned to the soil through litterfall of CS (22.9 kg N ha−1 year−1) was higher than by that of CL (17.2 kg N ha−1 year−1), whereas the return of P in CL (4.1 kg P ha−1 year−1) was higher than in CS (2.1 kg P ha−1 year−1). Leaf decomposition was faster for CS (k= −0.87) than for CL (k=−0.44). N release was also faster for CS than for CL, while that of P was much faster for CL than for CS. Throughfall proportions were 61% of bulk rainfall for CS and 79% for CL. Annual return of Cl−...

Mechanisms of Soil Erosion in Subtropical Forests of China - Effects of Biodiversity, Species identity, Tree architecture and Spatial variability on Erosivity

Goebes, Philipp
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Dissertation; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.73%
Soil erosion is a major threat to ecosystems and agricultural land worldwide. To overcome severe soil loss, aff orestation is used as a common tool. However, the mechanisms of soil erosion in forests are understood rarely up to now. There is still a knowledge gap to what extent biodiversity and tree species identity aff ect soil erosion in early successional forest stands, which tree architectural and leaf traits account for these eff ects and which of these traits are important for the spatial variability of soil erosion. Therefore, this thesis investigated the influence of tree species richness (as a measure of biodiversity) and tree species identity on rainfall erosivity (measured as throughfall kinetic energy; TKE). Furthermore, this thesis concentrated on the spatial variability of TKE. Importance and influence of five tree architectural and nine leaf traits on these TKE properties were evaluated. In addition, the influence of leaf litter diversity and soil meso- and macrofauna on initial soil erosion was investigated. The experiments were carried out in a young subtropical forest of southern China in the framework of the BEF-China (Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning) project. Tree species richness eff ects on TKE were found only at the local neighborhood scale while plot-level e ffects of tree species richness on TKE were not found. This eff ect was attributed to the young age of the forest plantation. Crown cover...

Evaluation of the throughfall and stemflow nutrient contents in mixed and pure plantations of Acacia mangium, Pseudosamenea guachapele and Eucalyptus grandis

Balieiro,Fabiano de Carvalho; Franco,Avílio Antônio; Fontes,Renildes Lúcio Ferreira; Dias,Luiz Eduardo; Campello,Eduardo Francia Carneiro; Faria,Sérgio Miana de
Fonte: Sociedade de Investigações Florestais Publicador: Sociedade de Investigações Florestais
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.53%
The interception of the rainfall by the forest canopy has great relevance to the nutrient geochemistry cycle in low fertility tropical soils under native or cultivated forests. However, little is known about the modification of the rainfall water quality and hydrological balance after interception by the canopies of eucalyptus under pure and mixed plantations with leguminous species, in Brazil. Samples of rainfall (RF), throughfall (TF) and stemflow (SF) were collected and analyzed in pure plantations of mangium (nitrogen fixing tree -NFT), guachapele (NFT) and eucalyptus (non-nitrogen fixing tree -NNFT) and in a mixed stand of guachapele and eucalyptus in Seropédica, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Nine stemflow collectors (in selected trees) and nine pluviometers were randomly disposed under each stand and three pluviometers were used to measure the incident rainfall during 5.5 months. Mangium conveyed 33.4% of the total rainfall for its stem. An estimative based on corrections for the average annual precipitation (1213 mm) indicated that the rainfall's contribution to the nutrient input (kg ha-1) was about 8.42; 0.95; 19.04; 6.74; 4.72 and 8.71 kg ha-1 of N-NH4+, P, K+, Ca+2, Mg+2 and Na+, respectively. Throughfall provided the largest contributions compared to the stemflow nutrient input. The largest inputs of N-NH4+ (15.03 kg ha-1) and K+ (179.43 kg ha-1) were observed under the guachapele crown. Large amounts of Na+ denote a high influence of the sea. Mangium was the most adapted species to water competitiveness. Comparatively to pure stand of eucalyptus...

Intercepción, pluviolavado y escorrentía cortical en una plantación de Pinus sylvestris de la Cuenca de Candelario (centro-oeste de España); Interception, throughfall and stemflow in a Pinus sylvestris plantation of the Candelario Basin (central-eastern Spain).

Santa Regina, I.; Gallardo, Juan F.; San Miguel, C.; Moyano, Amelia
Fonte: Universidad Austral de Chile Publicador: Universidad Austral de Chile
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 509640 bytes; application/pdf
SPA
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27.53%
Se ha estimado el retorno anual de bioelementos a través del agua de lluvia en un bosque de repoblación de pino albar (Pinus sylvestris L.) en la Cuenca de Candelario (sistema central español). Para una pluvio metría media de 1.020 mm anuales, del 91% del agua de lluvia que llega a alcanzar el suelo bajo el dosel arbóreo, el 88% corresponde al pluviolavado y el 12% restante a la escorrentía cortical. Se ha calculado, asimismo, que el agua de intercepción, que se evapora posteriormente, se eleva a cerca del 9% del agua de lluvia incidente. El retorno de bioelementos al suelo se efectúa en su inmensa mayoría por pluviolavado, excepto para el cobre que, en un 60%, se aporta a través de la escorrentía cortical.; The annual return of bioelements through rainfall was estimated in a reforested plantation of scot pine (P. sylvestris L.) in the Candelario Basin (Spanish Central System). It was observed that 91% of the mean annual rainfall (1.020 mm) reaches the soil under the tree canopy. Of it, 88% was found to correspond to throughfall, and the remaining 12% to stemflow. It was also observed that interception water, which later evaporates, reaches 9% of the inciding rainfall water. The return of bioelements to the soil mainly occurs throughfall...

Nutrient flow in rainfall and throughfall in two stretches in an Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil; FLUXO DE NUTRIENTES PELA PRECIPITAÇÃO PLUVIOMÉTRICA EM DOIS TRECHOS DE FLORESTA OMBRÓFILA DENSA EM GUARAQUEÇABA, PARANÁ

Scheer, Maurício Bergamini; SANEPAR
Fonte: FUPEF DO PARANÁ Publicador: FUPEF DO PARANÁ
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/03/2009 POR
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The returns of K, Ca, Mg and Na through rainfall and throughfall (in an early to midde successional alluvial forest and in a secondary lowland forest) were estimated in an Atlantic Rain Forest in Southern Brazil. The two forests showed interception rainfall values around 14%, considered low comparing to other studies. The Na values were very high, reaching in average 83 kg ha-1y-1 in rainfall and 96 kg ha-1y-1 in throughfall in the early to midde secondary forest. The annual nutrient returns in througfall were: of 52 kg ha-1 of K, 5 kg ha-1 of Ca and 2.9 kg ha-1 of Mg, with major contributions during the rainy season. The secondary forest presented lower values, mainly for K. Additioning to available litterfall data in early to midde secondary forest, througfall contributed to 65% of K, 5% of Ca and 15% of Mg returned to the soil pointing out the relevance of this process to the restoration and/or maintenance of these elements into the studied ecosystems.; Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar os fluxos de K, Ca, Mg e Na através da precipitação no exterior e no interior de dois trechos de Floresta Ombrófila Densa (capoeira: estágio inicial/intermediário de sucessão secundária de floresta aluvial e floresta secundária submontana)...

The effects of canopy cover on throughfall and soil chemistry in two forest sites in the México City air basin

PÉREZ-SUÁREZ,M; FENN,M. E; CETINA-ALCALÁ,V. M; ALDRETE,A
Fonte: Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, UNAM Publicador: Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, UNAM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 EN
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Throughfall and soil chemistry were compared in two sites with differing atmospheric deposition: Desierto de los Leones National Park (high atmospheric deposition) and Zoquiapan National Park (low atmospheric deposition). Throughfall fluxes of NO3-, SO4(2-), Ca, Mg and K were compared under two canopy cover types: Abies religiosa Schl. (fir) and Pinus hartwegii Lindl. (pine), in comparison with sites without cover canopy, e.g. forests clearings. Throughfall fluxes decreased in the following order: fir > pine > forest clearing. Nitrogen balance under canopy of fir and pine resulted in negative values for net throughfall of NH4+ at Desierto de los Leones and Zoquiapan, while NO3-, only resulted in negative values under canopy cover at the low deposition site. With few exceptions, concentrations of total C, N and S, soluble SO4(2-), and Ca2+ were higher in soil under fir canopies than under pine or in forest clearings. In polluted sites, the densely foliated fir canopies generally resulted in higher throughfall fluxes and soil accumulation of N, S and Mg compared to pine canopies or open areas. The elevated atmospheric depositions affect the functional process of forest ecosystem, particularly the throughfall and nutrients intern cycle...