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Bombing Alone: Tracing the Motivations and Antecedent Behaviors of Lone-Actor Terrorists*,†,‡

Gill, Paul; Horgan, John; Deckert, Paige
Fonte: BlackWell Publishing Ltd Publicador: BlackWell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.46%
This article analyzes the sociodemographic network characteristics and antecedent behaviors of 119 lone-actor terrorists. This marks a departure from existing analyses by largely focusing upon behavioral aspects of each offender. This article also examines whether lone-actor terrorists differ based on their ideologies or network connectivity. The analysis leads to seven conclusions. There was no uniform profile identified. In the time leading up to most lone-actor terrorist events, other people generally knew about the offender’s grievance, extremist ideology, views, and/or intent to engage in violence. A wide range of activities and experiences preceded lone actors’ plots or events. Many but not all lone-actor terrorists were socially isolated. Lone-actor terrorists regularly engaged in a detectable and observable range of activities with a wider pressure group, social movement, or terrorist organization. Lone-actor terrorist events were rarely sudden and impulsive. There were distinguishable behavioral differences between subgroups. The implications for policy conclude this article.

Are Suicide Terrorists Suicidal? A Critical Assessment of the Evidence

Sheehan, Ivan Sascha
Fonte: Matrix Medical Communications Publicador: Matrix Medical Communications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
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Objective: Most of the research on suicide terrorism is conducted in the political science and international relations fields. The prevailing wisdom within this literature is that suicide terrorists are not suicidal. But how good is the evidence for this assumption? Knowing whether suicide terrorists are suicidal has implications for prevention, rehabilitation, and the “softer” side of counterterrorism designed to win minds and hearts. In addition it may deepen our understanding of suicide itself.

Silent enim leges inter arma? La Corte Suprema degli Stati Uniti e la Corte di Giustizia europea nella lotta al terrorismo; Silent enim leges inter arma? The Supreme Court of the United States and the European Court of Justice in the fight against terrorism

FABBRINI, Federico
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
IT
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The article compares the case law of the EU Court of Justice and of the US Supreme Court in the field of due process for suspected terrorists and identifies a common pattern of increate judicial scrutiny on the action of the political branches of government.

Information operations in pursuit of terrorists

Kirpekar, Ulhas
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.18%
The Global War on Terror is in its sixth year now, and the battle with the Islamist terrorists is being fought both in the physical as well as the informational domain. This research examines the relationship between terrorism and information operations keeping in view Martin Libicki?s notion of information warfare as a Mosaic of Forms. This research begins with the basics of terrorism and information operations, and proceeds to highlight the use of information operations by terrorist organizations and in particular its use by Al Qaeda. In order to compare the complete spectrum of information operations being conducted by United States-led forces in this Global War on Terror, this research includes two detailed studies on the prosecution of information operations from the perspective of both the United States-led coalitions and the anti-coalition elements in Afghanistan and Iraq. The study concludes by highlighting the relevance of Libicki?s constructs in the context of the Global War on Terror and proposes a macro strategy to pursue the Islamist terrorists in the information domain.

Closing the gap : measuring the social identity of terrorists

Ludwick, Keith W.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
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CHDS State/Local; Studies of terrorism today focus on psychological and behavioral aspects of individuals. Most research shows that using a single model in an attempt to profile terrorists psychologically is problematic, if not impossible. However, using two well established theories from social psychology, Social Identity Theory and Social Distance Theory, allows the development of a practical model to develop a social profile of a terrorist group. From that, it is further possible to use the resulting social profile to compare terrorist groups against each other in order to develop predictive models as to the propensity of violence of a particular group. To test this, the research within this thesis uses open source interviews of the terrorist group HAMAS and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP), taken from on-line magazines, on-line journals, on-line newspapers, and official web sites, to serve as respondents to a survey instrument developed from other social identity studies. The results of this research shows that a social profile of a terrorist group can be developed from standard social identity measurement survey instruments, and it is possible to develop practical methods for comparing groups...

The Nation That Cried Lone Wolf : A Data-Driven Analysis of Individual Terrorists in the United States Since 9/11

Eby, Charles A.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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CHDS State/Local; Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; Lone-wolf terrorist attacks have occurred in the United States throughout the countrys history. Attempted attacks from individual terrorists unaffiliated with terrorist groups may be becoming more prevalent. Both the general public and government officials acknowledge the presence and importance of these attacks; however, relatively little literature exists on the subject compared to group terrorism. Much of the information on lone wolves has been established by case study, inference, and known characteristics of group terrorism. The purpose of this study is to analyze the characteristics of lone-wolf terrorism through formal statistical models. The study then synthesizes data with case study and existing literature to formulate a base of knowledge for lone-wolf terrorism. This study demonstrates that no single dispositional profile of a lone-wolf terrorist exists. The individuals who engage in the tactic of lone-wolf terrorism form a unique ideology that combines personal grievances with common terrorist goals. Still, many lone-wolf cases exhibit certain characteristics. This thesis analyzes these characteristics and their relationship with successful attacks. These data on characteristics...

On Deceiving terrorists

Higginbotham, Benjamin I.
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.35%
This thesis addresses the use of deception as one means available to states for dealing with terrorists. It begins by exploring the body of theoretical literature to establish the foundation necessary for a thorough discussion of deception. Next, the thesis examines the reasons for state use of deception in interstate conflict. From this list, three potential uses of deception against terrorists are suggested. Specifically, the thesis proposes that states use deception to create and exploit organizational inefficiencies and weaknesses in terrorist organizations, facilitate counter-terrorist operations, and conceal counter-terrorist capabilities and intentions. Subsequently, the cases presented herein reveal that states have in fact successfully used deception in the past with all three purposes in mind. Finally, this thesis also explores the often-overlooked subject of costs and risks, demonstrating that the use of deception is almost never without expense. Even when deception succeeds, its use inevitably incurs costs and opens the door to certain risks. Moreover, the study shows that deceptionb2swhile both legal and ethical in the larger senseb2smight be illegal or unethical in certain applications. In the end, though, this thesis shows that deception is...

Another approach to counter-terrorism: terrorists with guilty consciences

Gocer, Ilyas
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.18%
There are some cases in which terrorists had second thoughts about harming other people. Their conscience, specifically their guilty conscience, forced them to reconsider their plan. This raises thought-provoking questions are there other examples of terrorists pulling back from an operation because of their guilty conscience, and can countries take advantage of this phenomenon to reduce the prevalence of terrorism This thesis will answer these questions in an exploration of how exploiting guilty consciences can be an element of a countrys counter-terrorism strategy that focuses on the personal, psychological component of terrorism.

Effectiveness of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in helping secure a border characterized by rough terrain and active terrorists

Ozcan, Begum Y.
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; Border security is of great importance to most countries. Turkey has been in conflict with terrorist groups since the 1980s. Up to now, more than 40,000 people have been killed, including Turkish soldiers and civilians. The porosity and openness of Turkeys Iraq border, combined with the rugged topography of the region, creates a passage for terrorist groups to move materiel and personnel. Technical capabilities of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles UAVs can be used to improve coverage along borders. However, their effectiveness is highly dependent on the characteristics of the region. In this study, 87 km of the Turkey-Iraq border is modeled in Map Aware Non Uniform Automata (MANA) to examine the potential impact of UAVs on detecting and classifying terrorists seeking passage from Northern Iraq into Turkey. The results from the 103,200 simulated terrorist incursions are analyzed using descriptive statistics, stepwise linear regression, lasso regression, regression trees, and random forests. The use of UAVs is found to be efficient in the detection and classification of terrorists in this region. The analysis techniques reveal that the most significant factors are the UAVs detection and classification performance...

Striking at the underbelly: influencing would-be terrorists

Uddin, Waseem; Dizdaroglu, Vural
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.46%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; Modern states are approaching the issue of terrorism from both kinetic and non-kinetic perspectives; however, the focus of the international community has largely been on terrorist organizations, their leadership and their active and passive members, in whom the terrorist ideology is already deeply ingrained, and thus, they are difficult to turn toward a peaceful path. However, this thesis focuses on would-be terrorists, who may be relatively easier to influence. It identifies the possible causes that lead candidates toward the path of terrorism. According to Kahneman and Tverskys Prospect Theory, people in the losses frame are more risk acceptant and therefore more prone to join terrorists causes. To counter this risk-acceptant behavior, the answer lies not only in identifying possible causes for their placement in the losses frame, but in finding ways to transfer the would-be terrorists to a gains frame, thereby preventing them from joining the terrorist organizations. By adopting this strategy, there will be an indirect influence on the current wave of terrorism in the long-term, as well as a benefit in the short term by partially choking the inputs to the terrorists organizations.

Finding the wolves in sheep’s clothing: ways to distinguish and deter lone-wolf terrorists

Lee, Walter A.
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.18%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; Despite the rise in the number of attacks by lone-wolf terrorists, the lone-wolf threat has largely been neglected by academic researchers and counterterrorism practitioners. The nature of the lone-wolf terrorist has introduced new challenges to law enforcement and counterterrorism unlike the more discussed problems of international group terrorism. This thesis suggests, however, that policies created to help deter group terrorism could be useful in detecting and deterring lone-wolf terrorists. The existing policy framework for group terrorism deterrence may have great utility in the fight against lone wolves, but policy use and effectiveness requires a careful examination of the characteristics unique to lone-wolf terrorism to ensure that the deterrence policies match. This thesis uses the comparative method and examines three case studies of lone-wolf terrorism from the United States and Europe: the Fort Hood shooter of 2009 (Major Nidal Hasan), the Boston Marathon bombers, and Anders Behring Breivik of Norway. By examining the unique circumstances of each case, this thesis determines what policies were and were not effective and in need of adaption to deter the threat of lone-wolf terrorism.

Analysis of the use of Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles in conjunction with manned aircraft to counter active terrorists in rough terrain

Sen, Fatih
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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27.55%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; Reissued 8 Aug 2015 with correction to total number of pages in Box 15, page i; Turkey has been battling with terrorist groups since the 1980s. In total, more than 35,000 Turkish people have been killed by terrorists. The majority of the terrorist activities take place near the Turkish-Iraqi border, which is characterized by rough terrain. Problems, such as lengthy distances, often prevent aircraft from reaching the area before the terrorists achieve their objectives. Limited fuel capacity and challenging geographical conditions are other issues that must be overcome. Because of their technical capabilities and longer flight times, Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles (UCAVs) may enhance Turkey’s ability to counter active terrorists in that region. In this research, Map Aware Non-uniform Automata (MANA) is used to model different counterterrorism scenarios taking place along the Turkish-Iraqi border. We examine the potential effectiveness of using UCAVs in conjunction with manned aircraft to detect and eliminate terrorists trying to cross the border and attack Turkish military assets. For this purpose, we analyze the data from 102,800 simulated air-to-ground attacks using data analysis techniques...

Government actions in the demise of the thugs [1829-1835] and Sikh terrorists [1980-1993] and lessons for the United States

Coloe, John A.
Fonte: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: x, 59 p. ;
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Faced with the very substantial threat of terrorist attack, the United States must ask the question, What actions were taken by other states in the past to successfully combat terrorism? Knowledge of those steps may lead to a greater understanding of what actions are desirable, necessary, or simply unavoidable in its counterterrorism efforts. Having such understanding is needed to plan policies, strategies, and tactics that are effective and acceptable to citizens as well as to the international community. The history of the successful counterterrorism campaigns against the Thugs [1829-1835] and Sikh terrorists [1980-1993] show a number of commonalities in the actions taken by the governments in power at that time. In both cases, abridgement of civil liberties, as per present day standards in the United States, played a major role in the governmentsâ campaigns. These two cases, as well as other historic cases, lead to the conclusion that following successful terrorist attacks, civil liberties will be curtailed. The United States must expect this curtailment and should take actions to ensure these actions are temporary, warranted, effective, and do not transgress more than necessary on the nation's fundamental moral values.

Suggestions for improving the recruitment of al-Qaeda sources : lessons derived from counter-ideological programs and the targeting of Type B terrorists

Miranda, Robert.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xvi, 129 p. ;
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CHDS State/Local; How can the FBI improve the recruitment of sources within terrorist groups, specifically al-Qaeda? First, counter-ideological programs have application in source recruitment. Second, a framework for recruiting terrorist sources is found in the work of Paul Davis and Brian Jenkins. They suggest terrorists can be usefully categorized as internalists or externalists, or Types A and B. Type A terrorists have insatiable appetites and display emotional aggression. Type B terrorists have instrumental aggression and "pragmatic world goals." Significantly, research suggests terrorists displaying instrumental aggression, the Type B should be more "sensitive" to "objective rewards and punishments." Two case studies demonstrate how to determine if a potential terrorist source is either a Type A or Type B individual. This is accomplished by examining a potential source's background to determine if they have instrumental or emotional aggression, their levels of risk and ideological commitment, their part-time or full-time commitment to jihad, and if they have high or low Social Intensity Syndrome. The conclusion of this thesis is that the FBI should concentrate recruitments on the more pragmatic Type B terrorists.; Federal Bureau of Investigation author (civilian).

Systems approach to terrorism countering the terrorist training subsystem

Celebi, Erdogan
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xvi, 91 p. : ill. ;
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This study on terrorism training follows the logic that terrorism is a "wicked problem" and there are various strategies to cope with it. Systems thinking is one of the coping strategies to address "wicked problems." A system is a whole composed of complex organized elements (subsystems) interacting with each other and with their environment. The stability of a system depends on its components' alignment. Misaligning one of its components, will destabilize, or even disrupt the whole system. In this regard, the study defines terrorism and terrorist organizations in systems terms, explains their components and interrelations, and concludes that the most important component of a terrorist system is the training subsystem. Thus it is important to understand how the subsystem functions in order to disrupt the whole system. The study reviews the types of terrorist training, how the terrorists and their organizations learn (process), what the terrorists learn (content), where the terrorists learn (location) and concludes that the internet is the new safe haven for terrorist training. It also demonstrates the adaptive capability of terrorist system moving from land-based to internet-based training. Almost every terrorist organization on the US Sate Department's designated terrorist organizations list exists on the Net. One example is the PKK (Kurdistan Workers Party) terrorist network. Its website network is analyzed by content and network structure using social network analysis software UCINET. The goal is to develop strategies to eliminate the web presence of the terrorist training subsystem.

Patterns of radicalization indentifying the markers and warning signs of domestic lone wolf terrorists in our midst

Springer, Nathan R.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xii, 87 p. ;
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Approved for public release, distribution unlimited; This thesis will scrutinize the histories of our nation's three most prolific domestic lone wolf terrorists: Tim McVeigh, Ted Kaczynski, and Eric Rudolph. It will establish a chronological pattern to their radicalization and reveal that their communal ideological beliefs, psychology, attributes, traits, and training take place along a common chronological timeline. Their pattern of radicalization can be used as an indicator of lone wolf terrorist radicalization development in future cases. This thesis establishes a strikingly similar chronological pattern of radicalization that was present in each terrorist's biography. This pattern can identify future lone wolf terrorist radicalization activity upstream. It can provide a valuable portent to apply in the analysis of potential lone terrorists, potentially enabling law enforcement to prevent tragedies emerging from the identified population through psychological assistance, evaluation, training, or, in the worst case, detention.; US Army (USA) author.

Training, SEVIS, and NSEERS will they stop terrorists from entering the U.S.?

Bugarin, Darwina S.
Fonte: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: x, 99 p. ;
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In order to commit attacks against the U.S. homeland, terrorists must enter the country. Stopping their entry is key to preventing attacks. The 9/11 Commission's Staff Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, 9/11 and Terrorist Travel, identified pre-9/11 gaps/weaknesses in U.S. immigration, visa, customs, and border security systems. This thesis will consider the implementation of the 9/11 Commission's key recommendations for immigration: 1) provide standardized operational training and additional guidance to immigration, visa, and customs personnel, 2) establish a foreign student visa compliance and tracking system, the Student and Exchange Visitor Information System, (SEVIS), and 3) develop and implement the National Security Exit and Entry Registration System (NSEERS). This thesis will also assess the effectiveness of these policies as counterterror measures to determine if they can stop terrorists from entering the U.S. Bruce Schneier's Beyond Fear: Thinking Sensibly About Security in an Uncertain World provides a five-step model to analyze and evaluate security systems, technologies, and countermeasures. His model will be applied to assess the implementation/effectiveness of the three key recommendations. To effectively establish priorities and efficiently allocate resources...

Domestic Terrorism: The Hidden Side of Political Violence

SANCHEZ-CUENCA, Ignacio; DE LA CALLE, Luis
Fonte: Annual Reviews Publicador: Annual Reviews
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This article reviews the literature on the onset and dynamics of domestic terrorism, with special emphasis on the interactions between terrorist organizations, the state, and society. Because this literature has often been based on case studies, we seek to impose some structure to its findings. We challenge the distinction between domestic and international terrorism, which truncates the sample of violence, and we show that the actor-sense of terrorism (violence carried out by underground organizations) is the most appropriate model for causal analysis. Terrorist organizations tend to emerge in developed countries in which the state is able to prevent the loss of control over and part of its territory Terrorists take advantage of the state's mistakes (when, for example, it is over-repressive or makes ineffective concessions) in order to boost their support. Terrorists cannot survive without some degree of support. Consequently, levels of violence and targets are determined by social constraints.

Psychological Profiling of Terrorists: A Case Study of the Bali Bombers and Jemaah Islamiyah

Copland, Sarah
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Outros Formato: 1152013 bytes; application/pdf
EN
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In recent years terrorism has become a key global concern. The concern first became real for Australians on October 12 2002 when 202 lives were taken in the Bali Bombings. Piecing together the limited research on the Bali Bombers this report aims to examine the factors that lead individuals to participate in terrorist activities. This report examines terrorism from a socio-cultural, individual and group perspective. It arises at the conclusion that there is no particular terrorist profile, but rather that individuals become terrorists as a result of socio-cultural factors and group pressures.

Psychological profiling of terrorists: a case study of the Bali Bombers and Jemaah Islamiyah

Copland, Sarah
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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Until recently most Australians would have considered terrorism to be something that occurred in far-off lands between warring groups. However the spate of terrorist attacks in the past few years targeting Westerners on the shores of Australia's closest neighbour, Indonesia, has brought the reality of terrorism into the lives of ordinary Australians. From the most deadly of the attacks, the Bali bombings of October 12, 2002, which took 202 lives, to the most recent attack of October 1, 2005, terrorists have proved they are not going to leave the region without a fight. The vast majority of the attacks have been attributed to the terrorist network Jemaah lslamiyah (JI) which holds a presence in Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, the Philippines and even Australia, to name a few. While there is an overabundance of research on the rise of radical Islam in the SouthEast Asian region and its links to terrorism, to date no extensive research has been published regarding the psychological profiles of the Bali bombers and why they become Jl members. Piecing together the limited available research on the bombers it can be determined that an interplay of three factors leads them to participate in terrorist behaviour: 1. The socio-cultural conditions of Indonesia...