Measurement of hemoglobin A1c (A1C) has long been accepted as the best indicator of glucose control over time. Assays for A1C use technologies based on either charge differences (high-pressure liquid chromatography) or structure (boronate affinity or immunoassay combined with general chemistry). These technologies are generally employed in expensive laboratory instruments. More recently, A1C technology has been incorporated into point of care (POC) devices, allowing for immediate availability of A1C measurements, greatly facilitating diabetes care in both specialist and general practices. POC A1C tests should have acceptable performance, standardization to national reference, National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program (NGSP) certification, simple operation without need for costly instrumentation, and Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) waiver. CLIA-waived POC technology includes Bio-Rad MicroMat™ II (distributed by Cholestech as GDX™) and the Axis-Shield Afinion,™ both of which utilize boronate affinity. The DCA 2000®+ utilizes combined immunoassay and general chemistry. These instruments cost $1000 to $3000 and require regular maintenance, making them appropriate only for high-volume physician offices. The newly improved A1CNow+™ also utilizes combined immunoassay and general chemistry...
Trust Management is a growing problem in large corporations today. In industries like financial services, firms need to comply with constantly changing regulations, security requirements and business policies. Information technology is often the backbone of the processes that are regulated by such policies. Traditionally fine-grained Trust Management has been attempted by embedding policies within business logic of silo software applications. This practice leads to high total costs of ownership, minimal interoperability, potential security vulnerabilities and low management visibility into policy specifications and enforcement, which complicates compliance challenges with regulations like Sarbanes Oxley. This thesis makes several new contributions. First, it evaluates trust-policy related applications in the overall financial services industry that can benefit from rule technologies. A second contribution is proposing SCLP RuleML, an emerging semantic web rule language, for representing trust policies (SCLP = The Situated Courteous Logic Programs knowledge representation). A third contribution is providing several financial application scenarios in SCLP that demonstrate the effectiveness of RuleML, including credit card authorizations for electronic transactions...
This thesis assesses the problem of adverse environmental impacts due to the use of Portland cement and structural steel in the construction industry. The thesis outlines three technology and policy strategies to mitigate these impacts: 1. Reduce consumption; 2. Select materials to minimize impacts; and 3. Explore alternative new materials that have lesser impacts. The main findings and recommendations in each of these areas are as follows: Reduce Consumption: While absolute consumption of materials will grow with a growing population, recycling and reuse of structural members can reduce use of virgin material. Since recycling is already widely practiced, reuse of structural members is the primary means of further reducing consumption. Barriers to reuse can be eliminated by establishing design standards and regulations for reuse of structural sections, and creating functioning markets for re-useable sections. Select materials to minimize impacts: While designers are keen to select materials with minimum impacts, they do not have appropriate education or tools for the purpose. Standardization and simplification of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) tools, and education of designers are identified as the main areas for improvement. The main recommendations are: i) standardize LCA tools; reduce the number of impact categories...
This paper addresses the tension between benefits of centralized data control against the benefits of decentralized control at the level of the business unit. Centralized data control provides the benefit of uniform standards whereas business unit data control grants flexibility to react to rapidly changing environments. Many data standardization efforts fail because they do not fully take into account the value of flexibility and ownership incentives. We use a real options based framework and the theory of incomplete contracts to derive propositions about the optimal level of data standardization across the enterprise. Applications of the propositions are illustrated with case vignettes. The paper makes two main contributions. First, the approach defines formally how incentive structures influence ownership of the option value or value of flexibility, which is an intangible information asset. Second the derived propositions would help senior management to more precisely consider aligning incentives in data standardization exercises.
Many manufacturing companies have developed their own operating system, usually based upon the Toyota Production System, in an effort to improve productivity, quality, and profitability. Continuous improvement is a central theme to most operating systems. Typically large continuous improvement projects or kaizen bursts are used to improve processes. However, these often lead to variable and unsustainable results. A hypothesis is that a detailed standardization of processes will enable opportunities to be quickly revealed. Then a focus on incremental improvement through experimentation can lead to dramatic sustainable results. This thesis is based upon my experience at Mighty Motors in an attempt to gain a deeper understanding about standardization and continuous improvement. I obtained this understanding through direct observation by working with operators on the assembly line to standardize the process and make improvements. I developed the following conclusions: Focus on standardization to achieve sustainable continuous improvement. Without standardization, randomness and variability will hide the wastes and improvements will deteriorate.; (cont.) Value the incremental improvement approach to continuous improvement. Through simple...
Electronic industry will suffer a major turn around in the near future. The current infrastructure will no longer be able to support the increasing data rates. All the disadvantages of copper as current legacy are amplified with the level of bandwidth we are going to experience soon. On the other hand, photonic industry is in the need of finding a new demand source to be able to bring back the state of industry to the "boom" era. With both conditions in mind, it is likely for photonic and electronic industry to emerge. However, the platform for the collaboration has not been mature enough. One of the biggest problems in the photonic industry is the high cost of the package. This, so far, has been one of the major issues holding the industry from gaining back to its golden era. In order to overcome this barrier, standardization has been suggested to be implemented in the industry. This thesis examines the current state of optoelectronic industry, as a convergence of photonic and electronic industry. More specifically, the condition of lack of standardization is analyzed and proven to be the case.; (cont.) Interviewing relevant industry players and working closely with the MIT Communications Technology Roadmap-Integration, Packaging and Interconnects Technical Working Group also determine the reason of the condition. Finally...
In this study, we examine the process of "late standardization," in which latecomers engage in standards activities in order to move towards and beyond the technological frontier. Based on case studies of latecomers in the semiconductor and mobile telecommunication industries in South Korea and Thailand, we analyze the strategic, organizational, and institutional aspects of the late-standardization process. We hypothesize that latecomer firms and states must engage in standards activities to progress beyond catch-up, because standards are a prerequisite to technological development. Standards are strategic leverages that allow latecomers to link with and learn from technology leaders. Specifically, latecomer firms have to engage internally in quality standardization to take advantage of latecomer advantages. Quality standards help improve production capability, while enhancing credibility and reputation. Without quality control, latecomers cannot become part of global value chains and have difficulty in acquiring advanced technologies from forerunners. As latecomers become fast followers, they have to participate in external standardization. The goal is to acquire knowledge about emerging technologies and standards.; (cont.) By linking with and learning from forerunners...
My first hypothesis in this thesis is that there is significant value vested in traditional Chinese medicine that can be captured by converting them into ethical drugs through scientific analysis, screening and validation. Further, holistic treatment is a key difference between traditional Chinese medicine and western-type chemical drugs, which makes Chinese medicine a very valuable category of knowledge. Using mixed formula is a primary method of treatment in Chinese medicine. It is the application of distinctive medical philosophies of Chinese herbal medicines in practices, reflecting the uniqueness and advantages of Chinese medicine. For example, there are 96,592 mixed formula recorded by "Dictionary of Chinese Medicine Mixed Formula" published in 1997. My second hypothesis in this thesis is that value can be created and captured, under the globalization context, from mixed herbal formulas for the mainstream world market with the aid of fingerprint technologies. To enter western markets as officially approved drugs through critical pathways, both scientific and regulatory, Chinese herb drugs must demonstrate sound evidence for safety and efficacy. I address in this thesis one of the central concerns of the pharmaceutical companies and FDA...
This book seeks to understand how firms
in southern Africa absorb technology and how policy makers
can hurry the process along. It identifies channels of
technology transfer and absorption through trade and foreign
direct investment (FDI) and constraints to greater
technology absorption, and it discusses policy options open
to the government and the private sector in light of
relevant international experience. The book is based on case
studies of sectors and enterprises selected in four
countries: Lesotho, Mauritius, Namibia, and South Africa.
The relationship between technology absorption and catch-up
growth is particularly relevant to southern Africa because
those countries are facing tremendous competitiveness
challenges and must rely on greater technology absorption to
raise productivity and strengthen competitiveness to gain
ground in the global market. An increased market share can
then generate faster growth and create more jobs. Therefore,
catch-up growth sustained by technological progress and
productivity growth is the fundamental solution to
unemployment and poverty alleviation. Southern African firms
use multiple channels for technology absorption. For
Application of Information and
Communications Technology (ICT) to land related projects is
now a widespread phenomenon, through both donor-supported
interventions and autonomous development. Since the
mid-1990s the World Bank has been increasingly involved in
ICT land project implementations. The advantages have proven
substantial in reducing the time required to complete
transactions, improving access to information by the public,
as well as other government agencies, reducing the costs of
data acquisition, and contributing to standardization of
system design. The successful application of ICT to land
projects has increased since the 1990s, as lessons from the
first tier of programs became clear and were subsequently
applied. This note summarizes the demonstrated advantages of
ICT application, as well as the key lessons learned. Data
acquisition is more feasible and costs less by applying ICT
than often-used technology that is quite sophisticated. The
use of high, but robust, technology for data acquisition
eXtensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL) presents new opportunities for integrating information flow within communities of diverse organisations thereby significantly enhancing the business information supply chain. Vital to XBRL success, its standardization is proving to be challenging. This paper investigates the phenomena that occur when heterogeneous actors interact in attempts to standardize XBRL. Drawing upon actor-network theory (ANT) we “follow the actors” participating in XBRL standardization efforts in Australia. Supporting qualitative empirical evidence was collected via interviews and reviews of XBRL technical documentation. By presenting unsuccessful and potentially successful focal actors side by side, we enhance current understanding of the role of focal actors in technology standardization networks. Specifically, focal actors require clear and indispensable value propositions and solid political and financial support to achieve effective translations in technology standardization networks.; http://www.infotech.monash.edu.au/about/news/conferences/acis09/Proceedings/proceedings.html; Indrit Troshani and Andy Lymer
This offer comes from researchers and professors from a Spanish University. They offer solutions in Identity Management for human beings (from Identification Cards to Biometrics).
They offer cooperation in R&D task, as well as Assisting in Management, Dissemination of results and Standardization. They have proved experience in both national and european projects (e.g. eEpoch, BioSec).; Contrato Programa de Comercialización e Internacionalización. Sistema Regional de Investigación Científica e Innovación Tecnológica. (Comunidad de Madrid; Universidad Carlos III de Madrid)
This thesis quantifies the sensitivity of tool availability variability with respect to product throughput and examines how Intel's High Precision Maintenance initiative can be used to minimize these effects. Tools with variable availability release spikes of material into a route which can cause down stream areas to experience irregular queues. The reentrant multi product loops typical to Intel's manufacturing processes can make it difficult to identify the source of long queues. The variability analysis, developed during the internship uses D2 facility availability and cycle time data to generate a variability correlation, called TAC-TOOT which identifies tools within the facility contributing to throughput time. The High Precision Maintenance initiative is an Intel developed program which focuses on the standardization of maintenance processes. The success of the High Precision Maintenance initiative is closely linked to the ability of factory management to motivate equipment technicians. The thesis examines a number of tools with highly variable availability, the effects of the high precision initiative on variability and levers factory management can use to motivate technicians.; by Milo Camp Peavey.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...
In today's world of advanced technology and global reach, one company cannot necessarily make a significant technological innovation. A company that pursues a technological advantage needs to manage global collaboration or competition appropriately. Over the years, the "standardization" of technology has been one of the major strategies with which to encourage technological innovation and acquire a competitive advantage. However, a standardized technology does not necessarily contribute to creating a competitive advantage, and the "differentiation" of technology sometimes provides a better competitive advantage than standardization can. This thesis focuses on the strategic differences between the "standardization" and "differentiation" of a technology. The purpose is to gain insight into standardization and differentiation, looking them as drivers of R&D activities in a company pursuing technical competence. The thesis suggests advantages and disadvantages of each strategy and analyzes circumstances that affect strategic differences. The first part of the thesis establishes the fact that the strategic difference has a less impact on business activities and commercial success than on R&D.; (cont.) The second part clarifies the impact of the difference on R&D activities...
Optical communications promise the delivery of high bandwidth service to all types of customers. The potential for optical communications is enormous and has generated excitement and anticipation over the last decade. However, the emergence of a growing market has not materialized and the 1990s communications "bubble" has burst. One result of the bubble burst is that manufacturers of optical components have seen demand for their products plummet and are now struggling to survive. The future of the communications industry depends on its ability to provide better services and higher reliability. At some point, the upward curve of communications demand will require a strong optical components industry to support the industry. If the current stagnation continues, and the manufacturers fail, the economic pillar that is communications will suffer. The MIT Microphotonics Center has initiated a Communications Technology Roadmap study to better understand the technical, economic, and political factors that are inhibiting growth in the optical communications industry. This thesis examines the current state of the optoelectronic manufacturing industry and the causes of the decline. The primary focus is the rampant proliferation of optical transceiver designs resulting from abnormal market conditions during the "boom years" of the 1990s. The transceiver provides send/receiver capabilities and is the major component of optical networks. Convergence...
The combination of location positioning technologies such as GPS and initiatives like the US Federal Communications Commission's E911 telecommunication initiatives has generated a lot of interest in applications and services that are a function of a user's location, referred to as location-based services (LBS). However, despite GPS technology and the positioning capabilities of cellular network such as GSM, millions of square meters of indoor space are out of reach of these systems. A multitude of applications and services would also benefit from indoor (in-building) positioning and navigation. Fortunately, over the past decade, advances in location positioning technology have made it possible to locate objects indoors (in-building). These alternative technologies are now being introduced to the market enabling many kinds of indoor LBS applications. While a start, these standalone applications are unlikely to make a large impact on the marketplace, for a number of reasons discussed in this thesis. The argument of this thesis is that in order for indoor LBS to become widely used, there is a need for both the infrastructure investment and the "killer" application (or at least a collection of sufficiently valuable applications). Without the LBS application the market will not invest in infrastructure...
Post-marketing surveillance of medical pharmaceuticals and devices has received a great deal of media, legislative, and academic attention in the last decade. Among medical devices, these have largely been due to a small number of highly publicized adverse events, some of them in the domain of cardiac surgery and interventional cardiology. Phase three clinical trials for these devices are generally underpowered to detect rare adverse event rates, are performed in near-optimal environments, and regulators face significant pressure to deliver important medical devices to the public in a timely fashion. All of these factors emphasize the importance of systematic monitoring of these devices after being released to the public, and the FDA and other regulatory agencies continue to struggle to perform this duty using a variety of voluntary and mandatory adverse event rate reporting policies. Data quality and comprehensiveness have generally suffered in this environment, and delayed awareness of potential problems. However, a number of mandatory reporting policies combined with improved standardization of data collection and definitions in the field of interventional cardiology and other clinical domains have provided recent opportunities for nearly "real-time" safety monitoring of medical device data.; (cont.) Existing safety monitoring methodologies are non-medical in nature...
One of the main components necessary for providing safe drinking water for users who lack piped water in the home is the ability to safely store it in the home. Users in the Nyanza Province of Kenya frequently carry water from some distance or purchase vended water and traditionally store this water in their homes in clay pots. CARE/Kenya, a non-governmental organization working in conjunction with local women potters and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, modified these clay pots so that they fit the definition of designated safe storage water containers, which contain the following three characteristics: a narrow mouth, a lid, and a tap to prevent recontamination. Three pottery production sites were visited in order to document, analyze, and suggest improvements for the design of the modified clay pots, specifically with regards to the standardization of the size and shape of the pots, so as to allow simple and convenient standardized household chlorine dosing, and the tap design and attachment, because the current tap design is expensive and prone to leaking.; (cont.) The modified clay pots displayed little variability in pot dimensions, and the 20 liter modified clay pots from the Amilo location showed a less than or equal to 10% volume variability that is acceptable according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention household chlorine dosing procedure. A reference rope tool developed to help standardize the size of modified clay pots can be used to train new potters but is not necessary for experienced potters. The spring-operated plastic tap was found to be the most promising design to replace the current metal tap design. The material cost of the modified clay pots at the three sites was determined with some certainty to range from 202-370 KSH (US$2.70-US$4.90). However...
This thesis introduces a framework and two methodologies that enable engineering management teams to assess the value of real options in programs of large-scale, partially standardized systems implemented a few times over the medium term. This enables value creation through the balanced and complementary use of two seemingly competing design paradigms, i.e., standardization and design for flexibility. The flexibility of a platform program is modeled as the developer's ability to choose the optimal extent of standardization between multiple projects at the time later projects are designed, depending on how uncertainty unfolds. Along the lines of previous work, this thesis uses a two-step methodology for valuing this flexibility: screening of efficient standardization strategies for future developments in a program of projects; and valuing the flexibility to develop one of these alternatives. The criterion for screening alternative future standardization strategies is the maximization of measurable standardization effects that do not depend on future uncertainties.; (Cont.) A novel methodology and algorithm, called "Invariant Design Rules" (IDR), is developed for the exploration of alternative standardization opportunities, i.e., collections of components that can be standardized among systems with different functional requirements. A novel valuation process is introduced to value the developer's real options to choose among these strategies later. The methodology is designed to overcome some presumed contributors to the limited appeal of real options theory in engineering. Firstly...