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Rotulação de símbolos matemáticos manuscritos via casamento de expressões; Labeling of Handwritten Mathematical Symbols via Expression Matching

Honda, Willian Yukio
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/01/2013 PT
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36.99%
O problema de reconhecimento de expressões matemáticas manuscritas envolve três subproblemas importantes: segmentação de símbolos, reconhecimento de símbolos e análise estrutural de expressões. Para avaliar métodos e técnicas de reconhecimento, eles precisam ser testados sobre conjuntos de amostras representativos do domínio de aplicação. Uma das preocupações que tem sido apontada ultimamente é a quase inexistência de base de dados pública de expressões matemáticas, o que dificulta o desenvolvimento e comparação de diferentes abordagens. Em geral, os resultados de reconhecimento apresentados na literatura restringem-se a conjuntos de dados pequenos, não disponíveis publicamente, e muitas vezes formados por dados que visam avaliar apenas alguns aspectos específicos do reconhecimento. No caso de expressões online, para treinar e testar reconhecedores de símbolos, as amostras são em geral obtidas solicitando-se que as pessoas escrevam uma série de símbolos individualmente e repetidas vezes. Tal tarefa é monótona e cansativa. Uma abordagem alternativa para obter amostras de símbolos seria solicitar aos usuários a transcrição de expressões modelo previamente definidas. Dessa forma, a escrita dos símbolos seria realizada de forma natural...

Um estudo empírico sobre classificação de símbolos matemáticos manuscritos; An empirical study on handwritten mathematical symbol classication

Oliveira, Marcelo Valentim de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/08/2014 PT
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26.95%
Um importante problema na área de reconhecimento de padrões é o reconhecimento de textos manuscritos. O problema de reconhecimento de expressões matemáticas manuscritas é um caso particular, que vem sendo tratado por décadas. Esse problema é considerado desafiador devido à grande quantidade de possíveis tipos de símbolos, às variações intrínsecas da escrita, e ao complexo arranjo bidimensional dos símbolos na expressão. Neste trabalho adotamos o problema de reconhecimento de símbolos matemáticos manuscritos para realizar um estudo empírico sobre o comportamento de classificadores multi-classes. Examinamos métodos básicos de aprendizado para classificação multi-classe, especialmente as abordagens um-contra-todos e todos-contra-todos de decomposição de um problema multi-classe em problemas de classificação binária. Para decompor o problema em subproblemas menores, propomos também uma abordagem que utiliza uma árvore de decisão para dividir hierarquicamente o conjunto de dados, de modo que cada subconjunto resultante corresponda a um problema mais simples de classificação. Esses métodos são examinados usando-se como classificador base os modelos de classificação vizinhos-mais-próximos e máquinas de suporte vetorial (usando a abordagem um-contra-todos para combinar os classificadores binários). Para classificação...

A república e seus símbolos : a imprensa ilustrada e o ideário republicano. Rio de Janeiro, 1868-1903; Republic and its symbols: illustrated press and republican ideas. Rio de Janeiro, 1868-1903; La république et ses symboles: la presse illustrée et l’idéaire républicain. Rio de Janeiro, 1868-1903

Lopes, Aristeu Elisandro Machado
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
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Esta Tese de Doutorado em História tem por objetivo primordial analisar como o ideário republicano foi tratado nas páginas de humor de periódicos ilustrados que circularam no Rio de Janeiro no século XIX. A imprensa ilustrada teve um amplo desenvolvimento no Brasil Império circulando ao lado de jornais diários e literários. Os mais diversos assuntos da vida da Corte foram noticiados por esses jornais, entre eles, as atividades políticas foram um dos temas mais comentados. A propaganda republicana inaugurada em 1870 no Rio de Janeiro não passou despercebida e, como parte da política do tempo, logo passou a figurar nas ilustrações e nos textos dos artigos dos jornais. A análise da simbologia republicana difundida, sobretudo, a partir da Revolução Francesa e da República instituída em 1792, e adaptada nos periódicos brasileiros é o objetivo que perpassa todos os capítulos da tese. A alegoria feminina da República foi o elemento mais empregado pelos caricaturistas ao tratar das questões republicanas ao lado do barrete frígio, emblema característico dos ideais republicanos. No primeiro momento, o trabalho foi direcionado aos periódicos que acompanharam as atividades republicanas ao longo de sua campanha até a Proclamação da República em 1889. No instante seguinte...

The Contextually Controlled, Feature-Mediated Classification of Symbols

DeRosse, Pamela; Fields, Lanny
Fonte: Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, Inc Publicador: Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The classification of names of people or objects based on the features acquired by the names and the sorting instructions provided is a commonplace occurrence. For example, given the names Renoir, Pollock, James and Voltaire the average adult would be able to classify them differentially based on the instruction to classify them based on vocation or nationality. In general, such a repertoire reflects the reclassification of symbols (i.e, the names of individuals) in terms of contextual cues (instructions to sort by vocation or nationality) and the features acquired by the symbols (the specific nationalities and vocations). The present experiment studied this phenomenon with the use of arbitrary stimuli that did not have clear preexperimental associations. Two of 4 participants classified the symbols into different equivalence classes based on the prevailing contextual cues and the features that had been acquired by the symbols. Using an ABA reversal design we then demonstrated that 1 participant classified the symbols in accordance with the contextual cues and acquired features when present, but not in the absence of the contextual cues. A 3rd participant showed symbol classification that differed from that predicted by the procedures...

Fixing the broken system of genetic locus symbols: Parkinson disease and dystonia as examples

Marras, Connie; Lohmann, Katja; Lang, Anthony; Klein, Christine
Fonte: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publicador: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/03/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.99%
Originally, locus symbols (e.g., DYT1) were introduced to specify chromosomal regions that had been linked to a familial disorder with a yet unknown gene. Symbols were systematically assigned in a numerical series to designate mapped loci for a specific phenotype or group of phenotypes. Since the system of designating and using locus symbols was originally established, both our knowledge and our techniques of gene discovery have evolved substantially. The current system has problems that are sources of confusion, perpetuate misinformation, and misrepresent the system as a useful reference tool for a list of inherited disorders of a particular phenotypic class. These include erroneously assigned loci, duplicated loci, missing symbols, missing loci, unconfirmed loci in a consecutively numbered system, combining causative genes and risk factor genes in the same list, and discordance between phenotype and list assignment. In this article, we describe these problems and their impact, and propose solutions. The system could be significantly improved by creating distinct lists for clinical and research purposes, creating more informative locus symbols, distinguishing disease-causing mutations from risk factors, raising the threshold of evidence prior to assigning a locus symbol...

The role of health-related claims and health-related symbols in consumer behaviour: Design and conceptual framework of the CLYMBOL project and initial results

Hieke, S; Kuljanic, N; Wills, J M; Pravst, I; Kaur, A; Raats, M M; van Trijp, H C M; Verbeke, W; Grunert, K G
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.03%
Health claims and symbols are potential aids to help consumers identify foods that are healthier options. However, little is known as to how health claims and symbols are used by consumers in real-world shopping situations, thus making the science-based formulation of new labelling policies and the evaluation of existing ones difficult. The objective of the European Union-funded project Role of health-related CLaims and sYMBOLs in consumer behaviour (CLYMBOL) is to determine how health-related information provided through claims and symbols, in their context, can affect consumer understanding, purchase and consumption. To do this, a wide range of qualitative and quantitative consumer research methods are being used, including product sampling, sorting studies (i.e. how consumers categorise claims and symbols according to concepts such as familiarity and relevance), cross-country surveys, eye-tracking (i.e. what consumers look at and for how long), laboratory and in-store experiments, structured interviews, as well as analysis of population panel data. EU Member States differ with regard to their history of use and regulation of health claims and symbols prior to the harmonisation of 2006. Findings to date indicate the need for more structured and harmonised research on the effects of health claims and symbols on consumer behaviour...

Carrier-phase and frequency-estimation bounds for transmissions with embedded reference symbols

Rice, F.
Fonte: IEEE-Inst Electrical Electronics Engineers Inc Publicador: IEEE-Inst Electrical Electronics Engineers Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The true Crame/spl acute/r-Rao lower bound (CRLB) for the joint estimation of carrier phase and frequency is derived for transmission bursts with interleaved reference and phase-shift keying/quadrature amplitude modulated data symbols. Results are presented for the special cases of midamble, and preamble and postamble, pilot-symbol insertion. The derivation reveals that the CRLB is a function of the location of the reference symbols in the burst, the number of reference symbols, the number of data symbols, the signal-to-noise ratio and the data-modulation scheme. By distributing the reference symbols symmetrically about the center of the burst and analyzing relative to the middle of the signal vector, the joint frequency and phase estimation can be decoupled, and the optimal phase estimation is achieved. In the decoupled case, the phase CRLB is independent of the location of reference symbols in the burst. In a symmetrical burst, the use of a preamble and postamble is found to provide a lower frequency-estimation CRLB than that with a midamble. It appears that the frequency CRLB is reduced as the reference symbols are symmetrically distributed closer to the ends of the burst.; Feng Rice; Copyright © 2006 IEEE

Cross, crucifix, culture : an approach to the constitutional meaning of confessional symbols

GEDICKS, Frederick Mark; ANNICCHINO, Pasquale
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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In the United States and Europe the constitutionality of government displays of confessional symbols depends on whether the symbols also have nonconfessional secular meaning or whether, at least, the confessional meaning is somehow absent. Yet both the United States Supreme Court (USSCt) and the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) lack a workable approach to determining whether secular meaning is present or confessional meaning absent. The problem is that the government can nearly always articulate a possible secular meaning for the confessional symbols that it uses, or argue that the confessional meaning is conceivably absent. What matters, however, is not the possibility that secular meaning is present or confessional meaning absent, but whether whether this presence or absence is historically and culturally authentic. Courts largely ignore this, routinely appealing to history and culture to justify government use of confessional symbols without undertaking a serious investigation of either one. Drawing on the work of C.S. Peirce, we propose that courts ask three successive questions in religious symbol cases: 1) Is the ordinary meaning of the symbol confessional or otherwise religious? 2) Does the immediate context in which the symbol is displayed suggest a possible historical...

A green and gold republic: the Australian republican movement and Australian national identity

Hann, Elise
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.09%
The Australian Republican Movement (ARM) has in recent years experienced the lowest public interest in the issue of the republic since the organisation's inception in 1991. The ARM's National Committee has identified closer identification of the movement with Australian national identity, symbols and themes as one of its 2007 objectives. The path from the formation of the ARM in 1991 to referendum in 1999 demonstrated how national identity is an issue at the heart of the republican debate. The varying constructions of national identity as the years progressed, as the focus on Asia and regional issues under Keating changed to Howard's emphasis on protecting traditional Australian identity, have had impacted progress toward a republic. In order to encourage wider public support, the ARM should align itself with the current dominant ideas of national identity. Instead relying on the unpopular conceptions of national identity that supported the growth of the movement in the early 1990s, the movement must align itself with a more traditional national identity. The defeat in the 1999 republic referendum demonstrated the need for the ARM to assess how the movement can connect itself with the most dominant and popular version of national identity. The republic was perceived as an issue irrelevant to many Australians arid the 'No' Committee campaign emphasised this...

Universal Factorization of $3n-j (j > 2)$ Symbols of the First and Second Kinds for SU(2) Group and Their Direct and Exact Calculation and Tabulation

Wei, Liqiang; Dalgarno, Alexander
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.99%
We show that general $3n-j (n>2)$ symbols of the first kind and the second kind for the group SU(2) can be reformulated in terms of binomial coefficients. The proof is based on the graphical technique established by Yutsis, et al. and through a definition of a reduced $6-j$ symbol. The resulting $3n-j$ symbols thereby take a combinatorial form which is simply the product of two factors. The one is an integer or polynomial which is the single sum over the products of reduced $6-j$ symbols. They are in the form of summing over the products of binomial coefficients. The other is a multiplication of all the triangle relations appearing in the symbols, which can also be rewritten using binomial coefficients. The new formulation indicates that the intrinsic structure for the general recoupling coefficients is much nicer and simpler, which might serves as a bridge for the study with other fields. Along with our newly developed algorithms, this also provides a basis for a direct, exact and efficient calculation or tabulation of all the $3n-j$ symbols of the SU(2) group for all range of quantum angular momentum arguments. As an illustration, we present teh results for the $12-j$ symbols of the first kind.; Comment: Add tables and references

The combinatorics of k-marked Durfee symbols

Ji, Kathy Qing
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/06/2008
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Andrews recently introduced k-marked Durfee symbols which are connected to moments of Dyson's rank. By these connections, Andrews deduced their generating functions and some combinatorial properties and left their purely combinatorial proofs as open problems. The primary goal of this article is to provide combinatorial proofs in answer to Andrews' request. We obtain a relation between k-marked Durfee symbols and Durfee symbols by constructing bijections, and all identities on k-marked Durfee symbols given by Andrews could follow from this relation. In a similar manner, we also prove the identities due to Andrews on k-marked odd Durfee symbols combinatorially, which resemble ordinary k-marked Durfee symbols with a modified subscript and with odd numbers as entries.; Comment: 21 pages

Non-commutative Hilbert modular symbols

Horozov, Ivan
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.99%
The main goal of this paper is to construct non-commutative Hilbert modular symbols. However, we also construct commutative Hilbert modular symbols. Both the commutative and the non-commutative Hilbert modular symbols are generalizations of Manin's classical and non-commutative modular symbols. We prove that many cases of (non-)commutative Hilbert modular symbols are periods in the sense on Kontsevich-Zagier. Hecke operators act naturally on them. Manin defines the non-commutative modilar symbol in terms of iterated path integrals. In order to define non-commutative Hilbert modular symbols, we use a generalization of iterated path integrals to higher dimensions, which we call iterated integrals on membranes. Manin examines similarities between non-commutative modular symbol and multiple zeta values both in terms of infinite series and in terms of iterated path integrals. Here we examine similarities in the formulas for non-commutative Hilbert modular symbol and multiple Dedekind zeta values, recently defined by the author, both in terms of infinite series and in terms of iterated integrals on membranes.; Comment: 50 pages, 5 figures, substantial improvement of the article arXiv:math/0611955 [math.NT], the portions compared to the previous version are: Hecke operators...

Shuffle relations for regularised integrals of symbols

Manchon, Dominique; Paycha, Sylvie
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.99%
We prove shuffle relations which relate a product of regularised integrals of classical symbols to regularised nested (Chen) iterated integrals, which hold if all the symbols involved have non-vanishing residue. This is true in particular for non-integer order symbols. In general the shuffle relations hold up to finite parts of corrective terms arising from renormalisation on tensor products of classical symbols, a procedure adapted from renormalisation procedures on Feynman diagrams familiar to physicists. We relate the shuffle relations for regularised integrals of symbols with shuffle relations for multizeta functions adapting the above constructions to the case of symbols on the unit circle.; Comment: 40 pages,latex. Changes concern sections 4 and 5 : an error in section 4 has been corrected, and the link between section 5 and the previous ones has been precised

On multilinearity and skew-symmetry of certain symbols in motivic cohomology of fields

Myung, Sung
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.03%
The purpose of the present article is to show the multilinearity for symbols in Goodwillie-Lichtenbaum complex in two cases. The first case shown is where the degree is equal to the weight. In this case, the motivic cohomology groups of a field are isomorphic to the Milnor's K-groups as shown by Nesterenko-Suslin, Totaro and Suslin-Voevodsky for various motivic complexes, but we give an explicit isomorphism for Goodwillie-Lichtenbaum complex in a form which visibly carries multilinearity of Milnor's symbols to our multilinearity of motivic symbols. Next, we establish multilinearity and skew-symmetry for irreducible Goodwillie-Lichtenbaum symbols in H^{l-1} (Spec k, Z(l)). These properties have been expected to hold from the author's construction of a bilinear form of dilogarithm in case k is a subfield of the field of complex numbers and l=2. Next, we establish multilinearity and skew-symmetry for Goodwillie-Lichtenbaum symbols in H^{l-1} (Spec k, Z(l)). These properties have been expected to hold from the author's construction of a bilinear form of dilogarithm in case k is a subfield of the field of complex numbers and l=2. The multilinearity of symbols may be viewed as a generalization of the well-known formula det(AB) = det(A) det(B) for tuples of commuting matrices.; Comment: We acknowledge that mutilinearity does not hold for arbitrary symbols in H^{l-1} (Spec k...

Assessing interpretability of visual symbols of varied colors across demographic profiles

Parker, Brendan
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.67%
Visual symbols are often ambiguous. An icon is meant to convey a particular meaning, but viewers may interpret the image differently. This thesis shows how a viewer`s demographic background and icon color can affect their interpretation of a symbol. A website survey, featuring a library of icons, asked users of varied demographic profiles to interpret each figure presented randomly in one of five colors: black, blue, red, green, and orange. The qualitative text data from the participants` interpretations were compared to the quantitative data from icon and demographic information by means of multinomial logit analysis. The experiment found numerous noteworthy correlations, showing that the color of an icon and person`s background can have a significant and oftentimes predictable influence on interpretation. Icon designers can use this approach to see which icon would be best used to serve certain purposes.

Vertex Symbols for Zeolite Nets

O'Keeffe, M; Hyde, Stephen
Fonte: IPC Science and Technology Press Publicador: IPC Science and Technology Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.67%
The latest addition of the vertex symbols for 23 zeolite nets to the Atlas of Zeolite Structure Types which was compiled by M. O'Keeffe and S.T. Hyde is presented. Two tables which have the exact format as in the previous list are included. AFX is the only new structure in which two vertices have the same vertex symbol, these vertices are distinguished by having different coordination sequences.

Os símbolos de informação pública nos setores do lazer e turismo: resultados empíricos; The public information symbols in the leisure and tourism sectors: empirical results

Fiori, Sérgio Ricardo
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Comunicações e Artes Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Comunicações e Artes
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/08/2010 POR
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Atualmente a facilidade de comunicação e o rápido deslocamento permitem com que as pessoas usufruam de inúmeras atividades de lazer e turismo em diferentes escalas: dentro de casa, em sua cidade, estado ou país. O contexto faz com que os símbolos de informação pública se estabeleçam como agentes facilitadores de comunicação, sendo potencializados em locais que abrigam pessoas das mais diferentes nacionalidades e que, por sua vez, possuem limitações para se expressar em outros idiomas como em aeroportos, eventos internacionais e centros históricos. Deste modo, ressalta-se o grande desafio de estudos sobre o tema evidenciando a questão cultural e a problemática quanto a compreendê-los, aceitá-los. O artigo aborda de maneira breve alguns estudos teóricos, além de apresentar uma pesquisa empírica realizada com oitenta e dois símbolos de informação pública.; Nowadays the ease of communication and the fast transfer allow people to enjoy numerous activities of the leisure and tourism in different levels: in-house, in their city, state or country. The background causes the public information symbols to be established like facilitator agents of the communication, being leveraged in places where people from most different nationalities are sheltered...

Símbolos e tradução; Symbols and translating

Nida, Eugene A.
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 18/04/2002 POR; ENG
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Este artigo propõe uma discussão sobre as implicações semióticas inseridas em cada escolha e tomada de decisão tradutória. O autor busca enfatizar que em qualquer tradução há a necessidade de se compreender as combinações das palavras nos textos e não o significado isolado de cada uma delas. São apresentadas também as especificidades dos significados icônicos, indexados e convencionais, bem como a importância dos signos não verbais no processo comunicativo entre duas ou mais comunidades lingüísticas. Os cinco sentidos também são tidos como os meios pelos quais adquirimos todo e qualquer conhecimento. Por meio de exemplos práticos, Eugene Nida ainda nos informa que muitos símbolos semióticos alteram radicalmente suas funções e suas formas, conforme as mudanças ocorridas na própria sociedade. Finalmente, dois filtros comunicativos (o estado emocional dos receptores e as pressuposições da cultura) são apontados como fatores determinantes para a compreensão de um texto e sua posterior tradução.; This article proposes a discussion about the semiotic implications inserted in each translation choice and decision making. The author emphasizes that in any translation it is necessary to comprehend the words combinations in the  texts rather than their isolated meanings. The iconic...

Expressions of nationhood: national symbols and ceremonies in contemporary Europe

Elgenius, Gabriella
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The central themes of this thesis are to highlight the importance of national symbols and ceremonies in the formation of nations and national identities, and examine how they contribute to the expressions of nationhood. The research has been conducted by means of a systematic investigation of national symbols and ceremonies, analysed as an integral part of identity-making, maintenance and change. The focus is on the contemporary European nations, and conclusions have been drawn with regard to their symbolism and ceremonies. The overall study has been complemented by three case studies; of Britain, France, Norway, with Germany as an analytical counter-case. Throughout this thesis evidence will be provided to the effect that national symbols and ceremonies express deeper aspects and meanings of the nation, and function as integrative and/or divisive forces. Moreover, national symbols and ceremonies form a central part of a `secular' religion which provides anchorage in a dynamic world. National symbols and ceremonies also have an effect upon the community they represent; that is, they raise collective consciousness of `who we are' and `where we are from'. Finally, it has been argued that nations cannot be dated in a precise manner since they come into being by stages...

Can symbols be 'promoted' or 'demoted'? Symbols as religious phenomena

Beyers,Jaco
Fonte: HTS Theological Studies Publicador: HTS Theological Studies
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.03%
Religious symbols are part of our world, relating to another world. In order to understand the process by which symbols grow and develop, the particular context of a symbol is important. In this article a particular theory as to what symbols are, is presented. Religion presupposes the existence of two worlds: this-worldly (profane) and the other-worldly (sacred). The means of communication and reference between these two worlds are symbols. Two examples are investigated so as to indicate how symbols can over time either be demoted or promoted. In the case of the Asherah and asherah as related in the Old Testament a demotion of a symbol is illustrated. The growth of ancient Egyptian religion is an example of a possible promotion of symbols. The conditions under which these processes can occur are investigated.