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Primavera árabe: a força da disseminação da informação pelo meio digital e sua forma de construção de sentido; Arab Spring: the strength of the dissemination of information by digital means and form of construction of meaning

Bazzan, Denise
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/11/2014 PT
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Esta pesquisa foi desenvolvida para examinar a articulação dos recursos de linguagem e seus efeitos de sentido e compreender o seu papel na transformação social que motivou, mobilizou e legitimou a Revolução Egípcia de 2011, um evento social do movimento popular Primavera Árabe, promovido na página do site de rede social Facebook denominado We Are All Khaled Said. Para isto, valemo-nos da abordagem metodológica da Teoria Social do Discurso, uma vertente da Análise de Discurso Crítica, desenvolvida por Norman Fairclough, que possibilitou o mapeamento da organização dos enunciados escolhidos ao corpus desta análise.; This research was conducted to examine the articulation of language features and their effects of meaning and understand their role in social transformation that motivated, mobilized and legitimized the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, a social event of the popular Arab Spring movement, promoted on the page social networking site Facebook called We Are All Khaled Said. For this, we used of the methodological approach of Social Discourse Theory, a branch of Critical Discourse Analysis, developed by Norman Fairclough, which enabled the mapping of the organization of the corpus utterances chosen this analysis.

Migration after the Arab Spring

FARGUES, Philippe; FANDRICH, Christine
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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This paper provides a statistical assessment of migration before and after the uprisings in the Southern Mediterranean. It will review European and Arab state policies regarding migration and will ultimately encourage the factoring of the outcomes of the Arab Spring within migration policies on both shores of the Mediterranean. The assessment is based upon the most recent statistical data gathered directly from the competent offices in European Member States; from policy documents emanating from the European Union and concerned States; and from first-hand accounts from surveys conducted in Spring 2012 by scholars in six Arab countries (within Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Jordan and Lebanon) in collaboration with the Migration Policy Centre (MPC). Notably, migration to Europe has not been accelerated by the Arab Spring, apart from a short-lived movement from Tunisia, but has simply continued along previous trends. In sharp contrast, migration within the Southern Mediterranean has been deeply impacted by the events as outflows of migrants and refugees fled instability and violence in Libya and Syria.; The MPC is co-financed by the European University Institute and the European Union.

Military elites and regime trajectories in the Arab spring : Egypt, Syria, Tunisia and Yemen in comparative perspective

KOEHLER, Kevin
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
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Why did different regimes react differently to the mass uprisings that shook the Middle East and North Africa in 2010 and 2011? Why did the personalist presidencies of Husni Mubarak in Egypt and Zine al-Abidin Ben Ali in Tunisia collapse only weeks into the uprisings while Syria’s Bashar al-Assad still holds onto power and Yemen’s Ali Abdallah Salih could negotiate his way out of office? Focusing on the cases of Egypt, Syria, Tunisia and Yemen, this thesis is an attempt to answer this question. The central argument of this thesis is that military elite behavior shaped regime trajectories in the Arab Spring. Where the armed forces as an institution defected from the incumbent, the presidency immediately collapsed; where at least some military elites remained loyal, the respective chief executives survived in office for a significantly longer period. I develop an explanation that focuses on the presence of regime cronies within the military leadership. Where such cronies exist, the costs of defection increase for all members of the officer corps. Since the loyalty of cronies appears as a forgone conclusion, defection would likely lead to confrontation within the military. In other words, the absence of crony officers is a necessary condition for the cohesive defection of the armed forces from authoritarian presidents. Empirically...

The Gulf Monarchies beyond the Arab spring : changes and challenges

Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Livro Formato: application/pdf
EN
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This E-book is the result of a conference on “The Gulf Region, Domestic Dynamics and Global-Regional Perspectives. Implications for the European Union”, hosted by the Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies in spring 2015.; The Gulf region has become an increasingly important international actor but many questions about the six monarchies of the Gulf Cooperation Council remain unanswered. In the aftermath of the Arab Spring, different domestic and international dynamics are at play and the changes in the geopolitics of the Middle East have transformed the regional policies of the states of the Gulf countries. In order to explore these complex issues, the Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies of the European University Institute held a conference on ‘The Gulf region: domestic dynamics and global-regional perspectives. Implications for the EU’ (Florence, Italy, 20-21 April 2015). This E-book captures the range and diversity of the vibrant intellectual debate that took place during the conference. Contributors to this volume analyse the changes and challenges affecting the Gulf monarchies: from the sustainability of their economic model to the security threats arising from the crises in Yemen, Iraq and Syria, from demography and immigration policies to the politicization of sectarian identities...

Middle East and North Africa Economic Monitor, October 2015; RAPPORT DE SUIVI ÉCONOMIQUE DE LA RÉGION MOYEN-ORIENT ET AFRIQUE DU NORD, Octobre 2015: Inégalités, soulèvements et conflits dans le monde arabe; Inequality, Uprisings, and Conflict in the Arab World

Ianchovichina, Elena; Mottaghi, Lili; Devarajan, Shantayanan
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Serial; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Publication
EN_US
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The short-term prospects for a growth recovery in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are slim in the context of low oil prices and conflict escalation. Regional GDP growth, estimated at around 2.8 percent in 2015, will remain weak if current circumstances persist. In fact, since the Arab Spring, the region has seen a growth slowdown and a rise in the incidence of civil wars. This report explores how the region got to this state. It examines whether inequality or other factors contributed to the Arab Spring uprisings as well as to the ensuing conflicts. The report concludes that expenditure inequality, which was relatively low and declining, could not been a major factor in triggering the Arab Spring events, although wealth disparities, which are typically higher, could have been. Instead, we find that ordinary people, especially the middle class, were frustrated by the decline in their standards of living, related to the shortage of quality jobs, the poor quality of public services and lack of government accountability. The report also explores whether inequality played a role in the increase in the incidence of violence after the Arab Spring and finds suggestive evidence that intergroup inequality, rather than monetary inequality...

Managing instability after the Arab Spring

Fonte: Monterey, California, Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California, Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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December 11-13, 2012 Washington, D.C. - CCMR's Collaborative and Adaptive Security Initiative (CASI) convened officials from the armed forces, government civilian agencies, inter-governmental organizations, non-governmental organizations, think tanks and academic institutions to a workshop discussing the political, social and security implications of the regional transition commonly referred to as the "Arab Spring". By exploring the challenges faced by the region during this transition, participants will be better prepared to help shape the environment, to encourage successful transitions to stable democracy, and to ensure positive relations between the Arab and Western worlds.

The differential impact of women's pariticipation in the Arab Spring

Kuhlow, Sasha J.
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The Arab Spring protests in 2011 uprooted regimes, challenged authoritarian leaders, and provided protesters new tools for mobilization. The use of social media and the involvement of women in public protests indicated changing protest repertoires and movement demographics in many countries. When women protested in 2011, they mobilized both physically and virtually. Assessing the influence women exert in social movements through social media can provide insights into factors that make a social movement successful. This thesis asserts that women physically mobilized to participate in the Arab Spring protests in Egypt, Yemen, and Bahrain. In Egypt and Bahrain, women also mobilized virtually using social media, while in Yemen women participated through traditional forms of social mobilization. An assessment of Twitter data in Egypt and Bahrain indicates that women communicated out to others more than their male counterparts, while men received more information from others. Data also indicates that women followed significantly more sources of information than men, thus contributing to the diversity of online protest networks. Notably, women represented nearly fifty percent of the most connected users in the Egyptian Twitter data...

Islamism and the Arab spring : a social movements approach

DONKER, Teije Hidde
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
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Examining Board: Professor Donatella della Porta, European University Institute (Supervisor) Professor Olivier Roy, European University Institute (Co-supervisor) Professor Sidney Tarrow, Cornell University Professor Farhad Khosrokhavar, École des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales.; Defence date: 17 October 2013; This thesis explores the contemporary Islamist project-constituted by those that mobilize to restructure public life according to Islamic norms-in the context of the 2011-2013 "Arab Spring".The thesis has two interrelated aims. First, it aims to empirically explore changing interactions between Islamist mobilization in politic and in society,and examine the position state in stitutions have within these changes. Second, it aims to apply insights of studies on social movements and contentious mobilization in the analysis of these interactions. The thesis'main contentions are, first,that in their practice Islamist movements face a dilemma in how to react to a context that is ever more strictly divided between a social and political arena:either mobilization is aimed at societal change through organizing as social associations, or it is aimed at maximizing political influence through organizing as political parties. Irrespective of what their ideology is...

Arab Donors' Early Response to the Arab Spring

Rouis, Mustapha
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The World Bank's 2010 study, Arab Development Assistance: four decades of cooperation, and the subsequent note, Arab donors respond favorably to the global financial crisis (Rouis 2011), showed that the three Gulf countries - Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) have provided generous aid financing over the years. This paper, which extends the analysis to 2010 for Arab overseas development assistance (ODA) and to 2011 for the assistance provided by the Arab regional financial institutions, confirms that this generosity continues in the wake of the global economic crisis and the events of the Arab Spring movement. The paper shows that Arab assistance has been responsive in addressing critical development and humanitarian needs in developing countries. There are preliminary indications that Arab donors and financial institutions have made some adjustments in response to the needs of the Arab countries going through the unprecedented political transition sparked by the Arab Spring. Arab donor countries and financial institutions have responded favorably and promptly during the global economic and financial crisis. Their increased assistance to countries affected by the Arab Spring has yet to materialize beyond the stage of pledges and commitments.

Response of the Arab Donors to the Global Financial Crisis and the Arab Spring

Rouis, Mustapha
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Development assistance from Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries and Arab financial institutions has been responsive in addressing development and humanitarian needs in many developing countries. Since the global financial crisis (2008-2011), the combined net official development assistance (ODA) from Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and the UAE peaked at US$ 6.5 billion in 2008at the height of the global financial crisis. It has since remained relatively high at US$ 4.8 billion annually on average. Total ODA from the three also increased significantly as a share of gross national income, yielding a weighted average of 0.55 percent during 2008-2011, compared to 0.49 percent in the previous four years. The share of Arab financial institutions' aid to International Development Association (IDA) recipients grew by 9 percentage points between 2005-2007 and 2008-2012, reaching 47 percent of total commitments. The overall annual average of financial assistance provided to Arab Spring countries by Arab financial institutions in 2011 and 2012 was slightly higher than the average during the global economic and financial crisis...

Mapping the Obama administration's response to the Arab Spring

Pinto,Maria do Céu de Pinho Ferreira
Fonte: Instituto Brasileiro de Relações Internacionais Publicador: Instituto Brasileiro de Relações Internacionais
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2012 EN
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When the Arab Spring broke out, the United States was in a quandary over how to handle the crisis in its attempt to balance its moral obligations and ideals without undercutting its strategic interests and those of its close allies. Flaws in US diplomatic approach have contributed to one of the most serious foreign policy crisis for a US administration to date with consequential upheaval and erosion of the US-built balance of power. The reactions and policy responses of the Obama administration highlight the difficulties in grasping with the new reality in the Middle East and in enunciating a policy platform that could combine American interests and values.

Social Networks and New Scheduling Flows: An Analysis of Al Jazeera Coverage of the Arab Spring; Las redes sociales y los nuevos flujos de programación: un análisis de la cobertura de Al Jazeera sobre la primavera árabe; As redes sociais e os novos fluxos de agendamento: uma análise da cobertura da Al Jazeera sobre a Primavera Árabe

Chaves Lopes, Gustavo
Fonte: Universidad de la Sabana Publicador: Universidad de la Sabana
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
SPA
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The article examines the role of social networks in building the media’s agenda in the context of the movement known as the Arab Spring. With that objective in mind, the authors offer the hypothesis that social networks transfer their agenda to the media by creating new scheduling flows and concurrence with the classical conception of the agenda-setting theory.; El artículo tiene como objetivo investigar el papel de las redes sociales en la construcción de la agenda de los medios de comunicación en el contexto del movimiento que se conoce como la Primavera Árabe. Con este fin, proponemos la hipótesis de que las redes sociales transfieren su agenda a los medios creando nuevos flujos de agendamiento y concordancia con la concepción clásica de la Teoría de la Agenda.; O artigo tem como objetivo investigar o papel das redes sociais na construção da agenda midiática no contexto do movimento que ficou conhecido como Primavera Árabe. Para tanto, propomos a hipótese de que as redes sociais transferem sua saliência para a agenda midiática e criam, assim, no- vos fluxos de agendamento, bem como tensionam a concepção clássica da Teoria do Agendamento.  

The Arab Spring: A Simple Compartmental Model for the Dynamics of a Revolution

Lang, John; De Sterck, Hans
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/10/2012
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The self-immolation of Mohamed Bouazizi on December 17, 2011 in the small Tunisian city of Sidi Bouzid, set off a sequence of events culminating in the revolutions of the Arab Spring. It is widely believed that the Internet and social media played a critical role in the growth and success of protests that led to the downfall of the regimes in Egypt and Tunisia. However, the precise mechanisms by which these new media affected the course of events remain unclear. We introduce a simple compartmental model for the dynamics of a revolution in a dictatorial regime such as Tunisia or Egypt which takes into account the role of the Internet and social media. An elementary mathematical analysis of the model identifies four main parameter regions: stable police state, meta-stable police state, unstable police state, and failed state. We illustrate how these regions capture, at least qualitatively, a wide range of scenarios observed in the context of revolutionary movements by considering the revolutions in Tunisia and Egypt, as well as the situation in Iran, China, and Somalia, as case studies. We pose four questions about the dynamics of the Arab Spring revolutions and formulate answers informed by the model. We conclude with some possible directions for future work.

The Influence of Democracy Aid on the Arab Spring Protests: Did Western Democracy Assistance Help Nations Respond Positively to the Protests?

Lang, Courtney
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Publicado em 01/04/2013
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The unprecedented Arab Spring crisis that erupted in late 2010 and spread rapidly across the Middle East and North Africa is history in the making. As the Arab Spring progresses, it has become clear that some nations have been more successful than others in their responses to the crisis, although the reasoning for this is yet to be determined. This thesis suggests that Western foreign aid influenced the way in which these nations responded to the crisis, particularly in regards to their transition to a more legitimate democracy. More specifically, this thesis hypothesizes that those nations that received a significant amount of Western assistance responded more successfully than those that received little. The results gathered from the case study analysis conducted in the paper support this hypothesis. These findings reinforce the literature that argues that foreign aid is effective, and as such, open the door for further research into the ways in which Western foreign aid can be utilized in the future.; Honors Thesis

After the Arab Spring: power shift in the Middle East?: Iran and the Arab Spring

Rafati, Naysan
Fonte: LSE IDEAS, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: LSE IDEAS, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2012 EN; EN
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The events of the Arab Spring, it has been argued, have their precursors in Iran. Yet the proponents of such a view are split over which Iran it is that serves as the inspiration for events in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and elsewhere: is it, as some officials from the Islamic Republic claim, their own 1979 revolution, which unseated Mohammad Reza Pahlavi from the Peacock Throne, or the Twittering, YouTubing mass protests against that vision of a Republic which spilled into the streets of Tehran and other cities around the country three decades later?

After the Arab Spring: power shift in the Middle East?: the contradictions of hegemony: the United States and the Arab Spring

Kitchen, Nicholas
Fonte: LSE IDEAS, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: LSE IDEAS, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2012 EN; EN
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In the United State’s response to the events of the Arab Spring, the Obama administration has been consistently careful not to get ahead of fast-moving developments. Critics have decried the administration’s apparent lack of a coherent approach, and its willingness to talk the language of democratic ideals whilst acting to protect national interests. Supporters, on the other hand, have praised the blending of pragmatism and principle as evidence of a smarter approach to international affairs than that of Obama’s predecessor. The United States’ cautious and contradictory approach, which has at times amounted to the endorsement of the inevitable, reflects wider strategic tensions in the United States’ approach to the Middle East, and the reality that whilst the US may be the most important external power in the region, its ability to dictate outcomes is limited. Yet by ‘muddling through’ and insisting on keeping the United States on the right side of history throughout the course of the Arab revolutions, the Obama administration has ensured that the new regimes in the region will have to continue to work with the United States, and ensured that the US is not diverted from its overriding strategic reorientation towards the Asia-Pacific.

After the Arab Spring: power shift in the Middle East?: conclusion: the Middle East after the Arab Spring

Dodge, Toby
Fonte: LSE IDEAS, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: LSE IDEAS, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2012 EN; EN
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The title of this report, ‘After the Arab Spring: Power Shift in the Middle East?’, deliberately ends with a question mark. The events over the year and a half since the death of Mohamed Bouazizi in Tunisia, have left the politics of the Middle East in tumult. The Arab Spring has certainly resulted in a change of regime in Tunisia and then Egypt. The uprisings against Gaddafi’s regime triggered a military intervention by NATO that drove the Libyan leader and his entourage from power. Ali Abdullah Saleh finally relinquished his grip on power in Yemen. However, the ramifications of regime change for state-society relations in Tunisia, Egypt, Yemen and Libya are still uncertain. Mubarak may be on trial, Gaddafi is dead and Ben Ali is currently enjoying the dubious pleasures of exile in Saudi Arabia. But the ruling elites they created, the state structures they built, the powerful secret services and crony capitalists they nurtured did not disappear when the despots were deposed. The post-revolutionary transitions in Tunisia, Egypt, Yemen and Libya are unlikely to deliver on the hopes that united the courageous protestors in their struggle. As Ewan Stein argues in this report, ‘the utopian vision of Tahrir was soon tarnished’.

The road to professionalism for local Arab media after the Arab Spring will undoubtedly be very long and thorny

El Issawi, Fatima
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/05/2012 EN; EN
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The Arab Spring has transformed the scope of traditional media in North Africa and the Middle East. Fatima El-Issawi is leading an LSE research project on ‘Arab Revolutions: Media Revolutions’. As part of EUROPP’s coverage of the European neighbourhood, she explains how the project aims to find out what changes the Arab Spring might bring to the media in the Middle East.

The European Neighbourhood Policy has failed because of its own contradictions and small budget. But the Arab spring offers a renewed opportunity for the EU to reinvigorate the programme.

Kirchherr, Julian
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/04/2012 EN; EN
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For many, the Arab Spring graphically illustrated the European Neighbourhood Policy’s failure in its aims to promote security and prosperity in the European neighbourhood, and that it should now be disbanded. Julian Kirchherr argues that the new democracies emerging in some Arab Spring countries offer an opportunity for the reinvention of the policy if the European Union continues to increase its budget and to introduce new measures to foster prosperity in the region.

Book review: optimism about the Arab Spring has gone too far

Partridge, Matthew
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/04/2012 EN; EN
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Violence and political instability remain across Tunisia, Egypt, and the Arab region as old regimes continue to be challenged by protesters seeking justice and fresh elections. In After the Arab Spring, John R. Bradley argues that what we think we know about the uprisings is wrong - political change has destroyed a stable order and that the new “moderate” parties are myths designed to fool both voters and the West. Dr Matthew Partridge looks closer. After the Arab Spring: How Islamists Hijacked the Middle East Revolts. John R. Bradley. Palgrave. January 2012.