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Regionalizing Telecommunications Reform in West Africa

Kessides, Ioannis N.; Noll, Roger G.; Benjamin, Nancy C.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.24%
In recent years, there has been an increasing recognition that significant welfare gains could be realized through deep forms of regional integration which entail harmonization of legal, regulatory and institutional frameworks. Reforms that reduce cross-border transaction costs and improve the performance of backbone infrastructure services are arguably even more important for the creation of an open, unified regional economic space than trade policy reforms narrowly defined. This paper assesses the potential gains from regionalized telecommunications policy in West Africa. To this end, the paper: (i) discusses how regional cooperation can overcome national limits in technical expertise, enhance the capacity of nations credibly to commit to stable regulatory policy, and ultimately facilitate infrastructure investment in the region; (ii) identifies trade-distorting regulations that inhibit opportunities for regional trade and economic development, and so are good candidates for regional trade negotiations to reduce indirect trade barriers; and (iii) describes substantive elements of a harmonized regional regulatory policy that can deliver immediate performance benefits.

Options to Increase Access to Telecommunications Services in Rural and Low-Income Areas

Muente-Kunigami, Arturo; Navas-Sabater, Juan
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.18%
Recent evidence suggests that increasing overall service coverage and promoting access to telecommunications services have a high economic benefit. Overall, it is estimated that a ten percent increase in mobile telephony penetration could increase economic growth by 0.81 percent in developing countries, whereas a ten percent increase in broadband penetration could increase economic growth by 1.4 percent. In rural and low-income areas in particular, not only do basic telephony services and broadband access allow population to connect with relatives and friends, but they have also introduced a dramatic increase in productivity and in many cases have become the only way for small and medium enterprises in rural areas to access national and, in some cases, global markets. Moreover, the impact of access to telecommunications in rural areas on health, education, disaster management, and local governments has allowed better and more rapid responses, improved coordination, and more effective public management. It is therefore worthwhile to take a second look at all possible policy options...

Telecommunications Reform within Russia’s Accession to the World Trade Organization

Jensen, Jesper; Rutherford, Thomas; Tarr, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.17%
In World Trade Organization (WTO) accession negotiations, telecommunications is always a sector that receives close scrutiny by the WTO Working Party, and the extent of market access and nondiscriminatory treatment of multinational telecommunications companies in Russia has been a significant issue in Russia s accession negotiations. The authors use a computable general equilibrium model of the Russian economy to assess the role of telecommunications in the discussions regarding Russian accession to the WTO. The results show that reduction of barriers to foreign direct investment in telecommunications will bring substantial gains to the Russian economy, including an increase in the productivity of Russian labor and capital. Despite the fact that multinationals use Russian labor less intensively than Russian firms, demand for Russian labor employed in telecommunications should increase, following reductions in barriers to foreign direct investment that are included in the context of WTO accession. This is because the overall demand for telecommunication services should increase due to the growth effects of the liberalization of barriers against foreign direct investment generally and the reduction in tariffs. Russian capital owners in telecommunications will likely be sought as joint venture partners and can restructure and obtain gains as partners with foreign firms. Wholly owned Russian firms are likely to experience losses.

Telecommunications and the World Trade Organization : The Case of Mexico

Wellenius, Björn; Galarza, Juan; Guermazi, Boutheina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.21%
The U.S.-Mexico case (2002-04) was the first (and so far only) case of World Trade Organization (WTO) dispute resolution on telecommunications services and the first on services only. The findings of the Panel charged with settling the dispute contain interpretations of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), especially its Annex on Telecommunications and the Reference Paper that sets regulatory principles. Although these interpretations strictly apply only to the case examined, they have implications for other countries and sectors and beyond trade law. The following are some of the findings. Telecommunications services originated in one country and terminated in another country are cross-border services under the GATS irrespective of whether the same service provider is present in both countries. The accounting rate regime, whereby operators share revenue from international services provided jointly, is subject to the discipline of cost-based interconnection for countries that have adopted the Reference Paper. Uniform settlement rates and proportional return are anticompetitive practices under the Reference Paper even when they are mandated by law. The lack of implementing regulations does not excuse the country from meeting its commitments under the GATS. Mexico and the United States...

Regionalizing Telecommunications Reform in West Africa

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.26%
This report assesses the potential gains from regionalized telecommunications policy in West Africa. The report seeks to assist officials in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the West African Telecommunications Regulators Assembly (WATRA) and member states in designing an effective regional regulatory process. To this end, the report: (i) discusses how regional cooperation can overcome national limits in technical expertise, can enhance the capacity of countries credibly to commit to stable regulatory policy, and ultimately can facilitate infrastructure investment in the region; (ii) identifies trade-distorting regulations that inhibit opportunities for regional trade and economic development, and so are good candidates for regional trade negotiations to reduce indirect trade barriers; and (iii) describes substantive elements of a harmonized regional regulatory policy that can deliver immediate performance benefits.

Telecommunications Regulation Handbook

Intven, Hank
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.27%
In recognition of the fundamental importance of an appropriate regulatory environment to accelerate connectivity, and access to information services, this handbook provides a practical reference source, on the methods used to regulate the telecommunications sector around the world, emphasizing best practices. The focus is on practices that promote the efficient supply of telecommunications services in a competitive marketplace. It offers a useful compilation of descriptions, and analyses of regulatory practices, and approaches applied in a wide range of countries. The handbook outlines the various factors that motivated the liberalization of telecommunications markets, i.e., increased growth, and fast innovations for better services; the need to expand and upgrade telecommunications networks with new services; growth of the Internet; of mobile and other wireless services; and, of international trade in telecommunications services. These factors compelled regulatory objectives to foster competitive markets to promote efficient supply of telecommunications...

A Model for Calculating Interconnection Costs in Telecommunications

Um, Paul Noumba; Gille, Laurent; Simon, Lucile; Rudelle, Christophe
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and the Public–Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and the Public–Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.15%
Since the past decade, several Sub-Saharan African governments, through technical assistance provided by the World Bank and other donors, have undertaken to reform their telecommunications sectors, by implementing market liberalization policies, privatizing the incumbent public operator, and creating autonomous and independent regulatory bodies. The core objective of these reforms is to significantly improve access, and affordability, to telecommunications services on the basis of the assumption that a more friendly and predictable business environment will attract more private investment. However, the provision of interconnection services, on fair and efficient terms, has rapidly emerged as a main bottleneck. In fact, new legislation and regulations enacted in Sub-Saharan Africa recognize the interconnection rights ascribed to all telecommunications service providers and network operators. In addition, these regulations also request the incumbent fixed operator to supply interconnection services to new entrants on a fair and competitive basis. Despite the clarity and soundness of the legislative provisions in that respect (cost oriented...

Does Sequencing Matter? Regulation and Privatization in Telecommunications Reforms

Wallsten, Scott
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.17%
The question of the most effective order of reforming state-owned enterprises has been hotly debated over the years. In the early 1990s, many western advisers encouraged Eastern European countries, and the former Soviet Union, to privatize firms quickly under the assumption that market institutions would develop once firms were privately owned. The thinking since then has emphasized the importance of establishing an institutional framework conducive to promoting competition before privatizing firms. To date, there has been little empirical work clarifying the debate. The author attempts to address this gap, by examining the effects of the sequence of reform in telecommunications, particularly the effects of establishing a regulatory authority, prior to privatizing incumbent telecommunications firms. Consistent with current thinking, the author finds that countries that established separate regulatory authorities, prior to privatization, saw increased telecommunications investment, fixed telephone penetration, and cellular penetration compared with countries that did not. Moreover...

Getting Connected: Competition and Diffusion in African Mobile Telecommunications Markets

Gebreab, Frew Amare
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.19%
The author studies the determinants of the diffusion of mobile telecommunications in Africa in a fixed effects model. He uses data from 1987-2000 on 41 African countries that have adopted cellular telecommunications technologies. He finds that competition is the driving force behind the mobile telecommunications explosion in Africa. Duopoly and triopoly markets grow significantly faster than monopoly markets, although growth does not appear to differ between the first two markets. Evidence of preemptive behavior is found in competitive sequential entries into the market, but the major effect of competition on diffusion occurs after the actual year of entry. The introduction of digital technology has a positive and significant effect on the diffusion of mobile phones. The presence of an incumbent-owned cellular operator has a negative effect on the diffusion of mobiles, suggesting an abuse of a dominant position by the incumbent fixed-line operator. However, privatization of the incumbent fixed-line cellular operator accelerates mobile growth and mitigates that negative effect.

New Tools for Studying Network Industry Reforms in Developing Countries: The Telecommunications and Electricity Regulation Database

Wallsten, Scott; Clarke, George; Haggarty, Luke; Kaneshiro, Rosario; Noll, Roger; Shirley, Mary; Colin Xu, Lixin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.15%
Infrastructure industries-including telecommunications, electricity, water, and gas-underwent massive structural changes in the 1990s. During that decade, hundreds of privatization transactions valued at billions of dollars were completed in these sectors in developing and transition economies. While privatization has received the most attention, reforms also included market liberalization, structural changes like unbundling, and the introduction of new laws and regulations. To date, regulations have received far less attention than their potential economic effects warrant, largely due to lack of data. In order to address this problem, the authors set out to compile a comprehensive and consistent dataset through an extensive survey of telecommunications and electricity regulators in developing countries. The authors describe the surveys and the resulting database. The database of telecommunications regulations includes 178 variables on regulatory governance and content in 45 countries. The database of electricity regulations includes 374 variables in 20 countries.

Telecommunications Reform in Malawi

Clarke, George R.G.; Gebreab, Frew A.; Mgombelo, Henry R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.19%
In 1998 the Government of Malawi decided to reform its telecommunications sector. Although the reform was ambitious in some ways, it was modest when compared with the most ambitious reforms adopted elsewhere in Sub-Saharan Africa. The two main accomplishments were splitting the incumbent fixed line monopoly, the Malawi Post and Telecommunications Corporation, into two companies-Malawi Telecommunications Limited (MTL) and Malawi Post Corporation (MPC)-and issuing two new cellular licenses to two new private entrants. In addition, the Government also established a new regulator which was separate from, but heavily dependent on, the Ministry of Information and liberalized entry in value-added and Internet services. However, the Government had neither privatized the fixed-line telecommunications operator nor introduced competition in fixed-line services by the end of 2002. Clarke, Gebreab, and Mgombelo discuss sector performance before reform, details of the reform, the political motivation for reform, and events in the five years following the reform. The reform yielded mixed results. Although cellular penetration and Internet use expanded dramatically following reform...

An Assessment of Telecommunications Reform in Developing Countries

Fink, Carsten; Mattoo, Aaditya; Rathindran, Randeep
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.18%
The authors analyze the effect of policy reform in basic telecommunications on sectoral performance using a new panel data set for 86 developing countries across Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and Latin America and the Caribbean over the period 1985 to 1999. The authors address three questions: 1) What impact do specific policy changes-relating to ownership and competition-have on sectoral performance? 2) How is the impact of change in any one policy affected by the implementation of the other, and by the overall regulatory framework? 3) Does the sequence in which reforms are implemented affect performance? The authors find that both privatization and competition lead to significant improvements in performance. But a comprehensive reform program, involving both policies and the support of an independent regulator, produced the largest gains-an 8 percent higher level of mainlines and a 21 percent higher level of productivity compared to years of partial and no reform. Interestingly, the sequence of reform matters: mainline penetration is lower if competition is introduced after privatization...

Liberalizing Basic Telecommunications : The Asian Experience

Fink, Carsten; Mattoo, Aaditya; Rathindran, Randeep
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.17%
The authors examine the liberalization of the basic telecommunications sector in Asian countries with a view to identifying good policy and determining how multilateral negotiations can promote it. They find that most Asian governments, despite the move away from traditional public monopolies, are still unwilling to allow unrestricted entry, eliminate limits on private and foreign ownership, and establish strong, independent regulators. But where comprehensive reform has been undertaken-including privatization, competition, and regulation-the availability of main lines, the quality of service, and the productivity of labor are significantly higher. Somewhat surprisingly, little unilateral liberalization has occurred since the last round of telecommunications negotiations under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). The new round therefore faces the challenge of not merely harvesting unilateral liberalization, as in the past, but of negotiating away existing restrictions. Since quantitative restrictions on the number of telecommunications service suppliers are pervasive...

Telecommunications Regulation Handbook : Tenth Anniversary Edition

Blackman, Colin; Srivastava, Lara
Fonte: World Bank and the International Telecommunication Union, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank and the International Telecommunication Union, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.22%
Communications are an essential means for reaching the, bottom of the Pyramid, and enabling individuals to reduce poverty and improve the quality of their lives. We currently live in a world in which more Africans have access to a mobile phone than to any other utility or infrastructure service. This widespread technological dissemination creates new opportunities across all segments of society, but also presents new challenges requiring adaptable strategies. Today's communications landscape is vastly different from the environment in which we developed the first telecommunications regulation handbook ten years ago. Competitive and open communications markets have created opportunities in countries that previously lagged behind. Competitively priced and technologically varied service offerings have allowed businesses to compete and thrive globally. However, there are still serious market gaps (such as providing widespread high speed broadband services at affordable prices and connectivity to remote areas), that, when coupled with evolving and converging technologies, pose challenges to policymakers and regulators. This new edition of the telecommunications regulation handbook captures the new market and regulatory strategies to optimize investment in broadband networks and Information and Communication Technology...

Liberalization and Universal Access to Basic Services : Telecommunications, Water and Sanitation, Financial Services, and Electricity

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; World Bank
Fonte: OECD and the World Bank, Paris Publicador: OECD and the World Bank, Paris
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.19%
Access to basic services plays an important role in both individual well-being and a country's economic development. For this reason, general availability of these services to citizens, regardless of income level and geographical location, has generally been viewed as an important public policy goal. However, the precise definition of this goal and the means of attaining it have provoked controversy. This volume explores whether liberalization can contribute to achieving universal service goals and, if so, how, and looks at the types of complementary policies that may be required. It focuses on experience in four sectors: telecommunications, financial, water and sanitation, and energy services. For each sector, an overview paper and one or two case studies from developing countries examine the experience of governments in harnessing liberalization to meet social goals. It is hoped that this cross-sector view will yield general insights which a focus on a single sector may not, and help each sector to generate ideas by drawing upon experience in other sectors. A horizontal assessment also helps to determine how far the services negotiations at the World Trade Organization (WTO)...

Telecommunications Reform in Cote d'Ivoire

Laffont, Jean-Jacques; N'Guessan, Tchetche
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.15%
This paper analyzes Cote d'Ivoire's experience with telecommunications liberalization and privatization. Cote d'Ivoire privatized its incumbent operator in 1997, and granted the newly privatized firm seven years of fixed-line exclusivity while introducing "managed competition" in the cellular market and free competition in value-added services (VAS). By March 2001, three cellular operators and a number of VAS providers had entered the market. Reform has thus significantly changed the landscape of Cote d'Ivoire's telecommunications sector and has brought with it tremendous improvement in sector performance. Between 1997 and 2001, fixed-line telephone penetration grew from 1.03 to 1.80 per hundred people, while mobile penetration skyrocketed from 0.26 to 4.46. But it is still too early to assess the validity of granting exclusivity to the incumbent operator. While penetration increased, the operator did not meet objectives regarding rural telephony and service quality. Moreover, fixed-line penetration increased in areas where the operator faced competition from mobile providers.

Mauritania - Enhanced National Capacity in Telecommunications Sector Reforms; Mauritanie : Capacites nationales renforcees en matiere de reformes du Secteur des Telecommunications

Govindan G. Nair
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.2%
Mauritania's 1998-2001 telecommunications reforms resemble many World Bank supported reform programs where overcoming capacity constraints can determine success in achieving development outcomes. Overcoming capacity constraints enabled this desert nation of over 2 million largely nomadic inhabitants to attain unanticipated levels of outcomes in three years of telecommunications reforms. New private investment of US$ 100 million in telecommunications was attracted over two years, equivalent to 10 percent of GDP; telephone line access multiplied twenty-fold; 6,000 new telecommunications-related jobs were created in the informal sector in the capital city (Noukachott) alone; and a multisector regulatory agency was established which is now regarded as a model in Africa. From lacking critical skills at the outset of these reforms, Mauritania became a source of lessons for neighboring countries on how to competitively tender utility licenses, effectively regulate utilities in a competitive setting, and privatize a telecommunications operator. Support for this capacity enhancement came from relatively modest external assistance with an estimated cost of slightly over one million dollars (World Bank Group staff time as well as consultancy support).

Liberalizing Telecommunications in Mauritania; Libralisation des telecomunications en Mauritanie

Nair, Govindan G.; Tintchev, Svetoslav
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.15%
A relative latecomer to telecommunications reform, Mauritania, a low-income country of 2.5 million inhabitants on the Western edge of the Sahara, embarked on tan ambitious telecommunication reform in 1998. At that time, this largely desert nation had one of the lowest penetrations of telephony in the world. The immediate reform objectives were to ensure rapid improvement of telecommunications service availability through a) opening the sector to competition; and b) privatization of the state-owned telecommunications operator in Mauritania. Launched within an overall program of macroeconomic and structural reforms assisted by the World Bank, the telecommunications reform agenda faced several risks and constraints: 1) a virtual lack of institutional capacity and experience in privatization and regulation of utilities in a competitive framework; 2) the country's lack of name recognition, and poor investor perception of country risk and commercial attractiveness; and 3) with the onset of the East Asian financial crisis and increasing indebtedness of major European telecommunications operators in 2000...

A Policy Note on Telecommunications Reform in Algeria

Noumba, Paul
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.2%
By the end of the 1990s, most industrial and many developing countries had liberalized their telecommunications markets to improve service accessibility and affordability for both businesses and households. In contrast, Algeria still managed its telecommunications sector as public property. The Ministry of Post and Telecommunications set the policy, enforced regulation, and was in charge of service provision. The sector suffered from huge supply shortages, the waiting list lengthened, the quality of service deteriorated and unbalanced the overall fiscal situation. In 1999, a new government appointed in the aftermath of President Bouteflika's election decided to change the situation and launched a comprehensive sector reform. Um reviews progress made in implementing this reform, discusses its preliminary impact, and comments on the main lessons learned. The author shows that by restraining arbitrary administrative action during the reform implementation, the government of Algeria laid the foundation for sustainable growth in the telecommunications sector.

The WTO Agreement and Telecommunications Policy Reform

Cowhey, Peter; Klimenko, Mikhail M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.22%
Every country serious about introducing competition finds that the transition from monopoly to competition is both economically rewarding and laden with policy dilemmas. As a new century begins, we have an essentially new market for telecommunications. Digital technology forced a re-examination of the opportunity costs of protecting traditional telecommunications equipment and service suppliers. An inefficient market for telecommunications threatened competitiveness in the computer, software, and information industry markets. Meanwhile, after dislocations created by global stagflation through the early 1980s, developing countries became interested in privatization of state enterprises as a tool of economic reform--and state telephone companies were especially promising targets for privatization. Those countries began exploring options for allowing selective competition, as phone companies in major industrial countries began looking to foreign markets for new business opportunities. The World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on Basic Telecommunications Services created a new regime for the world market. Now we must pay close attention to regulatory fundamentals: 1) Low barriers to entry in the market for communications services. 2) Effective re-balancing of rates for services during the market transition. 3) Effective Strong interconnection policies. 4) The creation of independent regulatory authorities with the resources and power necessary to foster competition and safeguard consumer welfare. The authors assess how developing and transition economies have fared in profiting from changes in the telecommunications market. They also examine the policy challenges that remain...