Página 1 dos resultados de 1171 itens digitais encontrados em 0.139 segundos

Spatial analysis of urban violence based on emergency room data; Análise espacial da violência urbana baseada em dados de pronto-socorro; Análisis espacial de la violencia urbana basada en datos de centros de urgencia

LIMA, Liliam Pereira de; SINGER, Julio da Motta; SALDIVA, Paulo Hilário do Nascimento
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.46%
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the spatial intensity of urban violence events using wavelet-based methods and emergency room data. METHODS: Information on victims attended at the emergency room of a public hospital in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, from January 1, 2002 to January 11, 2003 were obtained from hospital records. The spatial distribution of 3,540 events was recorded and a uniform random procedure was used to allocate records with incomplete addresses. Point processes and wavelet analysis technique were used to estimate the spatial intensity, defined as the expected number of events by unit area. RESULTS: Of all georeferenced points, 59% were accidents and 40% were assaults. There is a non-homogeneous spatial distribution of the events with high concentration in two districts and three large avenues in the southern area of the city of São Paulo. CONCLUSIONS: Hospital records combined with methodological tools to estimate intensity of events are useful to study urban violence. The wavelet analysis is useful in the computation of the expected number of events and their respective confidence bands for any sub-region and, consequently, in the specification of risk estimates that could be used in decision-making processes for public policies.; OBJETIVO: Estimar a intensidade espacial de eventos violentos utilizando metodologia estatística baseada em ondaletas (wavelets) e em dados de pronto-socorro. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados dados referentes a vítimas de causas externas atendidas em pronto-socorro municipal localizado na zona Sul da cidade de São Paulo (SP) no período de 1/1/2002 a 11/1/2003. As informações foram obtidas a partir dos registros hospitalares. As 3.540 ocorrências foram localizadas geograficamente e os casos com endereço incompleto foram alocados com base numa escolha aleatória uniforme. Processos pontuais e técnicas de ondaletas foram utilizados para estimar a intensidade espacial...

Avaliação de métodos estatísticos aplicados ao estudo de testes diagnósticos na presença do viés de verificação; Evaluation of statistical methods applied to diagnostics tests in the presence of the verification bias.

Aragon, Davi Casale
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/08/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.52%
O estudo de métodos estatísticos na avaliação de métodos diagnósticos tem aumentado consideravelmente nas últimas décadas. Desde o início, quando Yerushalmy (1947) publicou seu traba lho sobre confiabilidade do roentgeno grama na identificação da tuberculose, novas metodologias surgiram para que fosse possível a obtenção de valores de sensibilidade e especificidade de testes diagnósticos. A sensibilidade é definida como a probabilidade de o teste sob investigação fornecer um resultado positivo, dado que o indivíduo é realmen te portador da enfermidade. A especifi cidade, por sua vez, é definida como a probabilidade de o teste fornecer um resultado negativo, dado que o indivíduo está livre da enfermidade. Na prática, é comum ocorrerem situações em que uma proporção de indivíduos selecionados não pode ter o estado real da doença verificado, por se tratar de procedimentos invasivos, como no diagnóstico de câncer de pulmão, ou quaisquer outros casos em que são envolvidos riscos, portanto não praticá veis, nem éticos, ou ainda por serem de alto custo. Assim, em vez de se contornar o proble ma, muitos estudos de avaliação de performance de testes diagnósticos são elaborados apenas com informações de indivíduos verificados. Esse procedimento pode levar a resultados viesados. É o chamado viés de verificação...

Sorteio de domicílios em favelas em inquéritos por amostragem

Alves, Maria Cecilia Goi Porto; Morais, Maria de Lima Salum e; Escuder, Maria Mercedes Loureiro; Goldbaum, Moisés; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão; Carandina, Luana
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1099-1109
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.46%
OBJETIVO: Identificar vantagens e desvantagens do uso de segmentos em relação ao sorteio feito a partir da lista completa de endereços, para o sorteio de domicílios em amostragem por conglomerados em múltiplos estágios em favelas. PROCEDIMENTOS METODOLÓGICOS: Estudo qualitativo realizado em quatro favelas sorteadas no Inquérito de Saúde do Município de São Paulo, SP, 2008, nas quais foram aplicadas as duas técnicas. Foram realizados grupos focais com pesquisadores de campo - arroladores e entrevistadores do inquérito. Os conteúdos das conversações foram analisados, agrupados em categorias e organizados em núcleos temáticos. ANÁLISE DOS RESULTADOS: A utilização de segmentos de domicílios foi associada a numerosas vantagens e poucas desvantagens. Entre as vantagens, constaram a rapidez e facilidade na elaboração do cadastro de endereços e na localização e identificação de domicílios na etapa de realização das entrevistas, maior segurança dos entrevistadores e da população, maior acesso aos entrevistados, maior estabilidade e maior cobertura do cadastro produzido, e menor ocorrência de erros na identificação dos domicílios sorteados. CONCLUSÕES: A construção de cadastro de domicílios por meio da criação de segmentos é vantajosa em relação à listagem completa de endereços...

Spatial analysis of urban violence based on emergency room data

Lima,Liliam Pereira de; Singer,Julio da Motta; Saldiva,Paulo Hilário do Nascimento
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.46%
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the spatial intensity of urban violence events using wavelet-based methods and emergency room data. METHODS: Information on victims attended at the emergency room of a public hospital in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, from January 1, 2002 to January 11, 2003 were obtained from hospital records. The spatial distribution of 3,540 events was recorded and a uniform random procedure was used to allocate records with incomplete addresses. Point processes and wavelet analysis technique were used to estimate the spatial intensity, defined as the expected number of events by unit area. RESULTS: Of all georeferenced points, 59% were accidents and 40% were assaults. There is a non-homogeneous spatial distribution of the events with high concentration in two districts and three large avenues in the southern area of the city of São Paulo. CONCLUSIONS: Hospital records combined with methodological tools to estimate intensity of events are useful to study urban violence. The wavelet analysis is useful in the computation of the expected number of events and their respective confidence bands for any sub-region and, consequently, in the specification of risk estimates that could be used in decision-making processes for public policies.

Ordinal logistic regression models: application in quality of life studies

Abreu,Mery Natali Silva; Siqueira,Arminda Lucia; Cardoso,Clareci Silva; Caiaffa,Waleska Teixeira
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.59%
Quality of life has been increasingly emphasized in public health research in recent years. Typically, the results of quality of life are measured by means of ordinal scales. In these situations, specific statistical methods are necessary because procedures such as either dichotomization or misinformation on the distribution of the outcome variable may complicate the inferential process. Ordinal logistic regression models are appropriate in many of these situations. This article presents a review of the proportional odds model, partial proportional odds model, continuation ratio model, and stereotype model. The fit, statistical inference, and comparisons between models are illustrated with data from a study on quality of life in 273 patients with schizophrenia. All tested models showed good fit, but the proportional odds or partial proportional odds models proved to be the best choice due to the nature of the data and ease of interpretation of the results. Ordinal logistic models perform differently depending on categorization of outcome, adequacy in relation to assumptions, goodness-of-fit, and parsimony.

A comparison of three statistical methods applied in the identification of eating patterns

Cunha,Diana Barbosa; Almeida,Renan Moritz Varnier Rodrigues de; Pereira,Rosângela Alves
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.56%
This work aimed to compare the results of three statistical methods applied in the identification of dietary patterns. Data from 1,009 adults between the ages of 20 and 65 (339 males and 670 females) were collected in a population-based cross-sectional survey in the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Information on food consumption was obtained using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. A factor analysis, cluster analysis, and reduced rank regression (RRR) analysis were applied to identify dietary patterns. The patterns identified by the three methods were similar. The factor analysis identified "mixed", "Western", and "traditional" eating patterns and explained 35% of the data variance. The cluster analysis identified "mixed" and "traditional" patterns. In the RRR, the consumption of carbohydrates and lipids were included as response variables and again "mixed" and "traditional" patterns were identified. Studies comparing these methods can help to inform decisions as to which procedures best suit a specific research scenario.

Statistical Methods for Establishing Quality Control Ranges for Antibacterial Agents in Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute Susceptibility Testing▿

Turnidge, John; Bordash, Gerry
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.55%
Quality control (QC) ranges for antimicrobial agents against QC strains for both dilution and disk diffusion testing are currently set by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), using data gathered in predefined structured multilaboratory studies, so-called tier 2 studies. The ranges are finally selected by the relevant CLSI subcommittee, based largely on visual inspection and a few simple rules. We have developed statistical methods for analyzing the data from tier 2 studies and applied them to QC strain-antimicrobial agent combinations from 178 dilution testing data sets and 48 disk diffusion data sets, including a method for identifying possible outlier data from individual laboratories. The methods are based on the fact that dilution testing MIC data were log normally distributed and disk diffusion zone diameter data were normally distributed. For dilution testing, compared to QC ranges actually set by CLSI, calculated ranges were identical in 68% of cases, narrower in 7% of cases, and wider in 14% of cases. For disk diffusion testing, calculated ranges were identical to CLSI ranges in 33% of cases, narrower in 8% of cases, and 1 to 2 mm wider in 58% of cases. Possible outliers were detected in 8% of diffusion test data but none of the disk diffusion data. Application of statistical techniques to the analysis of QC tier 2 data and the setting of QC ranges is relatively simple to perform on spreadsheets...

An extension on "statistical comparisons of classifiers over multiple data sets" for all pairwise comparisons

Garc??a, Salvador; Herrera, Francisco
Fonte: MIT Press Publicador: MIT Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.62%
In a recently published paper in JMLR, Demsar (2006) recommends a set of non-parametric statistical tests and procedures which can be safely used for comparing the performance of classifiers over multiple data sets. After studying the paper, we realize that the paper correctly introduces the basic procedures and some of the most advanced ones when comparing a control method. However, it does not deal with some advanced topics in depth. Regarding these topics, we focus on more powerful proposals of statistical procedures for comparing n*n classifiers. Moreover, we illustrate an easy way of obtaining adjusted and comparable p-values in multiple comparison procedures.

Identification, Weak Instruments and Statistical Inference in Econometrics

DUFOUR, Jean-Marie
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 268035 bytes; application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.75%
We discuss statistical inference problems associated with identification and testability in econometrics, and we emphasize the common nature of the two issues. After reviewing the relevant statistical notions, we consider in turn inference in nonparametric models and recent developments on weakly identified models (or weak instruments). We point out that many hypotheses, for which test procedures are commonly proposed, are not testable at all, while some frequently used econometric methods are fundamentally inappropriate for the models considered. Such situations lead to ill-defined statistical problems and are often associated with a misguided use of asymptotic distributional results. Concerning nonparametric hypotheses, we discuss three basic problems for which such difficulties occur: (1) testing a mean (or a moment) under (too) weak distributional assumptions; (2) inference under heteroskedasticity of unknown form; (3) inference in dynamic models with an unlimited number of parameters. Concerning weakly identified models, we stress that valid inference should be based on proper pivotal functions —a condition not satisfied by standard Wald-type methods based on standard errors — and we discuss recent developments in this field...

Graphical models for visual object recognition and tracking

Sudderth, Erik B. (Erik Blaine), 1977-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 301 p.; 19955509 bytes; 19954958 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.63%
We develop statistical methods which allow effective visual detection, categorization, and tracking of objects in complex scenes. Such computer vision systems must be robust to wide variations in object appearance, the often small size of training databases, and ambiguities induced by articulated or partially occluded objects. Graphical models provide a powerful framework for encoding the statistical structure of visual scenes, and developing corresponding learning and inference algorithms. In this thesis, we describe several models which integrate graphical representations with nonparametric statistical methods. This approach leads to inference algorithms which tractably recover high-dimensional, continuous object pose variations, and learning procedures which transfer knowledge among related recognition tasks. Motivated by visual tracking problems, we first develop a nonparametric extension of the belief propagation (BP) algorithm. Using Monte Carlo methods, we provide general procedures for recursively updating particle-based approximations of continuous sufficient statistics. Efficient multiscale sampling methods then allow this nonparametric BP algorithm to be flexibly adapted to many different applications.; (cont.) As a particular example...

Modeling aviation's global emissions, uncertainty analysis, and applications to policy

Lee, Joosung Joseph, 1974-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 134, [6] p.; 12999387 bytes; 13016200 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.55%
(cont.) fuel burn results below 3000 ft. For emissions, the emissions indices were the most influential uncertainties for the variance in model outputs. By employing the model, this thesis examined three policy options for mitigating aviation emissions. More stringent engine certification standards, continuous descent approach procedures, and derated take-off procedures were analyzed. Uncertainties of the model were carefully accounted for in the fuel burn and emissions scenarios of the policy options. The considered policy options achieved roughly 10-30% reductions in NOx emissions. However, HC and CO emissions rather increased due to higher emissions production rate for the CDA and derated take-off. In addition, the NOx emissions reductions in some cases were not statistically significant given the uncertainty in the modeling tool.; Air travel continues to experience fast growth. Although the energy intensity of the air transport system continues to improve, aviation fuel use and emissions of many pollutants have risen. This thesis focuses on developing, assessing and applying a system model to evaluate global aircraft fuel consumption and emissions, and to examine technological and operational measures to mitigate these emissions. The model is capable of computing how much emissions are produced on a flight-by-flight...

Toward A Common Framework for Statistical Analysis and Development

Imai, Kosuke; King, Gary; Lau, Olivia
Fonte: American Statistical Association Publicador: American Statistical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.6%
We describe some progress toward a common framework for statistical analysis and software development built on and within the R language, including R's numerous existing packages. The framework we have developed offers a simple unified structure and syntax that can encompass a large fraction of statistical procedures already implemented in R, without requiring any changes in existing approaches. We conjecture that it can be used to encompass and present simply a vast majority of existing statistical methods, regardless of the theory of inference on which they are based, notation with which they were developed, and programming syntax with which they have been implemented. This development enabled us, and should enable others, to design statistical software with a single, simple, and unified user interface that helps overcome the conflicting notation, syntax, jargon, and statistical methods existing across the methods subfields of numerous academic disciplines. The approach also enables one to build a graphical user interface that automatically includes any method encompassed within the framework. We hope that the result of this line of research will greatly reduce the time from the creation of a new statistical innovation to its widespread use by applied researchers whether or not they use or program in R.; Government

Critical analysis of the use of statistical tests in Brazilian publications related to digestive tract surgery

Orso,Ivan Roberto Bonotto; Pereira,Julio C R; D'Albuquerque,Luiz A C; Cecconello,Ivan; Jukemura,José
Fonte: Associação Médica Brasileira Publicador: Associação Médica Brasileira
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.69%
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the evolution of scientific papers published on digestive tract surgery in Brazilian journals in 20 years and examine whether the level of evidence in the studies has improved, as well as the incorporation of statistical procedures and their proper application. METHODS: We selected all original articles related to digestive tract surgery published in the years of 1987 and 2007 in 4 leading Brazilian surgical journals. Studies were divided according to the level of evidence (I: prospective, controlled and randomized, II: prospective without control or randomization and III: retrospective) and compared them to assess whether there was an improvement in the level of evidence between these two years surveyed. We also assessed whether there was increased use of analytical statistics and correct application of statistical procedures. RESULTS: Comparing the articles published in 1987 with those of 2007, we observed no improvement with respect to the level of evidence, with more than half of the articles published being case series and retrospective studies (56.14%). There has been a significant increase in the use of analytical statistics (70.4% in 2007 vs. 40% in 1987) in the 20 years, however 16.7% of the studies published in 2007 did not correctly apply or adequately describe the statistical analyses used. CONCLUSION: In this study...

Statistical Methods for Astronomy

Feigelson, Eric D.; Babu, G. Jogesh
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/05/2012
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.69%
This review outlines concepts of mathematical statistics, elements of probability theory, hypothesis tests and point estimation for use in the analysis of modern astronomical data. Least squares, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian approaches to statistical inference are treated. Resampling methods, particularly the bootstrap, provide valuable procedures when distributions functions of statistics are not known. Several approaches to model selection and good- ness of fit are considered. Applied statistics relevant to astronomical research are briefly discussed: nonparametric methods for use when little is known about the behavior of the astronomical populations or processes; data smoothing with kernel density estimation and nonparametric regression; unsupervised clustering and supervised classification procedures for multivariate problems; survival analysis for astronomical datasets with nondetections; time- and frequency-domain times series analysis for light curves; and spatial statistics to interpret the spatial distributions of points in low dimensions. Two types of resources are presented: about 40 recommended texts and monographs in various fields of statistics, and the public domain R software system for statistical analysis. Together with its \sim 3500 (and growing) add-on CRAN packages...

Análise espacial da violência urbana baseada em dados de pronto-socorro; Análisis espacial de la violencia urbana basada en datos de centros de urgencia; Spatial analysis of urban violence based on emergency room data

Lima, Liliam Pereira de; Singer, Julio da Motta; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário do Nascimento
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/08/2008 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.46%
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the spatial intensity of urban violence events using wavelet-based methods and emergency room data. METHODS: Information on victims attended at the emergency room of a public hospital in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, from January 1, 2002 to January 11, 2003 were obtained from hospital records. The spatial distribution of 3,540 events was recorded and a uniform random procedure was used to allocate records with incomplete addresses. Point processes and wavelet analysis technique were used to estimate the spatial intensity, defined as the expected number of events by unit area. RESULTS: Of all georeferenced points, 59% were accidents and 40% were assaults. There is a non-homogeneous spatial distribution of the events with high concentration in two districts and three large avenues in the southern area of the city of São Paulo. CONCLUSIONS: Hospital records combined with methodological tools to estimate intensity of events are useful to study urban violence. The wavelet analysis is useful in the computation of the expected number of events and their respective confidence bands for any sub-region and, consequently, in the specification of risk estimates that could be used in decision-making processes for public policies.; OBJETIVO: Estimar a intensidade espacial de eventos violentos utilizando metodologia estatística baseada em ondaletas (wavelets) e em dados de pronto-socorro. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados dados referentes a vítimas de causas externas atendidas em pronto-socorro municipal localizado na zona Sul da cidade de São Paulo (SP) no período de 1/1/2002 a 11/1/2003. As informações foram obtidas a partir dos registros hospitalares. As 3.540 ocorrências foram localizadas geograficamente e os casos com endereço incompleto foram alocados com base numa escolha aleatória uniforme. Processos pontuais e técnicas de ondaletas foram utilizados para estimar a intensidade espacial...

Metodologia do estudo da coorte de nascimentos de 1982 a 2004-5, Pelotas, RS; Metodologia de estudio de la cohorte de nacimientos de 1982 a 2004-5, Pelotas, Sur de Brasil; Methodology of the Pelotas birth cohort study from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil

Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G; Horta, Bernardo L; Gigante, Denise P
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2008 POR; ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.48%
OBJETIVO: Descrever os métodos utilizados no estudo longitudinal e acompanhamento das crianças nascidas em Pelotas (RS) em 1982. MÉTODOS: A coorte foi iniciada com um inquérito de saúde perinatal de todas as 6.011 crianças nascidas nas maternidades de Pelotas em 1982. As 5.914 crianças nascidas vivas foram incluídas nos estudos de acompanhamento. Até 2004-5 foram realizados oito acompanhamentos, com a aplicação de questionários às mães e/ou aos membros da coorte, conforme a faixa etária. Exames antropométricos e clínicos foram realizados nas visitas. Os participantes da coorte são descritos conforme variáveis demográficas, socioeconômicas e de saúde colhidas nos primeiros acompanhamentos, que são utilizadas como variáveis de exposição. RESULTADOS: A maior parte dos jovens da coorte foram acompanhados durante 23 anos de vida e distintas visitas. Os acompanhamentos que obtiveram maior êxito foram aqueles precedidos por um censo da cidade. Com este método foram localizados 87,2% em 1984 (idade média de 19 meses), 84,1% em 2006 (média 43 meses), e 77,4% em 2004-5 (média 23 anos). CONCLUSÕES: Estudos de coorte de nascimentos podem ser realizados com sucesso em países em desenvolvimento, e a metodologia empregada nesses estudos de ciclo vital permite estudar a influência de exposições precoces sobre a determinação das doenças da vida adulta.; OBJETIVO: Describir los métodos utilizados en el estudio longitudinal y acompañamiento de los niños nacidos en Pelotas (Sur de Brasil) en 1982. MÉTODOS: La cohorte fue iniciada con una investigación de salud perinatal de todos los 6.011 niños nacidos en las maternidades de Pelotas en 1982. Los 5.914 niños nacidos vivos fueron incluidos en los estudios de acompañamiento. Hasta 2004-5 fueron realizados ocho acompañamientos...

The allocation of gold production from multiple shafts feeding a common treatment plant using run-of-mine sampling of ore deliveries

Bartlett,H.E.; Korff,L.; Minnitt,R.C.A.
Fonte: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Publicador: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.63%
Previously, the grade of ore at the shaft head was taken to be equivalent to the grade measured in the faces by means of chip sampling. The tonnage mined from the stopes is determined from survey volumetric measurements. Estimates of shaft head grade and tons include the grades and tons of waste, development ore, sweepings from old areas, and other sources, not all of which are sampled. The tonnage of ore delivered at the shaft is often estimated using skip factors. These factors are subject to manipulation and not all the skips are filled to the same level. Consequently, both the grade and tonnage of ore delivered at shaft head are subject to a measure of uncertainty. For many years, these uncertainties have led to disputes between shaft managers and metallurgists over the reconciliation between shaft tons and grade and plant tons and grade. These problems are compounded when several shafts feed a central processing plant. Shaft bonuses and a shaft's profitability are affected by poor gold allocation methods. Without measurement of the grade and tonnage from all shafts, a poorly performing shaft could benefit at the expense of the other shafts. In order to improve the measurement of grades and tonnage at the shaft head, which is the custody transfer point between the mine and surface operations...

Spatial analysis of urban violence based on emergency room data

Lima,Liliam Pereira de; Singer,Julio da Motta; Saldiva,Paulo Hilário do Nascimento
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.46%
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the spatial intensity of urban violence events using wavelet-based methods and emergency room data. METHODS: Information on victims attended at the emergency room of a public hospital in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, from January 1, 2002 to January 11, 2003 were obtained from hospital records. The spatial distribution of 3,540 events was recorded and a uniform random procedure was used to allocate records with incomplete addresses. Point processes and wavelet analysis technique were used to estimate the spatial intensity, defined as the expected number of events by unit area. RESULTS: Of all georeferenced points, 59% were accidents and 40% were assaults. There is a non-homogeneous spatial distribution of the events with high concentration in two districts and three large avenues in the southern area of the city of São Paulo. CONCLUSIONS: Hospital records combined with methodological tools to estimate intensity of events are useful to study urban violence. The wavelet analysis is useful in the computation of the expected number of events and their respective confidence bands for any sub-region and, consequently, in the specification of risk estimates that could be used in decision-making processes for public policies.

Ordinal logistic regression models: application in quality of life studies

Abreu,Mery Natali Silva; Siqueira,Arminda Lucia; Cardoso,Clareci Silva; Caiaffa,Waleska Teixeira
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.59%
Quality of life has been increasingly emphasized in public health research in recent years. Typically, the results of quality of life are measured by means of ordinal scales. In these situations, specific statistical methods are necessary because procedures such as either dichotomization or misinformation on the distribution of the outcome variable may complicate the inferential process. Ordinal logistic regression models are appropriate in many of these situations. This article presents a review of the proportional odds model, partial proportional odds model, continuation ratio model, and stereotype model. The fit, statistical inference, and comparisons between models are illustrated with data from a study on quality of life in 273 patients with schizophrenia. All tested models showed good fit, but the proportional odds or partial proportional odds models proved to be the best choice due to the nature of the data and ease of interpretation of the results. Ordinal logistic models perform differently depending on categorization of outcome, adequacy in relation to assumptions, goodness-of-fit, and parsimony.

A comparison of three statistical methods applied in the identification of eating patterns

Cunha,Diana Barbosa; Almeida,Renan Moritz Varnier Rodrigues de; Pereira,Rosângela Alves
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.56%
This work aimed to compare the results of three statistical methods applied in the identification of dietary patterns. Data from 1,009 adults between the ages of 20 and 65 (339 males and 670 females) were collected in a population-based cross-sectional survey in the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Information on food consumption was obtained using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. A factor analysis, cluster analysis, and reduced rank regression (RRR) analysis were applied to identify dietary patterns. The patterns identified by the three methods were similar. The factor analysis identified "mixed", "Western", and "traditional" eating patterns and explained 35% of the data variance. The cluster analysis identified "mixed" and "traditional" patterns. In the RRR, the consumption of carbohydrates and lipids were included as response variables and again "mixed" and "traditional" patterns were identified. Studies comparing these methods can help to inform decisions as to which procedures best suit a specific research scenario.