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Evaluation of the ductility demand in partial strength steel structures in seismic areas using non-linear static analysis

Nogueiro, Pedro; Bento, Rita; Silva, Luís Simões da
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Bragança Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Bragança
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.99%
The performance of a structural system can be evaluated resorting to non-linear static analysis, also commonly referred to as Pushover Analysis, because of the nature of application of lateral loads while defining the capacity of the structure. This analysis involves the estimation of the structural strength and deformation demands and the comparison with the available capacities at desired performance levels. This paper aims at evaluating the seismic response of three steel structures using non-linear static analyses, based on the N2 method, adopted by Eurocode 8, the European seismic code. The results are compared with the ones evaluated by means of non-linear dynamic analyses. As a conclusion it can be ascertained that the non-linear static procedures are an alternative tool in seismic assessment and design, over just a force-based design. For structures that vibrate mainly in the fundamental mode, the pushover analysis applied in this work will provide good estimates of global, as well as local inelastic deformation demands.

Perfomance based design of building structural frames using static non-linear analysis

Barros, R.C.; Braz César, M.T.
Fonte: Civil-Comp Press Publicador: Civil-Comp Press
Tipo: Parte de Livro
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.01%
In the design of structures under seismic actions several methodologies can be used to describe the structural seismic response. The recent role of performance based design led to the development and use of methods based on non-linear analysis, namely the so-called pushover analysis. This analysis is a particularly realistic methodology to evaluate the seismic performance of a structural system since the time dependence of the structural behaviour, namely through material and/or geometric non-linearity, is included in the methodology. The pushover analysis is a simplified methodology to obtain the structural response to seismic actions through a non-linear static analysis. This analysis evaluates the performance of the structures through control of its displacements (at local and global levels), still giving information about the ductility and the resistant strength capacity. Several analysis methods have been proposed like the N2-method (Fajfar and Fischinger [1]) that is actually presented in Eurocode 8 (EC8) [2]. The implementation of this methodology in this regulation manifests the relevance of this analysis in the structural design. Therefore, the present study was developed to compile some information about this new dynamic structural analysis and design concept. In this context...

Geometrical nonlinearities on the static analysis of highly flexible steel cable-stayed bridges

Freire, A. M. S.; Negrão, J. H. O.; Lopes, A. V.
Fonte: Universidade de Coimbra Publicador: Universidade de Coimbra
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: aplication/PDF
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.8%
An evaluation of the importance of geometrically nonlinear effects on the structural static analysis of steel cable-stayed bridges is presented. A finite element model is analyzed using linear, pseudo-linear and nonlinear methods. The pseudo-linear approach is based on the modified elastic modulus. The nonlinear analysis involves cable sag, large displacement and beam-column effects. The results confirm that both cable sag and large displacement originate the most important nonlinear effects in those structures. Beam-column effects are irrelevant for service loads. Both the pseudo-linear approach and the modified modulus element prove to be very limited or even inappropriate.; http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6V28-4M6SB97-4/1/de283428716dc4f80f22fb729e9b188d

Análise estática não linear plana de pontes estaiadas e determinação das frequências naturais e modos de vibração; Nonlinear static analysis of plane cable-stayed bridges and determination of natural frequencies and vibration modes

Moreira Filho, Carlos Augusto
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/03/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.93%
As pontes estaiadas são exemplos de estruturas esbeltas e flexíveis onde a capacidade de utilização dos materiais tem grande importância. Neste sentido, para garantir a melhor utilização dos materiais envolvidos (aço e concreto, por exemplo), é preciso determinar as forças de protensão aplicadas aos cabos. A melhor distribuição dos momentos fletores no tabuleiro de ponte é aquela obtida com uma viga contínua. Pontes estaiadas fornecem apoios elásticos ao tabuleiro. O presente trabalho emprega o método da anulação dos deslocamentos, MAD, para obter as forças axiais a que os cabos estarão submetidos de modo a aproximar o comportamento do tabuleiro ao de uma viga contínua. O método MAD. proporciona uma estrutura economicamente mais viável. O código computacional desenvolvido realiza análises estática e modal por meio do método dos elementos finitos, MEF. A análise estática utilizada é a não linear geométrica, considerando as não linearidades do efeito de catenária do cabo, e dos elementos submetidos à compressão. O material é assumido no campo do regime elástico linear. A ponte é modelada por elementos de treliça plana com módulo de elasticidade de Dischinger, para simular os cabos, e elementos de pórtico plano para os elementos do tabuleiro e da torre. O carregamento da estrutura considera a atuação apenas do peso-próprio dos elementos estruturais. O código computacional desenvolvido permite...

Análise estática e dinâmica de estruturas delgadas de materiais compostos laminados incluindo materiais piezelétricos; Static and dynamic analysis of thin laminated composite structures with piezoelectric materials

Isoldi, Liércio André
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.92%
Sabe-se que materiais compostos laminados são, hoje em dia, geralmente usados nas indústrias aeronáutica, aeroespacial, naval e outras, principalmente por causa de suas atrativas propriedades se comparadas aos materiais isotrópicos, como alta rigidez/peso, alta resistência, alto amortecimento e boas propriedades relacionadas ao isolamento térmico e acústico, entre outras. Porém, o comportamento de estruturas feitas de materiais compostos pode ser aperfeiçoado através da utilização de materiais inteligentes. Dentre os diferentes tipos comercialmente disponíveis de materiais inteligentes, os materiais piezelétricos são amplamente usados como sensores e atuadores para o monitoramento e controle de estruturas. O efeito piezelétrico direto define que uma deformação mecânica aplicada ao material é convertida em uma carga elétrica. Por outro lado, o efeito piezelétrico inverso define que um potencial elétrico aplicado ao material é convertido em deformação mecânica. Estes efeitos governam a interação eletromecânica nos materiais piezelétricos. O Método dos Elementos Finitos, uma ferramenta amplamente reconhecida e poderosa para a análise de estruturas complexas, é capaz de realizar a integração dos componentes inteligentes e das partes estruturais clássicas. Sendo assim...

Modular and generic WCET static analysis with LLVM framework; Análise estática, genérica e modular de WCET utilizando a infra-estrutura de compilação do LLVM

Fachini, Guilherme James de Angelis
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.96%
O cálculo do tempo do pior-caso de execução, do inglês Worst Case Execution Time (WCET) é um desafio na área de verificação de software para sistemas de tempo real. Essa análise faz parte do trabalho de escalonamento de tarefas de processos em sistemas multi-cores. A complexidade de prever esse tempo aumenta de acordo com a complexidade do hardware do sistema a ser analisado e seus componentes, já que muitas partes de uma plataforma, como pipelines e memória cache inserem variantes no tempo de execução difíceis de prever e analisar. Existem vários métodos com diferentes abordagens para se calcular o tempo de execução de um programa. Eles são principalmente baseados em análises estáticas e dinâmicas, de forma que a estática utiliza um modelo de hardware e analisa o código, enquanto a dinâmica necessita de algum simulador ou de uma plataforma real para realizar as medidas de tempo. Esse trabalho apresenta um modelo de análise estática para prever o tempo do piorcaso de execução de códigos para sistemas embarcados de tempo real. Além disso, executa, para fins de comparação, uma análise dinâmica baseado na execução dos códigos de teste em um simulador. O modelo de análise estática é desenvolvido baseado em um assembly gerado pela infra-estrutura de compilação do LLVM...

Análise estática de torres metálicas treliçadas autoportantes para linhas de transmissão; Static analysis of self-supporting latticed steel towers for transmission lines

Singh, Kellen de Souza
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Dissertação
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.94%
Dissertação (mestrado)—Universidade de Brasília, Faculdade de Tecnologia, Departamento de Engenharia Civil e Ambiental, 2009.; Este trabalho descreve o estudo do comportamento de torres metálicas autoportantes submetidas à ação do vento. Inicialmente foram modificadas algumas sub-rotinas dos programas desenvolvidos por Menin (2002). Assim, foram desenvolvidos novos programas: GTAU que gera a geometria das torres autoportantes e AETAU que realiza a análise estática. Nesses programas, a determinação da força estática do vento é determinada a partir dos critérios da NBR 6123 e NBR 5422. As torres foram modeladas utilizando um modelo matemático não linear que permite alongamentos nos elementos de cabos e treliças para a introdução das forças de prétensionamento, além de considerar o efeito da variação da temperatura. Completando o estudo, é realizada uma análise comparativa entre os resultados dos deslocamentos dos cabos, obtidos no programa AETAU, com a flecha obtida através da equação da parábola. Além disso, foram comparados os resultados da força axial (tração) dos cabos, obtidos no programa AETAU, com os resultados obtidos com o programa SAP2000 Advanced v. 12.0.0. Os dados obtidos através da análise estática revelaram que os programas desenvolvidos foram capazes de simular o comportamento dos cabos quando submetidos à ação do vento e peso próprio. Observando-se os resultados da análise sem vento de todos os modelos analisados...

Determination of the material/geometry of the section most adequate for a static loaded beam subjected to a combination of bending and torsion

Silva, Hugo Miguel
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
Publicado em //2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.86%
Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Engenharia de Materiais; The Finite Element Method (FEM) is widely used to solve structural analysis problems. In this work, a novel Finite Element Model Updating methodology for static analysis is presented. The aim of the work is to improve the quality of the results using the Finite Element Updating techniques, by optimizing geometric parameters of the models and material properties in order to minimize deflection. Deflection can be minimized by increasing the Inertia moment of the section and/or Young modulus of the material. The Young modulus can be optimized by selecting an adequate material. In this work, material selection charts were used to determine the most reliable material. The selected material was then tested by tensile and extensometry tests to obtain Young modulus, Yield stress, and Poisson coefficient. The Inertia moment can be maximized by improving the geometry of the section, such as adding ribs or webs. A substantial improvement of the deflection can be achieved, but, in order to obtain the best results, optimization must be used. A MATLAB program was used to optimize the ANSYS models using a programming code. In order to know if the results are getting worse or better in relation to the previous iterations...

Static analysis of tapered nanowires based on nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam theory via differential quadrature method

Janghorban,Maziar
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Ciências Mecânicas Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Ciências Mecânicas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.78%
As a first endeavor, bending analysis of tapered nano wires with circular cross section is investigated. In this research, nonlocal elasticity theory based on Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is used to formulate the equations. Differential quadrature method (DQM) is employed to solve the governing equations. Different parameters such as nonlocal parameter, length and radius of tapered nano wires are also considered. The results of present work can be used as bench marks for future works.

Harmonic differential quadrature method for static analysis of functionally graded single walled carbon nanotubes based on Euler-Bernoulli beam theory

Janghorban,Maziar; Zare,Amin
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Ciências Mecânicas Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Ciências Mecânicas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.78%
Bending analysis of functionally graded single walled carbon nano tubes is presented in this paper. Carbon nano tubes are modeled as Euler-Bernoulli beam theory in this study. Harmonic differential quadrature (HDQ) method is used to discretize the governing equations. In order to show the accuracy of present work, the results are compared with those of other existing results. Then the effects of different parameters such as power law index, inner and outer radius of nano tubes and length nano tubes of are studied, too.

Supporting secure programming in web applications through interactive static analysis

Zhu, Jun; Xie, Jing; Lipford, Heather Richter; Chu, Bill
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
Many security incidents are caused by software developers’ failure to adhere to secure programming practices. Static analysis tools have been used to detect software vulnerabilities. However, their wide usage by developers is limited by the special training required to write rules customized to application-specific logic. Our approach is interactive static analysis, to integrate static analysis into Integrated Development Environment (IDE) and provide in-situ secure programming support to help developers prevent vulnerabilities during code construction. No additional training is required nor are there any assumptions on ways programs are built. Our work is motivated in part by the observation that many vulnerabilities are introduced due to failure to practice secure programming by knowledgeable developers. We implemented a prototype interactive static analysis tool as a plug-in for Java in Eclipse. Our technical evaluation of our prototype detected multiple zero-day vulnerabilities in a large open source project. Our evaluations also suggest that false positives may be limited to a very small class of use cases.

Static Analysis for Efficient Hybrid Information-Flow Control

Chong, Stephen N; Moore, Scott David
Fonte: IEEE Computer Society Publicador: IEEE Computer Society
Tipo: Conference Paper
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.94%
Hybrid information-flow monitors use a combination of static analysis and dynamic mechanisms to provide precise strong information security guarantees. However, unlike purely static mechanisms for information security, hybrid information-flow monitors incur run-time overhead. We show how static analyses can be used to make hybrid information- flow monitors more efficient, in two ways. First, a simple static analysis can determine when it is sound for a monitor to stop tracking the security level of certain variables. This potentially reduces run-time overhead of the monitor, particularly in applications where sensitive (i.e., confidential or untrusted) data is infrequently introduced to the system. Second, we derive sufficient conditions for soundly incorporating a wide range of memory abstractions into information- flow monitors. This allows the selection of a memory abstraction that gives an appropriate tradeoff between efficiency and precision. It also facilitates the development of innovative and sound memory abstractions that use run-time security information maintained by the monitor. We present and prove our results by extending the information-flow monitor of Russo and Sabelfeld (2010). These results bring us closer to efficient...

Estudo, definição e implementação de um sistema de recomendação para priorizar os avisos gerados por ferramentas de análise estática; Study, definition and implementation a recommendation system to prioritize warnings generated by static analysis tools

Mendonça, Vinícius Rafael Lobo de
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciência da Computação (INF); Instituto de Informática - INF (RG) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciência da Computação (INF); Instituto de Informática - INF (RG)
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.98%
Recommendation systems try to guide the user carrying out a task providing him with useful information about it. Considering the context of software development, programs are ever increasing, making it difficult to carry out a detailed verification of warnings generated by automatic static analyzers. In this work, we propose a recommendation system, called WarningsFIX, which aims at helping developers on handling the high number of warnings reported by automatic static analyzers. The back end of this system is composed of seven open-source static analysis tools collecting data, which subsequently are used for visualizing information through TreeMaps. The intention is to combine the outcomes of different static analyzers such that WarningsFIX recommends the analysis of warnings with highest chance to be a true positive. Therefore, the information related to warnings are displayed in four levels of detail: program, package, class, and line. The nodes may be classified in the first three levels: amount of warnings, number of tools and suspicions rate. An exploratory study was carried out and the limitations, advantages and disadvantages of the proposed approach were discussed.; O Sistema de Recomendação apoia um usuário na realização de uma tarefa. Considerando o atual contexto do desenvolvimento de software...

An improved higher order zigzag theory for the static analysis of laminated sandwich plate with soft core

Pandit, M.; Sheikh, A.; Singh, B.
Fonte: Elsevier Science BV Publicador: Elsevier Science BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.88%
An improved higher order zigzag theory is proposed for the static analysis of laminated sandwich plate with soft compressible core. The variation of in-plane displacements is assumed to be cubic for both the face sheets and the core and transverse displacement is assumed to vary quadratically within the core while it remains constant through the faces. The core is considered to behave as a three-dimensional elastic medium to incorporate the effect of transverse normal deformation. A computationally efficient C0 finite element is also proposed for this model. Numerical examples of laminated composite and sandwich plate are provided for different thickness ratios and aspect ratio to illustrate the accuracy of the present formulation by comparing the present results with the three-dimensional elasticity solutions. Some new results are also presented. The performance of the present model is excellent in calculating displacements and stresses for a wide range of sandwich plate problems with transversely flexible core.; http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/505649/description#description; Mihir K. Pandit, Abdul H. Sheikh and Bhrigu N. Singh

Predicting host level reachability via static analysis of routing protocol configuration

McManus, Stephen C.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
Approved for public release, distribution unlimited; Static analysis refers to techniques that extract and check the semantics of a program entirely from examining its source code. In this case, router configuration files can be thought of as the source code of a distributed program whose execution determines the host level reachability of the network. Static analysis brings about new challenges. Unlike a regular computer program, router configuration commands hide the detailed logic of routing protocols. Completely constructing the logic for static analysis of router configuration files is difficult and even impossible in some cases where the network has a large number of concurrently running routing processes distributed over many routers and variable network delays make the interactions between these processes too complex to understand exactly. This research takes an initial step in understanding the power of static analysis. A system is built to infer the packet forwarding table of each router from the router configuration files. The scope of the work is confined to networks where OSPF is used exclusively for routing. The system is able to infer the exact forwarding tables of the Cisco routers for several lab test networks.

Análise estática não linear de um edifício em betão armado

Teixeira, Diogo Miguel Guerreiro
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /12/2014 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.01%
A crescente preocupação com os efeitos da atividade sísmica nas construções a par das novas formas que a arquitetura moderna proporciona, impõe à engenharia desafios cada vez mais interessantes. No decorrer dos últimos anos, foi incontestavelmente reconhecido que o projeto sísmico de estruturas não pode deixar de considerar a capacidade de dissipação da energia por parte destes. No dimensionamento sísmico, de maneira a não encarecer o projeto e/ou obra, admite-se que as estruturas podem deformar para além do seu limite elástico, controlando o seu nível de deslocamentos local e global. No EC 8-1 [60] são apresentados diversos métodos de análise sísmica, sendo uns mais complexos e mais morosos do que outros. Dependendo das características e do tipo deestruturas, os métodos de análise possíveis são os métodos de análise linear, destacandose as análises estáticas equivalentes e as dinâmicas por espetro de resposta; e os métodos de análise não linear, destacando-se as análises estáticas de aplicação progressiva de cargas laterais e/ou deslocamentos e as análises dinâmicas de avaliação da resposta estrutural ao longo do tempo. Em termos de dimensionamento sísmico...

Combining static and dynamic analysis for the reverse engineering of web applications

Silva, Carlos Eduardo; Campos, J. Creissac
Fonte: ACM Publicador: ACM
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.99%
Software has become so complex that it is increasingly hard to have a complete understanding of how a particular system will behave. Web applications, their user interfaces in particular, are built with a wide variety of technologies making them particularly hard to debug and maintain. Reverse engineering techniques, either through static analysis of the code or dynamic analysis of the running application, can be used to help gain this understanding. Each type of technique has its limitations. With static analysis it is difficult to have good coverage of highly dynamic applications, while dynamic analysis faces problems with guaranteeing that generated models fully capture the behavior of the system. This paper proposes a new hybrid approach for the reverse engineering of web applications' user interfaces. The approach combines dynamic analyzes of the application at runtime, with static analyzes of the source code of the event handlers found during interaction. Information derived from the source code is both directly added to the generated models, and used to guide the dynamic analysis.; This work is funded by ERDF - European Regional Development Fund through the COMPETE Programme (operational programme for competitiveness) and by National Funds through the FCT - Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) within project FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-015095. Carlos Eduardo Silva is further funded by the Portuguese Government through FCT...

Timing analysis: from predictions to certificates

Gaspar, Nuno Miguel Pires
Fonte: Universidade da Beira Interior Publicador: Universidade da Beira Interior
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2010 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.81%
In real-time systems timing properties must be satisfied in order to guarantee that deadlines will be met. In this context, the calculation of theworst-case execution time(WCET) is of paramount importance for schedulability analysis. However, this problem can be difficult if the underlying architecture possesses features like caches and pipelines. This thesis presents all the necessary steps for the safe and preciseWCET calculation. We focus ourselves in the use of static analysis-based methods, and in the ARMarchitecture as target platform. Moreover, in order to ensure the correctness of our calculation to a program consumer, we produce a certificate (or proof ) whose validity entails compliance with the calculated WCET. This evidence permits to locally validate the calculated WCET, avoiding the need of a blind confidence on the producer.

Precise Scalable Static Analysis for Application-Specific Security Guarantees

Johnson, Andrew Arthur
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation; text Formato: application/pdf
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.99%
This dissertation presents Pidgin, a static program analysis and understanding tool that enables the specification and enforcement of precise application-specific information security guarantees. Pidgin also allows developers to interactively explore the information flows in their applications to develop policies and investigate counter-examples. Pidgin combines program dependence graphs (PDGs), which precisely capture the in- formation flows in a whole application, with a custom PDG query language. Queries express properties about the paths in the PDG; because paths in the PDG correspond to information flows in the application, queries can be used to specify global security policies. The effectiveness of Pidgin depends on the precision of the static analyses used to produce program dependence graphs. In particular it depends on the precision of a points-to analysis. Points-to analysis is a foundational static analysis that estimates the memory locations pointer expressions can refer to at runtime. Points-to information is used by clients ranging from compiler optimizations to security tools like Pidgin. The precision of these client analyses relies on the precision of the points-to analysis. In this dissertation we investigate points-to analysis performance/precision trade-offs...

Combining Control-Flow Integrity and Static Analysis for Efficient and Validated Data Sandboxing

Zeng, Bin; Tan, Gang; Morrisett, John Gregory
Fonte: Association for Computing Machinery Publicador: Association for Computing Machinery
Tipo: Monograph or Book
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.01%
In many software attacks, inducing an illegal control-flow transfer in the target system is one common step. Control-Flow Integrity (CFI) protects a software system by enforcing a pre-determined control-flow graph. In addition to providing strong security, CFI enables static analysis on low-level code. This paper evaluates whether CFI-enabled static analysis can help build efficient and validated data sandboxing. Previous systems generally sandbox memory writes for integrity, but avoid protecting confidentiality due to the high overhead of sandboxing memory reads. To reduce overhead, we have implemented a series of optimizations that remove sandboxing instructions if they are proven unnecessary by static analysis. On top of CFI, our system adds only 2.7% runtime overhead on SPECint2000 for sandboxing memory writes and adds modest 19% for sandboxing both reads and writes. We have also built a principled data-sandboxing verifier based on range analysis. The verifier checks the safety of the results of the optimizer, which removes the need to trust the rewriter and optimizer. Our results show that the combination of CFI and static analysis has the potential of bringing down the cost of general inlined reference monitors, while maintaining strong security.; Engineering and Applied Sciences