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Patrimônio ambiental urbano e requalificação: contradições no planejamento do núcleo histórico de Santos; Urban environmental patrimony and requalification: contradictions in the planning of historical nucleus of Santos

Cardoso, Jorge de Jesus
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/08/2007 PT
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O presente trabalho busca traçar um panorama urbano, histórico e atual, das políticas públicas implantadas no município de Santos, em especial naquelas voltadas à zona central mais antiga da cidade, a partir da segunda metade do século XX. Trata do conflito entre o processo de requalificação urbana desencadeado pelo projeto Alegra Centro, e a atual política de Gestão Estratégica e City Marketing desenvolvida pela municipalidade. Abarca ainda a implementação das políticas urbanas baseadas nos projetos "âncora", e nos Focos de Desenvolvimento do Centro Histórico, ambas prevendo a parceria pública/privada como desencadeadora do processo de gentrificação. Aborda experiências de revitalização e requalificação vividas no exterior - Itália, Espanha e Argentina, e, no Brasil - Salvador, Recife e Vitória. Ao final, enfoca o patrimônio ambiental urbano de Santos a partir de dez focos de desenvolvimento, analisando-os enquanto instrumentos de recuperação do patrimônio edificado mais antigo para o uso do turismo histórico e cultural.; The present work searches to draw an urban, historical and current panorama, of the public politics implanted in the municipal district of Santos, especially in those turned to the older central area of the city...

O modo de pensar a Educação Permanente em Saúde em uma região da cidade de São Paulo; The way of thinking about Continuing Education in Health in a region of São Paulo

Freitas, Márcia Walter de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/09/2011 PT
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A Educação Permanente em Saúde (EPS) vem sendo considerada como importante estratégia para transformação das práticas de saúde, colocando em destaque a educação em serviço como recurso estratégico para a gestão do trabalho e da educação na saúde. Entende-se que os processos educativos, se construídos a partir das realidades locais, envolvendo os diversos atores vinculados direta ou indiretamente ao trabalho- os trabalhadores, o ensino, a gestão e o controle social- contribuem para o fortalecimento do SUS. A EPS passou a ser considerada política pública de âmbito nacional a partir de 2004, data da publicação de Portaria que a institui. No presente estudo investigamos como vem se dando a condução desta Política em um Núcleo de Educação Permanente do município de São Paulo- o NEP Leste-, entendendo como seus pressupostos a reflexão sobre o processo de trabalho como desencadeador dos processos educativos, a formação em serviço e a aprendizagem significativa como estratégia pedagógica. Utilizamos como opção metodológica o estudo de caso. Num primeiro momento realizamos análise documental das atas das reuniões do NEP e demais documentos relacionados às ações de EPS na região, tais como projetos e relatórios de cursos. Procedemos à observação de seis reuniões ordinárias do NEP...

Dano ao DNA, citotoxicidade, efeito antiproliferativo e antitumoral de 1,4-naftoquinonas substituídas

Farias, Mirelle Sifroni
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 159 p.| il., grafs., tabs.
POR
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Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Bioquímica, Florianópolis, 2014.; As quinonas são uma classe de substâncias químicas de interesse na terapêutica do câncer, visto que algumas delas apresentam potencial antitumoral. Pesquisas sugerem que o efeito antitumoral destes compostos pode ser potenciado por substituições estratégicas dos substituintes ligados ao núcleo quinóide. Desta forma, este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar o potencial citotóxico, antiproliferativo e antitumoral bem como o mecanismo molecular de ação de 1,4-naftoquinonas substituídas. Dentre os compostos avaliados, os que apresentaram maior atividade citotóxica para linhagem tumoral MCF7 (câncer de mama humano), avaliada pelo método do MTT, foram DPB1, DPB2, DPB4 e DPB5 (CI50 < 25 µM). Sugerindo-se que o efeito citotóxico é influenciado principalmente por seus substituintes onde grupos doadores e aceptores de elétrons modulam as propriedades eletrônicas do átomo de nitrogênio presente nas moléculas, facilitando ou dificultando a ocorrência do ciclo redox. Além disso, estes mesmos quatro compostos inibiram a formação de colônias celulares, promovendo um efeito citostático. Através do ensaio de fragmentação do DNA plasmidial e ensaio cometa constatou-se que as 1...

Apoptosis leads to a degradation of vital components of active nuclear transport and a dissociation of the nuclear lamina

Kramer, A.; Liashkovich, I.; Oberleithner, H.; Ludwig, S.; Mazur, I.; Shahin, V.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Apoptosis, a physiologically critical process, is characterized by a destruction of the cell after sequential degradation of key cellular components. Here, we set out to explore the fate of the physiologically indispensable nuclear envelope (NE) in this process. The NE mediates the critical nucleocytoplasmic transport through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). In addition, the NE is involved in gene expression and contributes significantly to the overall structure and mechanical stability of the cell nucleus through the nuclear lamina, which underlies the entire nucleoplasmic face of the NE and thereby interconnects the NPCs, the NE, and the genomic material. Using the nano-imaging and mechanical probing approach atomic force microscopy (AFM) and biochemical methods, we unveiled the fate of the NE during apoptosis. The doomed NE sustains a degradation of both the mediators of the critical selective nucleocytoplasmic transport, namely NPC cytoplasmic filaments and basket, and the nuclear lamina. These observations are paralleled by marked softening and destabilization of the NE and the detection of vesicle-like nuclear fragments. We conclude that destruction of the cell nucleus during apoptosis proceeds in a strategic fashion. Degradation of NPC cytoplasmic filaments and basket shuts down the critical selective nucleocytoplasmic cross-talk. Degradation of the nuclear lamina disrupts the pivotal connection between the NE and the chromatin...

Mu-opioid and corticotropin-releasing-factor receptors show largely postsynaptic co-expression, and separate presynaptic distributions, in the mouse central amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis

Jaferi, Azra; Pickel, Virginia M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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The anxiolytic effects of opiates active at the mu-opioid receptor (μ-OR) may be ascribed, in part, to suppression of neurons that are responsive to the stress-associated peptide, corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), in the central amygdala (CeA) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). The CRF receptor (CRFr) and μ-OR are expressed in both the CeA and BNST, but their subcellular relationship to each other is not known in either region. To address this question, we used dual electron microscopic immunolabeling of μ-OR and CRFr in the mouse lateral CeA and anterolateral BNST. Immunolabeling for each receptor was detected in the same as well as in separate somatic, dendritic and axonal profiles of neurons in each region. CRFr had a plasmalemmal or cytoplasmic distribution in many dendrites, including those co-expressing μ-OR. The co-expression of CRFr and μ-OR also was seen near excitatory-type synapses on dendritic spines. In both the CeA and BNST, over 50% of the CRFr-labeled dendritic profiles (dendrites and spines) contained immunoreactivity for the μ-OR. However, less than 25% of the dendritic profiles containing the μ-OR were labeled for CRFr in either region, suggesting that opiate activation of the μ-OR affects many neurons in addition to those responsive to CRF. The dendritic profiles containing CRFr and/or μ-OR received asymmetric...

Beyond effector caspase inhibition: Bcl2L12 neutralizes p53 signaling in glioblastoma

Stegh, Alexander H; DePinho, Ronald A
Fonte: Landes Bioscience Publicador: Landes Bioscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Malignant gliomas are the most common and lethal primary central nervous system cancer. Glioblastoma mutliforme (GBM), the most aggressive of these neoplasms, are generally lethal within two years of diagnosis due in part to the intense apoptosis resistance of its cancer cells, hence poor therapeutic response to conventional and targeted therapies. Twenty years of research has uncovered key genetic events involved in disease initiation and progression, foremost the Tp53 tumor suppressor that is mutated or deleted in 35% of GBM. The prime importance of p53 signaling for gliomapathogenesis is further evidenced by epistatic genetic events targeting additional pathway components including deletion of p14Arf (CDKN2A) and amplification of the p53-degrading ubiquitin ligases MDM2 and MDM4. Recent studies have identified and validated Bcl2-Like 12 (Bcl2L12) as a potent glioma oncoprotein with multiple strategic points in apoptosis regulatory networks, i.e. effector caspases and the p53 tumor suppressor. Bcl2L12 resides in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. In the cytoplasm, Bcl2L12 functions to inhibit caspases 3 and 7, in the nucleus, Bcl2L12 forms a complex with p53, modestly reduces p53 protein stability and prevents its binding to selected target gene promoters (e.g. p21...

Cytological organization of the alpha component of the anterior olfactory nucleus and olfactory limbus

Larriva-Sahd, Jorge
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/06/2012 EN
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This study describes the microscopic organization of a wedge-shaped area at the intersection of the main (MOB) and accessory olfactory bulbs (AOBs), or olfactory limbus (OL), and an additional component of the anterior olfactory nucleus or alpha AON that lies underneath of the AOB. The OL consists of a modified bulbar cortex bounded anteriorly by the MOB and posteriorly by the AOB. In Nissl-stained specimens the OL differs from the MOB by a progressive, antero-posterior decrease in thickness or absence of the external plexiform, mitral/tufted cell, and granule cell layers. On cytoarchitectual grounds the OL is divided from rostral to caudal into three distinct components: a stripe of glomerular-free cortex or preolfactory area (PA), a second or necklace glomerular area, and a wedge-shaped or interstitial area (INA) crowned by the so-called modified glomeruli that appear to belong to the anterior AOB. The strategic location and interactions with the main and AOBs, together with the previously noted functional and connectional evidence, suggest that the OL may be related to both sensory modalities. The alpha component of the anterior olfactory nucleus, a slender cellular cluster (i.e., 650 × 150 μm) paralleling the base of the AOB...

Immunocytochemical profiles of inferior colliculus neurons in the rat and their changes with aging

Ouda, Ladislav; Syka, Josef
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/09/2012 EN
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The inferior colliculus (IC) plays a strategic role in the central auditory system in relaying and processing acoustical information, and therefore its age-related changes may significantly influence the quality of the auditory function. A very complex processing of acoustical stimuli occurs in the IC, as supported also by the fact that the rat IC contains more neurons than all other subcortical auditory structures combined. GABAergic neurons, which predominantly co-express parvalbumin (PV), are present in the central nucleus of the IC in large numbers and to a lesser extent in the dorsal and external/lateral cortices of the IC. On the other hand, calbindin (CB) and calretinin (CR) are prevalent in the dorsal and external cortices of the IC, with only a few positive neurons in the central nucleus. The relationship between CB and CR expression in the IC and any neurotransmitter system has not yet been well established, but the distribution and morphology of the immunoreactive neurons suggest that they are at least partially non-GABAergic cells. The expression of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) (a key enzyme for GABA synthesis) and calcium binding proteins (CBPs) in the IC of rats undergoes pronounced changes with aging that involve mostly a decline in protein expression and a decline in the number of immunoreactive neurons. Similar age-related changes in GAD...

Functional Organization of the Thalamic Input to the Thalamic Reticular Nucleus

Lam, Ying-Wan; Sherman, S. Murray
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/05/2011 EN
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Most axons connecting the thalamus and cortex in both directions pass through the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), a thin layer of GABAergic cells adjacent to the thalamus, and innervate neurons there. The TRN, therefore, is in a strategic location to regulate thalamocortical communication. We recorded from neurons of the somatosensory region of the TRN in a thalamocortical slice preparation and studied the spatial organization of their thalamic input using laser scanning photostimulation. We show that the thalamoreticular pathway is organized topographically for most neurons. The somatosensory region of the TRN can be organized into three tiers. From the inner (thalamoreticular) border to the outer, in a manner roughly reciprocal to the reticulothalamic pathway, each of these tiers receives its input from one of the somatosensory relays of the thalamus, POm, VPM and VPL, respectively. What is surprising is that about a quarter of the recorded neurons received input from multiple thalamic regions usually located in different nuclei. These neurons distribute quite evenly throughout the thickness of the TRN. Our results, therefore, suggest that there exist a subpopulation of TRN neurons that receive convergent inputs from multiple thalamic sources and engage in more complex patterns of inhibition of relay cells. We propose these neurons enable the TRN to act as an externally driven “searchlight” that integrates cortical and subcortical inputs and then inhibits or disinhibits specific thalamic relay cells...

Functional Characterization of the Nup93 Complex in Nuclear Pore Complex Assembly; Funktionelle Beschreibung des Nup93 Komplexes im Kernporenaufbau

Sachdev, Ruchika
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
EN
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The defining attribute of the eukaryotic cell is the compartmentalization of genetic material inside the cell’s nucleus. This is possible by the existence of a double lipid bilayer: the nuclear envelope (NE). This compartmentalization enables the eukaryotic cells to separate transcription and translation both spatially and temporally. The NE comprises two membranes: the outer nuclear membrane (ONM) that is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum and the inner nuclear membrane (INM) that is characterized by a distinct protein composition and can make contact with the chromatin and the nuclear lamina. The ONM and the INM fuse to form pores where the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) reside. NPCs act as gatekeepers of the nucleus and are involved in nucleo-cytoplasmic transport. They also act as a physical barrier thereby maintaining distinct composition of the nucleus and the cytoplasm. NPCs are proteinaceous macromolecular assemblies ranging from 40-60 Mega Daltons in size. Despite their enormous size, NPCs are composed of approx. 30 proteins referred as nucleoporins or Nups. Most nucleoporins are organized into distinct sub complexes that act as building blocks for NPC assembly. The NPC can be roughly dissected into two parts, the structural backbone of the pore that is composed of structural nucleoporins...

A reestrutura????o da carreira de especialista em pol??ticas p??blicas e gest??o governamental e seu impacto na reforma administrativa de 1995

Bonfim, Genivaldo de Freitas
Fonte: Associa????o Nacional dos Especialistas em Pol??ticas P??blicas e Gest??o Governamental (ANESP) Publicador: Associa????o Nacional dos Especialistas em Pol??ticas P??blicas e Gest??o Governamental (ANESP)
Tipo: Monografia/ TCC
IDIOMA::PORTUGU??S:PORTUGU??S:PT
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As reformas administrativas brasileiras sempre foram uma forma de tentar aprimorar a gest??o p??blica em nosso pa??s, mas ?? verdade tamb??m que in??meras vezes elas foram usadas como plataforma eleitoral ou ret??rica em esbo??os de programas de Governo. Podemos considerar como a primeira dessas reformas a realizada na d??cada de 1930 pelo Governo de Get??lio Vargas que reduziu bastante as pr??ticas patrimonialistas de gerir o Estado. Posteriormente tivemos, sem muito sucesso, a tentativa de reforma implantada atrav??s edi????o do Decreto-Lei 200 de 1967, durante os governos militares. Com a redemocratiza????o, tentou-se uma reforma no Governo Sarney, da qual resultou como pontos positivos a cria????o da Escola Nacional de Administra????o P??blica e a cria????o da Carreira de Especialista em Pol??ticas P??blicas e Gest??o Governamental (EPPGG). No Governo Collor tentou-se fazer nova reforma administrativa, que n??o logrou ??xito. J?? no Governo Fernando Henrique Cardoso, o Ministro Bresser Pereira foi respons??vel, a partir de 1995, por implementar uma nova e grande reforma administrativa no Brasil. Um dos objetivos dessa Reforma era o fortalecimento do N??cleo Estrat??gico do Estado; para realizar essa tarefa, Bresser Pereira optou por fortalecer as carreiras do chamado Ciclo de Gest??o do Estado...

Developmental and Epigenetic Anomalies in Cloned Cattle

Smith, Lawrence Charles; Suzuki, J., Jr.; Goff, A. K.; Filion, F.; Therrien, J.; Murphy, B. D.; Kohan-Ghadr, H. R.; Lefebvre, R.; Brisville, A. C.; Buczinski, S.; Fecteau, G.; Perecin, Felipe; Meirelles, F. V.
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL; HOBOKEN Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL; HOBOKEN
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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Many of the developmental anomalies observed in cloned animals are related to foetal and placental overgrowth, a phenomenon known as the 'large offspring syndrome' (LOS) in ruminants. It has been hypothesized that the epigenetic control of imprinted genes, that is, genes that are expressed in a parental-specific manner, is at the root of LOS. Our recent research has focused on understanding epigenetic alterations to imprinted genes that are associated with assisted reproductive technologies (ART), such as early embryo in vitro culture (IVC) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in cattle. We have sought and identified single nucleotide polymorphisms in Bos indicus DNA useful for the analysis of parental-specific alleles and their respective transcripts in tissues from hybrid embryos derived by crossing Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle. By analysing differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of imprinted genes SNRPN, H19 and the IGF2R in cattle, we demonstrated that there is a generalized hypomethylation of the imprinted allele and the biallelic expression of embryos produced by SCNT when compared to the methylation patterns observed in vivo (artificially inseminated). Together, these results indicate that imprinting marks are erased during the reprogramming of the somatic cell nucleus during early development...

Da 'moça da vigilancia' ao nucleo de saude coletiva na unidade basica de saude : o que ha de novo no modelo assistencial de Campinas?

Maria Filomena de Gouveia Vilela
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/02/2005 PT
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Em 2001, a partir da mudança no governo municipal, foi reorganizado o modelo de atenção à saúde no município de Campinas. Considerou-se a reformulação da rede básica de saúde como estratégica na reorientação do novo modelo assistencial, com vistas a garantir o acesso e a melhoria da qualidade da atenção prestada aos usuários do SUS. Neste sentido, uma das diretrizes do modelo foi a ampliação das ações de promoção de saúde e prevenção de doenças e agravos no nível local. O arranjo instituído para dar conta deste objetivo foi o Núcleo de Saúde Coletiva, implantado nas unidades básicas de saúde. Esta investigação constitui-se em um estudo de caso, cujo objetivo foi avaliar a implantação dos Núcleos de Saúde Coletiva nas unidades básicas de saúde. A questão central a ser respondida era: o Núcleo de Saúde Coletiva é um dispositivo que consegue, em alguma medida, romper a verticalidade e a duplicidade das linhas da vigilância (epidemiologia) e da assistência individual (clínica) e criar uma prática mais integral em nível local? Acreditando que a busca de respostas poderia revelar a riqueza do processo de implantação desse arranjo institucional, formularam-se algumas hipóteses para orientar o levantamento do material empírico e a análise do mesmo. São elas: o Núcleo de Saúde Coletiva...

Contribution of Subcortical Structures to Cognition Assessed with Invasive Electrophysiology in Humans

Münte, Thomas F.; Heldmann, Marcus; Hinrichs, Hermann; Marco-Pallares, Josep; Krämer, Ulrike M.; Sturm, Volker; Heinze, Hans-Jochen
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/07/2008 EN
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Implantation of deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes via stereotactic neurosurgery has become a standard procedure for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. More recently, the range of neuropsychiatric conditions and the possible target structures suitable for DBS have greatly increased. The former include obsessive compulsive disease, depression, obesity, tremor, dystonia, Tourette's syndrome and cluster-headache. In this article we argue that several of the target structures for DBS (nucleus accumbens, posterior inferior hypothalamus, nucleus subthalamicus, nuclei in the thalamus, globus pallidus internus, nucleus pedunculopontinus) are located at strategic positions within brain circuits related to motivational behaviors, learning, and motor regulation. Recording from DBS electrodes either during the operation or post-operatively from externalized leads while the patient is performing cognitive tasks tapping the functions of the respective circuits provides a new window on the brain mechanisms underlying these functions. This is exemplified by a study of a patient suffering from obsessive-compulsive disease from whom we recorded in a flanker task designed to assess action monitoring processes while he received a DBS electrode in the right nucleus accumbens. Clear error-related modulations were obtained from the target structure...

Basal forebrain amnesia: does the nucleus accumbens contribute to human memory?

Goldenberg, G.; Schuri, U.; Gromminger, O.; Arnold, U.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1999 EN
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OBJECTIVE—To analyse amnesia caused by basal forebrain lesions.
METHODS—A single case study of a patient with amnesia after bleeding into the anterior portion of the left basal ganglia. Neuropsychological examination included tests of attention, executive function, working memory, recall, and recognition of verbal and non-verbal material, and recall from remote semantic and autobiographical memory. The patient's MRI and those of other published cases of basal forebrain amnesia were reviewed to specify which structures within the basal forebrain are crucial for amnesia.
RESULTS—Attention and executive function were largely intact. There was anterograde amnesia for verbal material which affected free recall and recognition. With both modes of testing the patient produced many false positive responses and intrusions when lists of unrelated words had been memorised. However, he confabulated neither on story recall nor in day to day memory, nor in recall from remote memory. The lesion affected mainly the nucleus accumbens, but encroached on the inferior limb of the capsula interna and the most ventral portion of the nucleus caudatus and globus pallidus, and there was evidence of some atrophy of the head of the caudate nucleus. The lesion spared the nucleus basalis Meynert...

Mechanism of centrosome positioning during the wound response in BSC-1 cells

Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/03/1992 EN
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Locomoting cells are characterized by a pronounced external and internal anterior-posterior polarity. One of the events associated with cell polarization at the onset of locomotion is a shift of the centrosome, or MTOC, ahead of the nucleus. This position is believed to be of strategic importance for directional cell movement and cell polarity. We have used BSC-1 cells at the edge of an in vitro wound to clarify the causal relationship between MTOC position and the initiation of cell polarization. We find that pronounced cell polarization (the extension of a lamellipod) can take place in the absence of MTOC repositioning or microtubules. Conversely, MTOCs will reposition even after lamellar extension and cell polarization have occurred. Repositioning requires microtubules that extend to the cell periphery and is independent of selective detyrosination of microtubules extending towards the cell front. Significantly, MTOCs maintain, or at least attempt to maintain, a position at the cell's centroid. This is most clearly demonstrated in wounded monolayers of enucleated cells where the MTOC closely follows the centroid position. We suggest that the primary response to the would is the biased extension of a lamellipod, which can occur in the absence of microtubules and MTOC repositioning. Lamellipod extension leads to a shift of the cell's centroid towards the wound. The MTOC...

Striatal morphology as a biomarker in neurodegenerativedisease

Looi, Jeffrey; Walterfang, Mark
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The striatum, comprising the caudate nucleus, putamen and nucleus accumbens, occupies a strategic location within cortico-striato-pallido- thalamic-cortical (corticostriatal) re-entrant neural circuits. Striatal neurodevelopment is precisely determined by

Social dominance in rats: effects on cocaine self-administration, novelty reactivity and dopamine receptor binding and content in the striatum; Social status and cocaine reinforcement

Jupp, Bianca; Murray, Jennifer E.; Jordan, Emily R.; Xia, Jing; Fluharty, Meg; Shrestha, Surav; Robbins, Trevor W.; Dalley, Jeffrey W.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Article; published version
EN
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This is the final version of the article. It was first available from Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-015-4122-8; Rationale: Studies in human and non-human primates demonstrate that social status is an important determinant of cocaine reinforcement. However, it is unclear whether social rank is associated with other traits that also predispose to addiction and whether social status similarly predicts cocaine self-administration in rats. Objectives: To investigate whether social ranking as assessed using a resource competition task, in group-housed rats affects (i) the acquisition, maintenance, and reinstatement of cocaine self-administration; (ii) dopaminergic markers in the striatum; and (iii) the expression of ancillary traits for addiction. Methods: Social ranking was determined in group-housed rats based upon individual drinking times during competition for a highly palatable liquid with socially dominant animals spending more time at the single drinking spout than subordinate animals. Rats were then evaluated for cocaine self-administration and cue-induced drug reinstatement or individual levels of impulsivity, anxiety and novelty-induced locomotor activity. Finally, dopamine content, dopamine transporter (DAT) and D2/3 receptor binding were measured post-mortem in the dorsal and ventral striatum. Results: Rats deemed socially dominant on the competitive drinking task showed enhanced novelty reactivity but were neither more impulsive nor anxious compared with subordinate rats. Dominant rats additionally maintained higher rates of cocaine self-administration but showed no differences in the acquisition...

O país no futuro: aspectos metodológicos e cenários

Wright, James Terence C.; Spers, Renata Giovinazzo
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Estudos Avançados Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Estudos Avançados
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/04/2006 POR
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ESTE TRABALHO apresenta os objetivos, a metodologia e os resultados iniciais de um esforço de pensar cenários para o Brasil em 2022, e demonstra a importância e a viabilidade do uso de cenários para planejar os rumos do país. São apresentados os cenários globais e institucionais elaborados por uma equipe do IEA no Projeto "Brasil 3 Tempos", coordenado pelo Núcleo de Assuntos Estratégicos da Presidência da República. Os resultados demonstram que é possível integrar de maneira produtiva as opiniões de um grupo de mais de duzentos especialistas, criando de maneira estruturada um conjunto de cenários consistentes e plausíveis sobre o futuro. Visões estruturadas do futuro são fundamentais para definirmos as ações estratégicas de longo prazo indispensáveis para alcançarmos um cenário futuro desejado, diante das múltiplas oportunidades e desafios de um mundo em transformação.; THIS ARTICLE presents the objectives, methodology and initial findings of a scenario generating effort for the year 2022 for Brazil, and demonstrates the importance and feasibility of using scenarios to plan the country's future. We present Global and Institutional scenarios created by a IEA-USP team within the "Brasil 3 Tempos" project, coordinated by the Strategic Issues Nucleus of the Presidency of the Republic. The results show that it was possible to integrate in a productive manner the views of over 200 experts...

Implicated Role of Endocytosis in the Internalization and Intracellular Transport of Plasmid DNA During Electric Field-Mediated Gene Delivery

Wu, Mina
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2011
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Electric field mediated gene delivery (EFMGD) or electrotransfection is a popular, non-viral gene delivery method that has been used in a variety of studies and applications ranging from basic cell biology research to clinical gene therapy. Yet, the mechanism(s) by which electrotransfection facilitates DNA delivery across the cell membrane into the cell and its subsequent intracellular transport across the cytosolic space towards the nucleus have been insufficiently studied and still remain controversial. Understanding these mechanisms and characterizing the intracellular journey of pDNA is important for understanding the physiological barriers of EFMGD within the cell, which can be used to engineer better solutions to overcome these barriers with the ultimate goal of improving the transfection efficiency of this technology.

Conventional thought in the field assumes that such transport modes as diffusion, electrophoresis, and electro-osmosis, which govern the entry of small molecules into cells through electric field-generated transient membrane pores, also apply to electric field-mediated delivery of therapeutic DNA. We propose that electrically-induced gene transfer into cells is governed by an alternative, more active mode of transport that entails the involvement of cellular endocytic processes. It is our hypothesis that pulsed electric field generate these membrane pores which interact with nearby DNA molecules; but that actual DNA translocation across the membrane is driven by endocytosis...