Página 1 dos resultados de 315 itens digitais encontrados em 0.007 segundos

Formação contínua em matemática para professores dos anos iniciais no Brasil e em Portugal: caminhos para o desenvolvimento do conhecimento e da prática letiva; Continuing education for teachers of mathematics in the early years in Brazil and Portugal: paths for the development of knowledge and teaching practice

Souza, Régis Luíz Lima de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/09/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.21%
Esta pesquisa tem por base a observação da realidade da sala de aula de quatro professoras dos anos iniciais (duas brasileiras e duas portuguesas), sendo seu objetivo investigar possíveis influências no seu desenvolvimento profissional a partir de sua participação num programa de formação contínua em Matemática o Pró-Letramento Matemática, no Brasil; e o Programa de Formação Contínua em Matemática para Professores dos 1.º e 2.º ciclos, em Portugal. Considerando as concepções e dinâmicas de formação dos professores de matemática desses países, tem-se por hipótese que os trabalhos conjuntos criados nos ciclos de conhecimento e a troca de ideias interpretadas em contextos colaborativos podem ser geradores de práticas profissionais transformadoras. A análise tem como referencial teórico a formação contínua de professores e o desenvolvimento profissional docente, o conhecimento profissional do professor, e as práticas letivas dos professores em matemática. Em termos metodológicos o estudo realiza uma abordagem qualitativa de natureza interpretativa, incluindo quatro estudos de caso, cujos instrumentos se pautam em entrevistas, questionários, observação de aulas, notas de campo e a análise documental dos materiais e planos de aula produzidos pelas docentes durante e após o curso...

Formação de professores e aprendizagem baseada na resolução de problemas : um estudo com futuros professores de Física e Química; Teacher education and problem-based learning : a study with prospective physical sciences teachers

Esteves, Esmeralda
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em 08/05/2014 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.3%
Tese de doutoramento em Ciências da Educação (área de especialização em Educação em Ciências); Desde o último quarto do século XX, tem vindo a crescer o recurso a problemas como ponto de partida para a aprendizagem do conhecimento científico por parte dos alunos. Este modo de utilizar os problemas tem sido identificado em língua inglesa por Problem-Based Learning, com o acrónimo PBL, e recebeu, em Portugal, a designação de Aprendizagem Baseada na Resolução de Problemas e o acrónimo ABRP. O importante papel dos professores nas escolas, bem como as potencialidades que a ABRP apresenta para a aprendizagem das ciências e, ainda, a escassez, a nível nacional e internacional, de estudos na área, não só do ensino das ciências orientado para a ABRP mas também da formação de professores para esse fim conduziram à seguinte pergunta geral de investigação: Será que a formação em ensino orientado para ABRP através de ABRP leva os estagiários a implementar, mais e de modo mais eficaz, o ensino das ciências orientado para ABRP do que a formação naquele tópico da Didática de Ciências através de um ensino mais tradicional? Para alcançar este objetivo, organizou-se a investigação em quatro fases: a fase da formação dos alunos...

Online reflections: the implementation of blogs in language teacher education

Riordan, Elaine; Riordan, Elaine
Fonte: Peter Lang Publicador: Peter Lang
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bookPart; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.18%
peer-reviewed; It has been pointed out that today s technologies can serve as a catalyst in their efforts to create a community of scholarship (reflection) around the practice of teaching that extends well beyond the geographic confines of any given school of education or teacher preparation institution (Gomez et al. 2008: 128). Technology thus allows teachers to interact in ways that previously were not possible, and teacher education should undoubtedly draw on such a resource. Indeed, research indicates that apposite technologies have the capacity to enhance teachers practices by promoting reflection (Pryor and Bitter 2008), and the asynchronous modes of communication in particular are reported to foster this type of metacognitive activity (Kunz et al. 2003; Preece and Moloney-Krichmar 2003; Riordan 2011). To this end, the present chapter investigates the use of blogs as reflective diaries with student teachers on an MA in English Language Teaching programme. A corpus-based discourse analysis of student teacher reflections is provided in order to delve into the possible merits such a tool may hold for the promotion of reflective practice (Schön 1991). Further analyses based on the student teachers perceptions of this online application are also included. The chapter then closes with a discussion of the pedagogical implications of such research findings for the teacher education arena.; Accepted; Peer reviewed

International Conference on Use of ICT and ODL in Teacher Education : Bihar, India

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.33%
With Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) transitioning towards the Right To Education (RTE), teacher education institutions and systems need to be fully geared up to meet the demands of pre-service and in-service teacher education and their ongoing professional development. Most states do not have adequate systems to provide the necessary cadres of trained elementary level school teachers. It is thus important to enhance the roles and capacities of teacher education institutions in India to support them to become globally competitive, professionally managed, and futuristically progressive to cater to the needs of huge back logs of untrained teachers. This training is crucial to ensure that children at the elementary levels get quality education in accordance with the National Curriculum Framework (NCF) 2005 and its basic tenets of child centered pedagogy.

Strengthening Teacher Capacity in Bihar through ICT : Designing Innovative Solution to Unique Challenges

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.32%
Within this context, there are significant opportunities to harness Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and Open and Distance Learning (ODL) in teacher education, especially to deliver pre-service teacher education. Consequently, the Government of Bihar requested the World Bank to provide support in development of distance education curriculum, related syllabi, content, effective delivery mechanisms, appropriate student support systems, and assessment strategies to meet the needs of its untrained teachers. Many other states and countries are facing similar problems, and will need to prepare comprehensive time-bound plans for untrained teachers to acquire the prescribed qualifications (both academic and professional). Thus, experiences in Bihar might provide models for developing an ICT-based teacher education system that can be used as a useful reference point by others facing similar problems. This report outlines these experiences and shares lessons learned through the process to date.

Comparative Analysis of Special Education Teacher Training in France and Norway: How effective, areas taught and recommendation for improvement.

Wen Chong, Pei
Fonte: Universidad de Granada, Facultad de Ciencias de la Educaci??n, Consorcio Mundusfor Publicador: Universidad de Granada, Facultad de Ciencias de la Educaci??n, Consorcio Mundusfor
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.36%
Master Thesis Abstract; This study aims to understand the quality and areas of training in the existing special education teacher education programme in France and Norway by examining how special education teachers are prepared in carrying out four components of administrative, teaching, student evaluation and inclusive tasks in everyday classroom. The theoretical framework used in this research is international comparative analysis via questionnaire, institutional analysis (training programme), discourse analysis(interview) and classroom observation based on Crossley and Vulliamy's ??case for the case??(1984) method. The efficiency of the training programme is evaluated by (i) studying satisfaction of the teachers after training, whether knowledge and hands-on teaching tasks provided were successful to prepare them for real classroom teaching to children with special needs, (ii) relevant views of teachers about the training programme and (iii) observation of teachers teaching as per the training model. Subjects in this study include special education student teachers, teacher trainers, primary and secondary school teachers and academic psychologist.

Becoming a teacher: students’ experiences and perceptions

Coady, Lisa
Fonte: University of Limerick, Department of Education & Professional Studies Publicador: University of Limerick, Department of Education & Professional Studies
Tipo: Doctoral thesis; all_ul_research; ul_theses_dissertations; none
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.44%
non-peer-reviewed; This research is focused on teacher education students in initial, concurrent teacher education programmes at the University of Limerick (UL). This longitudinal study tracks two cohorts of student teachers from Year Two to Year Four of their undergraduate programme and analyses their experiences during their initial teacher education (ITE). This thesis begins by examining the need for research on second-level teacher education, outlining evidenced gaps in the existing body of research in the Irish context and highlighting areas that merit further consideration with reference to current policy. The study then presents key data on teaching as a career in Ireland and considers recent developments, which recognise the needs of student and beginning teachers. This is followed by an analysis of the growth of concurrent programmes both nationally and internationally and a synopsis of traditional models of ITE in Ireland. This section of the thesis concludes with a summation of how the concurrent teacher education programmes at UL have evolved since their inception and how changes that have ensued have manifested in terms of programme content and format. The subsequent literature review begins by appraising the traditional approach to teacher education and trends pertaining to the theoretical underpinning of programmes. It considers how educational theory has been incorporated into teacher education and perceived by student teachers. This is followed by a discussion of the place of educational theory in teacher education and the relationship between both educational theory and the theory of teaching and how these relate to real-life teaching. This study examines findings from both cross-sectional and longitudinal data and investigates student teachers’ perceptions of their needs and requirements during preservice teacher education and their perceptions of their experiences during teaching practice (TP). The research findings create a profile of the student teachers studying at UL and consider how student teachers’ own educational histories...

Socialization of prospective physical education teachers: the story of new blood

O'Bryant, Camille P; O'Sullivan, Mary; Raudensky, Jeanne
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.37%
peer-reviewed; There has been much criticism of how teachers are prepared to teach and physical education has not been immune from this criticism. Despite numerous efforts to improve the content and focus of teacher education programmes there is still a paucity of programme evaluation research on the effcacy of these teacher education programmes (Metzler & Tjeerdsma, 1998). This paper reports on part of a yearlong investigation on the effcacy of a graduate physical education teacher education programme to prepare teachers. The focus of this aspect of the study was to identify what attracted graduate students to pursue a teaching career and what beliefs they held about physical education teachers and teaching. This was a qualitative case study and multiple data sources were gathered to address the research questions. The data sources included interviews, analyses of the students’ autobiographical statements, and observations of their teaching, critical incidents from their teaching and peer responses to critical incidents. Findings indicate that this cohort of graduate students, many embarking on a major career change, was more committed to teaching and their love for teaching children than coaching. While their own success and love of sport was a factor in their career choice...

Evaluating the use of corpus-based instruction in a language teacher education context: perspectives from the users

Farr, Fiona
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.06%
peer-reviewed; A recent practice in the study of language on teacher education programmes has been the use of electronic corpora, and we are therefore still at the initial stages of exploring key issues relating to their integration. Despite arguments for and against their adaptation, there is a dearth of evaluative research examining student teachers' perceptions of learning and teaching through corpus-based activities. This paper has two main foci. Firstly, it reports some of the ways in which corpora have been incorporated into a language systems module on an MA in English Language Teaching (ELT) programme over a two-year period. More significantly, it outlines the findings from survey results, which uncover student teachers' perspectives on their experiences of using corpora. Additionally, it explores the potentials and problems foreseen by these practitioners in relation to using such an approach in their careers. The investigation of these pertinent issues with a participant group of 25 student teachers (STs) leads to the conclusion that there is generally a positive predisposition towards the use of corpora. These attitudes vary in relation to the projected adaptation in EL teaching, and the results also show that the real teaching scenario often does not permit the ideal of full application.; ACCEPTED; peer-reviewed

Preparing physical education teachers for the reality of teaching in schools: the case of one physical education teacher education (PETE) programme

Hartley, Therese
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/masterThesis; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; ul_theses_dissertations
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.55%
peer-reviewed; The purpose of this research is to determine the ways in which learning opportunities within the physical education teacher education (PETE) programme are continued in practice by beginning and experienced physical education teachers in post-primary schools. The project identifies the extent to which particular PETE programme experiences and opportunities are relevant to beginning and experienced teachers, establishing the extent to which what teachers need to consider as practitioners is part of the discursive dialogue in PETE programmes. There is a necessity for such a study because, firstly, previous studies question the effect of PETE programmes with respect to more familiar practices observed and practiced in school settings (Matanin and Collier, 2003). Secondly, Irish PETE has yet to contribute to the current international debate of content knowledge within PETE programmes (Siedentop, 2002; Tsangaridou, 2002) and it is imperative that it is conversant with the issues, and actively contributes to, the expanding international research on PETE. Zeichner & Conklin's (2008) framework for thinking about teacher education programmes provides a way to highlight the substantive features of the PETE programme...

'Living the curriculum': Integrating sport education into a physical education teacher education programme

Deenihan, Jeremiah Timothy; MacPhail, Ann; Young, Ann-Marie
Fonte: Sage Publications Publicador: Sage Publications
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.14%
peer-reviewed; This study recognizes the paucity of research regarding how pre-service teachers learn to use Sport Education (SE) in their Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) programmes (Stran and Curtner-Smith, 2010). The study provides an opportunity in PETE where pre-service teachers 'live the curriculum' (Oslin et al., 2001) and experience a SE season (Siedentop, 1994) as participants. Data was collected through weekly observations, researcher and lecturer reflections and interviews and focus groups with the lecturer and pre-service teachers. The results provide support for the 'living the curriculum' experience from the perspective of the pre-service teachers. It was indicated, however, that there were occasions when the lecturer was compromised between teaching through SE while teaching pre-service teachers how to teach SE in schools. It was also observed that there was a diminishing awareness of SE towards the end of the module. Recommendations for the inclusion of SE in PETE are also provided.; Accepted; peer-reviewed

Pre-service teachers' interests and dispositions towards involvement in a physical education teacher education programme

Ralph, Annmarie
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: Master thesis (Research); all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; ul_theses_dissertations; none
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.47%
peer-reviewed; Investigating the reasons for pre-service teachers (PSTs) choosing to undertake a PETE programme can inform teacher educators on how best to define teaching tasks, organise knowledge relevant to student learning and shape PSTs’ perceptions about teaching and learning (Calderhead, 1996). In this study Lortie’s (1975) attractors and facilitators to the teaching profession frame the examination of PSTs’ motivation to enrol on a physical education teacher education (PETE) programme. The aim of the research is to examine the interests and dispositions that motivate PSTs to enrol in a PETE programme offered by an Irish university, acknowledging that little is known about candidates who enter teacher education in the Republic of Ireland (Clarke 2009). PSTs’ current conceptions of the physical education field and the changing perceptions attributed to their subsequent experiences and opportunities of the programme are also identified. It is anticipated that the research will enhance the educational experiences of PSTs by investigating the social construction of educational discourse in and around the subject of physical education. The participants in the study were first year PSTs who were enrolled in a PETE programme at the university were the study took place. Data was collected from PSTs through surveys...

Experiences of being a student and a teacher of sport education: a case study of sport education’s inclusion in a PETE programme

Deenihan, Jeremiah Timothy
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; ul_theses_dissertations; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.31%
peer-reviewed; Sport Education (SE) (Siedentop, Hastie, & van der Mars, 2011) is a curriculum and instructional model for physical education that has received a wealth of research attention (Hastie, de Ojeda, & Luquin, 2011; Kinchin, 2006; Wallhead & O'Sullivan, 2005). However, little attention has been afforded as to how teachers learn to teach SE in a Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) programme (Kinchin, Penney, & Clarke, 2005; McCaughtry, Sofo, Rovegno, & Curtner-Smith, 2004). The purpose of this project was to address this gap in the literature by examining a method of including SE in a PETE programme and investigate how pre-service teachers (PSTs) interpret and deliver SE as a result. To achieve these aims the research was conducted in four sequenced phases. Firstly, the effectiveness of a practical SE experience in PETE to prepare PSTs to teach SE was investigated. Secondly, one PST who completed this module had his delivery of SE observed on his teaching placement. Thirdly, the effectiveness of assessments within the practical SE experience in PETE were examined. Finally, a comprehensive analysis was conducted of seven PSTs’ interpretations and delivery of SE. Multiple methods of data collection were employed across all phases of the research including interviews...

Assessing the integration and quality of online tools in language teacher education: The case of blogs, chat and discussion forums

Riordan, Elaine
Fonte: Cambridge Scholars Publishing Publicador: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bookPart; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
peer-reviewed;                          E-learning is frequently being integrated into educational contexts due to its capacity to make way for new methods of learning that bring education into one s home, breaking the traditional structure of educational institutions (Barajas 2002: 2), and in particular online tools are increasingly being implemented in language teacher education programmes to enhance the learning experience and support novice teachers as they embark on their newfound careers. It is therefore a worthwhile endeavour to evaluate the quality and effectiveness of such tools in order to ensure pedagogically sound techniques and benefit from the full potential of online learning. Quality in this context is judged by how successful the technology is in fulfilling the aims of the research project in question, as well as quality issues surrounding how well the technology suits the tasks used in the study or how appropriate the technology is for a particular cohort of students. Amongst the other issues of quality this author has judged as being worthy of discussion are ease of use, enjoyment or affective factors, the value or benefits afforded by the technologies, the perceived usefulness of the technology...

Sharing and collaborating between an online community of novice teachers: CMC in language teacher education

Riordan, Elaine; Murray, Liam
Fonte: Societa Italiana di e-Learning Publicador: Societa Italiana di e-Learning
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.14%
peer-reviewed; New and emerging technologies have transformed the classroom (Mishra and Koehler, 2006) and continue to do so, and it has been reported that teachers and teacher educators now work in ever evolving environments (Elliott, 2009). Research indicates that varied forms of CMC can be implemented to foster collaborative and social learning (Arnold and Ducate, 2006), and the formation of communities of practice (CoPs) (Arnold et al., 2005). Therefore, this paper investigates the implementation of online and face-to-face (F2F) communication in an English Language Teaching (ELT) teacher education programme, with the aim of illuminating the potential such modes have for sharing and collaborating, for providing a space for situated learning and open communication. Results are analysed using a corpus-based methodology, drawing on three aspects of community membership, namely a joint enterprise, mutual engagement and a shared repertoire (Wenger, 1998). This paper closes with a discussion of the implications of such data for Language Teacher Education (LTE) in a technologically-oriented world.  ; PUBLISHED; peer-reviewed

Reflections on the development of a pre-service language curriculum for the BEd (Foundation Phase)

Nomlomo,Vuyokazi; Desai,Zubeida
Fonte: South African Journal of Childhood Education Publicador: South African Journal of Childhood Education
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.27%
The initiative of the Department of Higher Education and Training (DHET) in South Africa to strengthen foundation phase teaching has resulted in the development of new foundation phase (Grades R-3) programmes at institutions that did not previously offer them. In this article we reflect on the conceptualisation and development of a pre-service language curriculum for one such programme. We base our discussion on principles that underpin teacher education programme development for early childhood education and on issues and insights about appropriate language curriculum content for a foundation phase teacher. Whilst awaiting the outcome of our accreditation, the authors, as two of the persons who assisted in the design of the language curriculum, thought it appropriate to subject the curriculum to an internal scrutiny whilst we prepare to offer the programme. This internal dialogue is informed by the literature on early language development, particularly in multilingual contexts such as in South Africa.

Service learning in foundation phase teacher education: Experiential learning opportunities for student teachers

Petker,Gadija; Petersen,Nadine
Fonte: South African Journal of Childhood Education Publicador: South African Journal of Childhood Education
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.35%
This paper reports on the implementation of a model that infuses service-learning into a four-year foundation phase teacher education programme. We argue for an integrated curriculum design utilising specifically the teaching (laboratory) school of the faculty, not only for clinical experience or work-integrated learning, but also for service-learning. In this way, the relation of the teacher education programme to the teaching school and its location within Soweto, an area within Johannesburg, optimises the affordances of learning from and through experience for students. The service-learning activities were designed to inform and draw on students' practical and situational learning (learning in and about context) and address the notions of integrated and applied knowledge in the 'Minimum Requirements for Teacher Education Qualifications' (RSA DHET 2011). We argue in this paper that the incremental inclusion of service-learning over a four-year period and the varied nature of the service-learning projects within the programme extend students' learning from practice, provide opportunities for students to see people outside of formal education as 'experts' who have something to contribute to their education, and maximize the potential civic and academic outcomes for students.

A science-technology-society approach to teacher education for the foundation phase: Students' empiricist views

Kok,Lyn; van Schoor,Rika
Fonte: South African Journal of Childhood Education Publicador: South African Journal of Childhood Education
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.1%
Teacher education for South African foundation phase education requires student teachers to be prepared for teaching science concepts in an integrated programme in a learning area known as life skills. This study examined the challenges faced by university teachers of foundation phase student teachers in the development of science modules/ courses. The national curriculum for this subject aims to strengthen learner awareness of social relationships, technological processes and elementary science (DBE 2011a). We developed an integrated numeracy, science and technology module for foundation phase student teachers, based on the science-technology-society (STS) approach to teaching science concepts. Students' understanding of science concepts was assessed, using a project method in which they solved a problem derived from children's literature. Then students' views of this integrated approach to teaching science concepts were gathered. The negative views of the foundation phase student teachers towards the integrated STS approach was thought to indicate an empiricist view of the nature of science that could impede their future teaching.

Institutional factors that affect black South African students' perceptions of early childhood teacher education

Steyn,M G; Harris,Teresa; Hartell,C G
Fonte: South African Journal of Education Publicador: South African Journal of Education
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.28%
Black students account for over 72% of enrolments in higher education, but only a small percentage of them choose Early Childhood Education (ECE) as a field of study and complete the qualification. The purpose of this study was to examine, from the perspective of black ECE students, why so few of them enrol in this particular programme at a historically white university. Through a qualitative, case study approach the reasons for the low enrolment and completion rates were investigated. Participants mentioned that recruitment for this programme, particularly in rural areas should be improved. They also pointed out the higher prestige of other career options, the linguistic challenges they face, the cost of university education and early teacher education in particular, as well as access to transport and resources as barriers to recruitment and retention. Their recommendations for higher enrolment rates included the use of black students to recruit in rural and in township areas, increased funding for bursaries, and more culturally sensitive pedagogies in early childhood teacher education.

Preparing pre-service teachers as emancipatory and participatory action researchers in a teacher education programme

Esau,Omar
Fonte: South African Journal of Education Publicador: South African Journal of Education
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.31%
In this paper I analyse the potential that participatory action research holds for educating pre-service teachers to become more critically reflective and socially conscious. I also describe the rationale for and process of engaging pre-service teachers in their teacher education programme. Involving these candidate teachers in participatory action research (PAR) projects may provide opportunities for aspiring teachers to develop pedagogical content knowledge, examine their beliefs about teaching, and gain confidence in addressing social justice issues. More than merely exposing them to applying the technique of action research, the PAR project encouraged them to become more socially conscious, critical, imaginative and argumentative as teacher-researchers. In the project I used a participatory approach in action research to prepare the pre-service teachers to become emancipatory action researchers. Supporting and fostering inquiring practices is a strategy to help pre-service teachers move beyond just receiving hand-outs in a teacher education programme and beginning to focus on their work with learners and challenges in the real school environment.