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Rebound effects following deliberate thought suppression: Does PTSD make a difference?

Beck, J. Gayle; Gudmundsdottir, Berglind; Palyo, Sarah A.; Miller, Luana M.; Grant, DeMond M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.22%
This study was designed to examine the effects of deliberate suppression of trauma-related thoughts in 44 individuals who were PTSD+ and 26 individuals who were PTSD− following a motor vehicle accident (MVA). In an effort to resolve discrepancies in the literature, the PTSD− group was selected from the same help-seeking population as the patient group. Measures included the percentage of MVA-related thoughts, mood, perceived controllability of thoughts, and physiological arousal (heart rate, skin conductance, and two measures of facial EMG). Contrary to hypothesis, both PTSD+ and PTSD− groups showed a rebound in trauma-related thoughts following deliberate thought suppression. This rebound was associated with increases in negative affect, anxiety, and distress and diminished perceptions of controllability over thoughts. Examination of the physiological measures did not mirror the pattern noted for trauma-related thoughts, although the data suggest that suppression was associated with higher levels of frontalis EMG and possibly, reduced heart rate. The current study indicates that help-seeking individuals who are distressed about their psychological state following a serious MVA will show a rebound in MVA-related thoughts, irrespective of PTSD diagnosis. Implications for the study of thought suppression as a potential maintaining factor for trauma-related problems are discussed...

The role of thought suppression in the relation between mindfulness meditation and alcohol use

Bowen, Sarah; Witkiewitz, Katie; Dillworth, Tiara M.; Marlatt, G. Alan
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.07%
Previous studies have demonstrated that attempts to suppress thoughts about using substances may actually lead to increases in substance use. Vipassana, a mindfulness meditation practice, emphasizes acceptance, rather than suppression, of unwanted thoughts. Bowen and colleagues (2006) studied the effects of a Vipassana course on substance use and in an incarcerated population, showing significant reductions in substance use among the Vipassana group as compared to a treatment as usual control condition (Bowen, Witkiewitz, Dillworth, Chawla, Simpson, Ostafin, et al., 2006). The current study further examines the mediating effects of thought suppression in the relationship between participation in the course and subsequent alcohol use in an incarcerated population. Those who participated in the course reported significant decreases in avoidance of thoughts when compared to controls. The decrease in avoidance partially mediated effects of the course on post-release alcohol use and consequences.

Why did the white bear return? Obsessive-compulsive symptoms and attributions for unsuccessful thought suppression

Magee, Joshua C.; Teachman, Bethany A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.35%
The current study examined the nature and consequences of attributions about unsuccessful thought suppression. Undergraduate students with either high (N=67) or low (N=59) levels of obsessive-compulsive symptoms rated attributions to explain their unsuccessful thought suppression attempts. We expected that self-blaming attributions and attributions ascribing importance to unwanted thoughts would predict more distress and greater recurrence of thoughts during time spent monitoring or suppressing unwanted thoughts. Further, we expected that these attributions would mediate the relationship between obsessive-compulsive symptom levels and the negative thought suppression outcomes (distress and thought recurrence). Structural equation models largely confirmed the hypotheses, suggesting that attributions may be an important factor in explaining the consequences of thought suppression. Implications are discussed for cognitive theories of obsessive-compulsive disorder and thought suppression.

A Preliminary Examination of Thought Suppression, Emotion Regulation, and Coping in a Trauma Exposed Sample

Amstadter, Ananda B.; Vernon, Laura L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/10/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
Attempts to modulate negative emotional and cognitive symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) may be related to psychopathology. Trauma exposed undergraduates, 31 reporting severe PTSD symptoms (PTSD group) and 34 without PTSD symptoms (no-PTSD group), completed measures of PTSD, depression, anxiety, thought control, emotion regulation, and coping. The PTSD group had greater psychopathology and overall modulation strategy use than the no-PTSD group. Thought suppression, emotion suppression, and avoidant coping strategies were positively related to psychopathology, whereas emotion reappraisal and approach coping strategies were either not related or weakly negatively related. Hierarchical multiple regressions with psychopathologic variables as criteria and modulation strategies as predictors indicated significant models in all cases. Generally, thought suppression was the only significant independent predictor of psychopathology.

Why the White Bear is Still There: Electrophysiological Evidence for Ironic Semantic Activation during Thought Suppression

Giuliano, Ryan J.; Wicha, Nicole Y. Y.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
Much research has focused on the paradoxical effects of thought suppression, leading to the viewpoint that increases in unwanted thoughts are due to an ironic monitoring process which increases the activation of the very thoughts one is trying to rid from consciousness. However, it remains unclear from behavioral findings whether suppressed thoughts become more accessible during the act of suppression. In the current study, event-related potentials were recorded while participants suppressed or expressed thoughts of a focus word during a simple lexical decision task. Modulations in the N400 component reported here demonstrate the paradoxical effects occurring at the semantic level during suppression, as well as some evidence for the rebound effect after suppression periods. Interestingly, semantic activation was greater for focus words during suppression than expression, despite differences in the N1 window suggesting that expression elicited greater perceptual processing than suppression. Results provide electrophysiological evidence for the Ironic Process model and support recent claims of asymmetric network activation during thought suppression.

Thought Suppression in Patients With Bipolar Disorder

Miklowitz, David J.; Alatiq, Yousra; Geddes, John R.; Goodwin, Guy M.; Williams, J. Mark G.
Fonte: American Psychological Association Publicador: American Psychological Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.22%
Suppression of negative thoughts has been observed under experimental conditions among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) but has never been examined among patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Patients with BD (n = 36), patients with MDD (n = 20), and healthy controls (n = 20) completed a task that required unscrambling 6-word strings into 5-word sentences, leaving out 1 word. The extra word allowed the sentences to be completed in a negative, neutral, or “hyperpositive” (manic/goal-oriented) way. Participants completed the sentences under conditions of cognitive load (rehearsing a 6-digit number), reward (a bell tone), load and reward, or neither load nor reward. We hypothesized that patients with BD would engage in more active suppression of negative and hyperpositive thoughts than would controls, as revealed by their unscrambling more word strings into negative or hyperpositive sentences. Under conditions of load or reward and in the absence of either load or reward, patients with BD unscrambled more negative sentences than did controls. Under conditions of reward, patients with BD unscrambled more negative sentences than did patients with MDD. Patients with BD also reported more use of negative thought suppression than did controls. These group differences in negative biases were no longer significant when current mood states were controlled. Finally...

Food Thought Suppression: A Matched Comparison of Obese Individuals with and without Binge Eating Disorder

Barnes, Rachel D.; Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.43%
Preliminary studies of non-clinical samples suggest that purposely attempting to avoid thoughts of food, referred to as food thought suppression, is related to a number of unwanted eating- and weight-related consequences, particularly in obese individuals. Despite possible implications for the treatment of obesity and eating disorders, little research has examined food thought suppression in obese individuals with binge eating disorder (BED). This study compared food thought suppression in 60 obese patients with BED to an age-, gender-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched group of 59 obese persons who do not binge eat (NBO). In addition, this study examined the associations between food thought suppression and eating disorder psychopathology within the BED and NBO groups and separately by gender. Participants with BED and women endorsed the highest levels of food thought suppression. Food thought suppression was significantly and positively associated with many features of ED psychopathology in NBO women and with eating concerns in men with BED. Among women with BED, higher levels of food thought suppression were associated with higher frequency of binge eating, whereas among men with BED, higher levels of food thought suppression were associated with lower frequency of binge eating. Our findings suggest gender differences in the potential significance of food thought suppression in obese groups with and without co-existing binge eating problems.

Thought Suppression, Impaired Regulation of Urges, and Addiction-Stroop Predict Affect-Modulated Cue-Reactivity among Alcohol Dependent Adults

Garland, Eric L.; Carter, Kristin; Ropes, Katie; Howard, Matthew O.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.35%
Abstinent alcohol dependent individuals commonly employ thought suppression to cope with stress and intrusive cognitions about alcohol. This strategy may inadvertently bias attention toward alcohol-related stimuli while depleting neurocognitive resources needed to regulate urges, manifested as decreased heart rate variability (HRV) responsivity to alcohol cues. The present study tested the hypothesis that trait and state thought suppression, impaired regulation of urges, and alcohol attentional bias as measured by the Addiction-Stroop would have significant effects on the HRV responsivity of 58 adults in residential treatment for alcohol dependence (mean age = 39.6 ± 9.4, 81% female) who participated in an affect-modulated cue-reactivity protocol. Regression analyses controlling for age, level of pre-treatment alcohol consumption, and baseline HRV indicated that higher levels of trait thought suppression, impaired regulation of alcohol urges, and attentional fixation on alcohol cues were associated with lower HRV responsivity during stress-primed alcohol cue-exposure. Moreover, there was a significant state X trait suppression interaction on HRV cue-responsivity, such that alcohol dependent persons reporting high levels of state and trait suppression exhibited less HRV during cue-exposure than persons reporting low levels of state and trait suppression. Results suggest that chronic thought suppression taxes regulatory resources reflected in reduced HRV responsivity...

Dimensionality Analysis of the Thought Suppression Inventory: Combining EFA, MSA, and CFA

Wismeijer, Andreas A. J.
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.37%
The Thought Suppression Inventory (TSI; Rassin, European Journal of Personality 17: 285-298, 2003) was designed to measure thought intrusion, thought suppression and successful thought suppression. Given the importance to distinguish between these three aspects of thought control, the aim of this study was to scrutinize the dimensionality of the TSI. In a sample of 333 Dutch senior citizins, we examined (1) the dimensionality of the TSI using various procedures such as PAF, Mokken scale analysis (MSA) and CFA, and (2) the scale properties of the TSI. PAF favored a two factor solution, however, MSA and CFA suggested that three dimensions most adequately capture the structure of the TSI. Although all scales obtained at least medium scalability coefficients, several items were identified that are psychometrically unsound and may benefit from rewording or replacement. The findings suggest that the TSI is a three-dimensional questionnaire as originally proposed by Rassin (European Journal of Personality 17: 285-298, 2003) measuring thought intrusion, thought suppression, and successful thought suppression.

Psychopathology and Thought Suppression: A Quantitative Review

Magee, Joshua C.; Harden, K. Paige; Teachman, Bethany A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.39%
Recent theories of psychopathology have suggested that thought suppression intensifies the persistence of intrusive thoughts, and proposed that difficulty with thought suppression may differ between groups with and without psychopathology. The current meta-analytic review evaluates empirical evidence for difficulty with thought suppression as a function of the presence and specific type of psychopathology. Based on theoretical proposals from the psychopathology literature, diagnosed and analogue samples were expected to show greater recurrence of intrusive thoughts during thought suppression attempts than non-clinical samples. However, results showed no overall differences in the recurrence of thoughts due to thought suppression between groups with and without psychopathology. There was, nevertheless, variation in the recurrence of thoughts across different forms of psychopathology, including relatively less recurrence during thought suppression for samples with symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, compared to non-clinical samples. However, these differences were typically small and provided only mixed support for existing theories. Implications for cognitive theories of intrusive thoughts are discussed, including proposed mechanisms underlying thought suppression.

Differential Roles of Thought Suppression and Dispositional Mindfulness in Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Craving

Garland, Eric; Roberts-Lewis, Amelia
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.36%
Exposure to traumatic events often results in severe distress which may elicit self-medication behaviors. Yet, some individuals exposed to trauma do not develop post-traumatic stress symptoms and comorbid addictive impulses. In the wake of traumatic events, psychological processes like thought suppression and mindfulness may modulate post-traumatic stress and craving for substances. We examined the differential roles of mindfulness and suppression in comorbid post-traumatic stress and craving in a sample of 125 persons with extensive trauma histories and psychiatric symptoms in residential treatment for substance dependence. Results indicated that thought suppression, rather than extent of trauma history, significantly predicted post-traumatic stress symptom severity while dispositional mindfulness significantly predicted both post-traumatic stress symptoms and craving. In multiple regression models, mindfulness and thought suppression combined explained nearly half of the variance in post-traumatic stress symptoms and one-quarter of the variance in substance craving. Moreover, multivariate path analysis indicated that prior traumatic experience was associated with greater thought suppression, which in turn was correlated with increased post-traumatic stress symptoms and drug craving...

Factor structure and clinical correlates of the Food Thought Suppression Inventory within treatment seeking obese women with binge eating disorder

Barnes, Rachel D.; Sawaoka, Takuya; White, Marney A.; Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
Prior research on the relations among eating behaviors and thought suppression is limited to a measure of general thought suppression, the White Bear Suppression Inventory. To address this limitation, researchers recently validated the Food Thought Suppression Inventory (FTSI). Analyses using this measure suggest that food thought suppression is distinct from and is more predictive of eating disorder psychopathology than is general thought suppression. The FTSI, however, has not yet been validated in clinical samples. The purpose of the current study is to examine the factor structure and clinical correlates of the FTSI within treatment seeking obese women with binge eating disorder (BED; N = 128). Analyses revealed a valid and reliable one-factor measure of food thought suppression that was related to higher levels of eating and general psychopathology. The findings provide evidence for the use of the FTSI with obese women with BED. Future research should examine the psychometric properties of the FTSI within larger and more diverse samples.

Aging and Repeated Thought Suppression Success

Lambert, Ann E.; Smyth, Frederick L.; Beadel, Jessica R.; Teachman, Bethany A.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/06/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.42%
Intrusive thoughts and attempts to suppress them are common, but while suppression may be effective in the short-term, it can increase thought recurrence in the long-term. Because intentional suppression involves controlled processing, and many aspects of controlled processing decline with age, age differences in thought suppression outcomes may emerge, especially over repeated thought suppression attempts as cognitive resources are expended. Using multilevel modeling, we examined age differences in reactions to thought suppression attempts across four thought suppression sequences in 40 older and 42 younger adults. As expected, age differences were more prevalent during suppression than during free monitoring periods, with younger adults indicating longer, more frequent thought recurrences and greater suppression difficulty. Further, younger adults’ thought suppression outcomes changed over time, while trajectories for older adults’ were relatively stable. Results are discussed in terms of older adults’ reduced thought recurrence, which was potentially afforded by age-related changes in reactive control and distractibility.

Examining the Relationship between Food Thought Suppression and Binge Eating Disorder

Barnes, Rachel D.; Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
Food thought suppression, or purposely attempting to avoid thoughts of food, is related to a number of unwanted eating- and weight-related consequences, particularly in dieting and obese individuals. Little is known about the possible significance of food thought suppression in clinical samples, particularly obese patients who binge eat. This study examined food thought suppression in 150 obese patients seeking treatment for binge eating disorder (BED). Food thought suppression was not associated with binge eating frequency or body mass index but was significantly associated with higher current levels of eating disorder psychopathology and variables pertaining to obesity, dieting, and binge eating.

Thought suppression across time: Change in frequency and duration of thought recurrence☆

Lambert, Ann E.; Hu, Yueqin; Magee, Joshua C.; Beadel, Jessica R.; Teachman, Bethany A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.33%
Some studies have found that trying to suppress thoughts increases their long-term recurrence, a phenomenon associated with psychopathology, particularly obsessive-compulsive disorder. However, effect sizes in thought suppression studies have often been small and inconsistent. The present study sought to improve thought suppression conceptualization and measurement by examining two distinct dimensions of thought recurrence – frequency and duration of a thought’s return – and how they evolve over time. After a thought focus period, 100 adults were assigned to either suppress or monitor the recurrence of an unpleasant thought for 4 min. Then, during a second four-minute period, all participants were asked to monitor the thought’s recurrence. Hierarchical linear modeling indicated that thought frequency declined across time and the rate of decline slowed as time went on. Initially, the extent of thought duration remained short and stable for those asked to suppress, and increased linearly over time for those asked to monitor. Later, this pattern reversed. Duration increased linearly for those initially asked to suppress but was short and stable for those who initially monitored. Accounting for change over time and means of measuring recurrence (frequency vs. duration) may help elucidate past mixed findings...

The Gravity of Unwanted Thoughts: Asymmetric Priming Effects in Thought Suppression

Najmi, Sadia; Wegner, Daniel
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.31%
An unwanted thought appears to be cued easily by reminders in the environment but often the thought itself seems to cue nothing more than the desire to eliminate it from consciousness. This unusual asymmetry in the way unwanted thoughts are linked to other thoughts was the focus of the present research. Participants who were asked to suppress a thought or to concentrate on it completed a task assessing the influence of priming on reaction time (RT) for word/non-word judgments. Results revealed that suppression under cognitive load produced asymmetric priming: Priming with the associate of a suppressed word speeded RT for the suppressed word, but priming with a suppressed word did not speed RT for associated words. These findings suggest that thought suppression induces an unusual form of cognitive accessibility in which movement of activation toward the suppressed thought from associates is facilitated but movement of activation away from the suppressed thought to associates is undermined.; Psychology

Learning the Futility of the Thought Suppression Enterprise in Normal Experience and in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Najmi, Sadia; Reese, Hannah Elizabeth; Wilhem, Sabine; Fama, Jeanne Marie; Beck, Celeste; Wegner, Daniel M.
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.33%
The belief that we can control our thoughts is not inevitably adaptive, particularly when it fuels mental control activities that have ironic unintended consequences. The conviction that the mind can and should be controlled can prompt people to suppress unwanted thoughts, and so can set the stage for the intrusive return of those very thoughts. An important question is whether or not these beliefs about the control of thoughts can be reduced experimentally. One possibility is that behavioral experiments aimed at revealing the ironic return of suppressed thoughts might create a lesson that could reduce unrealistic beliefs about the control of thoughts. Aims: The present research assessed the influence of the thought suppression demonstration on beliefs about the control of thoughts in a non-clinical sample, and among individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: In Study 1, we assessed the effect of the thought suppression demonstration on beliefs about the control of thoughts among low and high obsessive individuals in the non-clinical population (N = 62). In Study 2, we conducted a similar study with individuals with OCD (N = 29). Results: Results suggest that high obsessive individuals in the non-clinical population are able to learn the futility of suppression through the thought suppression demonstration and to alter their faulty beliefs about the control of thoughts; however...

Profiles of Everyday Thought Suppression

Ie, Amanda Yen Lin
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.31%
The present research assessed whether levels of depression, anxiety and worry, obsessive-compulsive distress, and psychopathy were differentially related to distinct thought suppression profiles. As a means to achieving this goal, the Profiles of Everyday Thought Suppression (PETS) scale was constructed to measure the frequencies with which various target thoughts are suppressed. The PETS scale demonstrated good internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and scores were positively correlated with the general tendency to experience intrusions, the general tendency to suppress thoughts, neuroticism, and health complaints. Although the proportions of time people suppress thoughts was positively associated with the frequencies with which the thoughts are experienced, the strength of the associations differed across thought contents, suggesting that not all frequently experienced thoughts are invariably subject to suppression attempts. The frequency with which thoughts are generally suppressed was positively associated with overall levels of subclinical psychopathology experienced during the past month. When comparing across the various thought categories, results from multiple analytic strategies converged to suggest that specific subclinical psychopathological states are associated with particular sets of thoughts that are frequently suppressed.; Psychology

Hidden Complications of Thought Suppression

Najmi, Sadia; Wegner, Daniel M.
Fonte: Guilford Press Publicador: Guilford Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.4%
Although the suppression of thoughts may seem to be an effective solution, this strategy can lead to an exacerbation of the very thought that one is attempting to suppress. This ironic effect is the most obvious unwanted outcome of suppression and has now been investigated empirically for more than two decades. However, the fact that suppression is an effortful process implies that, even when suppression does not lead to an ironic rebound of the unwanted thought, it puts an insidious cognitive load on the individual attempting to suppress. Moreover, whether or not suppression leads to an exacerbation of the unwanted thought, it is rarely successful, and hence adds to the individual's distress. In this article we describe the phenomenon of suppression and consider how it might complicate a range of emotional disorders. Taken together, studies on thought suppression in psychopathology present a more nuanced picture now than was emerging in the early years of its investigation. Some evidence is consistent with the idea that the counterproductive effects of suppression are causally implicated in the disorder, but for the most part a more parsimonious conclusion is that thought suppression acts as a complication of the disorder. In certain disorders...

Development and validation of the thought control ability questionnaire

Luciano, J. V.; Algarabel, S.; Tomás, J. M.; Martínez Soria, J. L.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 24064 bytes; application/msword
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.27%
12 pages, 3 tables.-- Available online Sep 11, 2004.; Previous research suggests that an individual difference factor could account for the divergent findings across thought suppression studies. The present study reports on the development and validation of the Thought Control Ability Questionnaire (TCAQ), a self-report measure of individual differences in the perceived ability to control unwanted, intrusive thoughts. The TCAQ and a battery of instruments that assess emotional vulnerability, psychopathological symptoms and thought control strategies were administered to 211 Spanish university students. Data analysis yielded a unidimensional instrument with 25 items that showed high internal consistency and test–retest reliability. In addition, the TCAQ had significant negative relationships with trait anxiety (STAI-T), neuroticism (EPQ-N), depressive symptomatology (BDI), guilt feelings (SC-35), worry (PSWQ), obsessive–compulsive symptoms (MOCI) and with the use of self-punishment as thought control strategy (TCQ). The implications of these results are discussed in relation to thought suppression and clinical research.; Peer reviewed