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Caminhos de Leste :a imigração enquanto processo de transição pessoal e social

Rodrigues, Ana Isabel Figueiredo
Fonte: Universidade de Coimbra Publicador: Universidade de Coimbra
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.83%
Os fenómenos migratórios embora não sejam novos na história da Humanidade, parecem evidenciar, cada vez mais, a ideia de “aldeia global”, tornando as sociedades cada vez mais pluriculturais. Portugal desde finais da década de 90 tem sido um dos principais países de destino dos chamados imigrantes de Leste. A transição decorrente destes movimentos migratórios, activa todo um processo de adaptação cujas vivências pessoais, sociais, psicológicas, profissionais e culturais se pretendem geradoras de um sucesso na sua integração e, ao mesmo tempo, impulsionadoras de um bem-estar e de satisfação com a vida. Todavia, essa transição começa muito antes da chegada ao novo país. Tendo em conta perspectivas teóricas explicativas dos fenómenos migratórios e das transições de vida, o estudo apresentado, realizado numa amostra de 36 imigrantes provenientes de países da Europa de Leste, residentes no distrito de Coimbra, permite verificar que ao percurso migratório de natureza económica, profissional e cultural corresponde um processo de transição pessoal e social, analisado à luz da Teoria da Transição de Schlossberg, Watters e Goodman (1995). Dos resultados obtidos em diversos domínios (características do percurso migratório...

Territorialidade e promoção da saúde na Vila de Paranapiacaba, SP; Territoriality and health promotion in Vila de Paranapiacaba, SP

Colin, Elaine Cristina da Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/02/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.89%
Os processos educativos, a participação e o empoderamento são essenciais à promoção da saúde e todos envolvem pessoas que vivem num determinado espaço, que têm seus valores e que possuem uma determinada forma de agir e interagir com o mundo. Não há processo educativo ou participativo efetivo que não considere o contexto em que o sujeito está inserido. Sob este prima, deve-se refletir sobre a sua inserção no território em que vive e como isso se reflete na promoção de sua saúde. O cenário de estudo da presente pesquisa está localizado em uma das áreas de proteção ambiental do município de Santo André, a Vila de Paranapiacaba, que além de patrimônio ambiental e histórico é um local turístico, portanto, a forma pela qual a comunidade está inserida no desenvolvimento local também interfere diretamente na territorialidade, e consequentemente, na proteção da área, na saúde ambiental e humana. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivos: identificar e analisar as ações voltadas ao desenvolvimento local da Vila de Paranapiacaba e as formas pelas quais os moradores locais estiveram inseridos nestes processos verificando em que medidas essas ações colaboraram para fortalecer a territorialidade e a promoção da saúde. A partir de uma metodologia qualitativa...

Efeitos do comportamento do outro sobre desempenho em esquema múltiplo VT EXT em um procedimento de transmissão cultural; Effects of other person's behavior on performance in multiple schedule VT EX in a an cultural transmission design

Duarte, Flávia Meneses
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/02/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.95%
Responder mantido por relação acidental com reforço, comportamento supersticioso, pode ser facilitado por variáveis sociais como a modelação. O presente estudo investigou o comportamento supersticioso em um procedimento com ou sem substituição de participantes. No procedimento com substituição, um participante trabalhava em uma tarefa no computador enquanto outro o observava. Quando terminava a tarefa, o participante observador passava a realizar a tarefa e outro participante era chamado para observá-lo. A tarefa básica envolveu a programação de um esquema múltiplo com componentes de VT e EXT. Os participantes podiam emitir respostas, por meio da manipulação de um mouse, em um retângulo colorido apresentado na tela do computador. Dois grupos de oito participantes foram constituídos para avaliar a transmissão do padrão desenvolvido em VT EXT, designados Cultura A e Cultura B. Cada uma dessas duas culturas começava com um experimentador confederado, que respondia no componente VT e não respondia no componente EXT. As cores do retângulo que sinalizavam os componentes VT e EXT eram alteradas a cada troca de participante, de modo a favorecer o responder em ambas as contingências a cada vez que o novo participante era colocado na tarefa. Em um Grupo de Exposição Individual...

Social defeat stress in rats: escalation of cocaine and speedball binge self-administration, but not heroin

Cruz, Fabio C.; Quadros, Isabel M.; Hogenelst, Koen; Planeta, Cleopatra da Silva; Miczek, Klaus A.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 165-175
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.88%
Exposure to intermittent episodes of social defeat stress can increase drug seeking and leads to intense drug taking in rats.This study investigated the consequences of repeated, intermittent social defeat stress on patterns of drug self-administration in rats with access to heroin, cocaine, or a heroin-cocaine combination (speedball).Male Long-Evans rats were either handled (controls) or subjected to 25-min social defeat stress episodes on days 1, 4, 7, and 10 during confrontations with an aggressive resident. Ten days following the last defeat, rats were assessed for locomotor cross-sensitization in response to heroin or cocaine. Animals were then prepared with intrajugular catheters for drug self-administration. Separate groups of controls and defeated rats were examined for self-administration of heroin (experiment 1), a heroin-cocaine combination (experiment 2), or cocaine (experiment 3). Drug self-administration patterns were evaluated using fixed or progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement during limited access sessions or a 24-h unlimited access binge.Rats with a history of intermittent social defeat stress showed sensitized locomotor behavior when challenged with heroin or cocaine relative to controls. During the 24-h binge session...

Classes de comportamentos a serem desenvolvidas por professores derivadas de dados de observação direta das interações com comportamentos de alunos com deficiência intelectual em sala de aula

Hoffmann, Piera Malena
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: 181 p.| tabs.
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.9%
Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Filosofia e Ciências Humanas. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Psicologia, Florianópolis, 2013.; A história da educação especial é marcada por concepções equivocadas acerca do fenômeno "deficiência". Os processos de ensino aprendizagem em contextos de escola especial são influenciados por preconceitos até hoje. Capacitar profissionais para atuar em educação depende, em parte da caracterização das situações com as quais os professores lidam, as respostas apresentadas por eles e as consequências obtidas ao serem apresentadas tais respostas. Identificar as classes de comportamentos a serem desenvolvidas por professores derivadas de dados de observação direta das interações com comportamentos de alunos com deficiência intelectual em sala de aula é uma das condições para propor mudanças nos comportamentos dos professores. Considerando que a proposição de classes de comportamentos profissionais pode derivar de situações reais com as quais o profissional lida foram utilizados anotações de registros cursivos de observações das interações entre professores e alunos realizadas em 2009, em salas de aula de uma escola especial de uma cidade do sul do Brasil. O registro cursivo foi organizado conforme a noção de comportamento (situação antecedente...

O autorrelato na pesquisa em psicologia da saúde : desafios metodológicos; Self-report in health psychology research : methodological challenges

Kohlsdorf, Marina; Costa Júnior, Áderson Luiz
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.73%
Diversas áreas de conhecimento, como a Psicologia, empregam o autorrelato em pesquisas, sob a forma de entrevistas, questionários, inventários e escalas. Neste trabalho, são apresentadas reflexões sobre os desafios implicados no uso de autorrelato, em especial no campo de atuação da psicologia da saúde que focaliza processos de enfrentamento e adesão ao tratamento. O comportamento verbal é reforçado pela comunidade social em que o indivíduo se encontra e o autorrelato somente pode ocorrer a partir da auto-observação, pois se encontra associado a estímulos e comportamentos aos quais somente o falante tem acesso. O autorrelato não garante que haja correspondência exata entre o comportamento real e aquele verbalizado, por algumas razões: (a) o comportamento relatado difere do comportamento real porque eventos encobertos não são reconhecidos de forma legítima; (b) o comportamento relatado não é o real, mas o comportamento socialmente desejável, considerando influências da história de reforçamento do indivíduo; e (c) o participante não compreende inteiramente os itens que compõem o instrumento utilizado, resultando em significações distintas para participante e pesquisador. A fim de minimizar a discrepância entre o dado obtido a partir do autorrelato e o comportamento real...

Analyzing the reinforcement process at the human level: Can application and behavioristic interpretation replace laboratory research?

Baron, Alan; Perone, Michael; Galizio, Mark
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1991 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.92%
Critics have questioned the value of human operant conditioning experiments in the study of fundamental processes of reinforcement. Contradictory results from human and animal experiments have been attributed to the complex social and verbal history of the human subject. On these grounds, it has been contended that procedures that mimic those conventionally used with animal subjects represent a “poor analytic preparation” for the explication of reinforcement principles. In defending the use of conventional operant methods for human research, we make three points: (a) Historical variables play a critical role in research on processes of reinforcement, regardless of whether the subjects are humans or animals. (b) Techniques are available for detecting, analyzing, and counteracting such historical and extra-experimental influences; these include long-term observations, steady state designs, and, when variables are not amenable to direct control (e.g., age, gender, species), selection of subjects with common characteristics. (c) Other forms of evidence that might be used to validate conditioning principles—applied behavior analysis and behavioristic interpretation—have inherent limitations and cannot substitute for experimental analysis. We conclude that human operant conditioning experiments are essential for the analysis of the reinforcement process at the human level...

Blunted Reward Responsiveness in Remitted Depression

Pechtel, Pia; Dutra, Sunny J.; Goetz, Elena L.; Pizzagalli, Diego A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.86%
Major Depressive Disorder has been associated with blunted responsiveness to rewards, but inconsistencies exist whether such abnormalities persist after complete remission. To address this issue, across two independent studies, 47 adults with remitted Major Depressive Disorder (rMDD) and 37 healthy controls completed a Probabilistic Reward Task, which used a differential reinforcement schedule of social or monetary feedback to examine reward responsiveness (i.e., ability to modulate behavior as a function of reinforcement history). Relative to controls, adults with rMDD showed blunted reward responsiveness. Importantly, a history of depression predicted reduced reward learning above and beyond residual depressive (including anhedonic) symptoms and perceived stress. Findings indicate that blunted reward responsiveness endures even when adults are in remission and might be a trait-related abnormality in MDD. More research is warranted to investigate if blunted reward responsiveness may predict future depressive episodes and whether targeting reward-related deficits may prevent the re-occurrence of the disorder.

One pair of hands is not like another: caudate BOLD response in dogs depends on signal source and canine temperament

Cook, Peter F.; Spivak, Mark; Berns, Gregory S.
Fonte: PeerJ Inc. Publicador: PeerJ Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/09/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.67%
Having previously used functional MRI to map the response to a reward signal in the ventral caudate in awake unrestrained dogs, here we examined the importance of signal source to canine caudate activation. Hand signals representing either incipient reward or no reward were presented by a familiar human (each dog’s respective handler), an unfamiliar human, and via illustrated images of hands on a computer screen to 13 dogs undergoing voluntary fMRI. All dogs had received extensive training with the reward and no-reward signals from their handlers and with the computer images and had minimal exposure to the signals from strangers. All dogs showed differentially higher BOLD response in the ventral caudate to the reward versus no reward signals, and there was a robust effect at the group level. Further, differential response to the signal source had a highly significant interaction with a dog’s general aggressivity as measured by the C-BARQ canine personality assessment. Dogs with greater aggressivity showed a higher differential response to the reward signal versus no-reward signal presented by the unfamiliar human and computer, while dogs with lower aggressivity showed a higher differential response to the reward signal versus no-reward signal from their handler. This suggests that specific facets of canine temperament bear more strongly on the perceived reward value of relevant communication signals than does reinforcement history...

Exploring dental behaviours of carers of adults with disabilities: oral health literacy and psycho-social factors.

Pradhan, Archana
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2012
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.81%
Background: People with physical and intellectual disabilities (PID) depend on their carers for daily oral care at home and attending regular preventive dental visits. However, very few carers seem to receive training in oral care for people with PID. Carers’ oral health literacy, and psycho-social factors (carer dental efficacy, carer oral health competency, and carer activation measure) may be associated with the ability of carers to provide good oral care to their care recipients. The oral health care provided could be further associated with the environment, such as the residential setting of the care recipients where the care is provided. Thus, the aims of the study were to describe and compare oral health literacy and psycho-social factors among carers, and assess any associations with preventive dental behaviours. Favourable associations could then be utilised to make recommendations for the development of appropriate education programmes for carers, that match their oral health literacy and psycho-social preparedness, so that carers can provide more appropriate care for their care recipients. Methods: The research was a follow-up study of carers of adults with PID living in Adelaide in three residential settings: family home; community housing; and institutions. Data were collected (February 2009 - April 2010) through a structured face-to-face interview of 100 carers. Oral health literacy (OHL) and general literacy (GL) were measured using text passages and prompts with a total of 25 items to assess comprehension and numerical ability of carers...

Additive and subtractive resilience strategies as enablers of biographical reinvention: A qualitative study of ex-smokers and never-smokers

Ward, P.; Muller, R.; Tsourtos, G.; Hersh, D.; Lawn, S.; Winefield, A.; Coveney, J.
Fonte: Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd Publicador: Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.85%
The notion of developing resilience is becoming increasingly important as a way of responding to the social determinants of poor health, particularly in disadvantaged groups. It is hypothesized that resilient individuals and communities are able to 'bounce back' from the adversities they face. This paper explores the processes involved in building resilience as an outcome in relation to both quitting smoking and never smoking. The study involved 93 qualitative, oral-history interviews with participants from population groups with high and enduring smoking rates in Adelaide, Australia, and was essentially interested in how some people in these groups managed to quit or never start smoking in the face of adversities, in comparison to a group of smokers. Our key findings relate to what we call additive and subtractive resilience strategies, which focus on the practices, roles and activities that individuals either 'took on' or 'left behind' in order to quit smoking or remain abstinent. The theoretical lenses we use to understand these resilience strategies relate to biographical reinforcement and biographical reinvention, which situate the resilience strategies in a broader 'project of the self', often in relation to attempting to develop 'healthy bodies' and 'healthy biographies'.; Paul Russell Ward...

An Example of Discovery Research Involving the Transfer of Stimulus Control

Tiger, Jeffrey H; Hanley, Gregory P
Fonte: Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior Publicador: Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.95%
The initial purpose of the present study was to replicate procedures for teaching preschool children to recruit attention at appropriate times by having an experimenter signal the availability and unavailability of attention (i.e., arrange a multiple schedule involving reinforcement and extinction; Tiger & Hanley, 2004). Following the development of discriminated social responding, the schedule-correlated stimuli were removed (i.e., a mixed schedule of reinforcement was arranged). However, discriminated responding continued during these conditions. Further evaluation suggested that stimulus control over children's social responding had transferred from the schedule-correlated stimuli to the delivery of reinforcement. The effect of a history of reinforcement under multiple-schedule conditions on performance under mixed schedules was then replicated with 2 participants in a reversal design. These findings suggest that following experience with schedule-correlated stimuli, these stimuli may be removed with only modest disruption to discriminated responding.

Behavioral treatment of deviant sex-role behaviors in a male child1

Rekers, George A.; Lovaas, O. Ivar
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1974 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.85%
This study demonstrated reinforcement control over pronounced feminine behaviors in a male child who had been psychologically evaluated as manifesting “childhood cross-gender identity”. The clinical history of the subject paralleled the retrospective reports of adult transsexuals, including (a) cross-gender clothing preferences, (b) actual or imaginal use of cosmetic articles, (c) feminine behavior mannerisms, (d) aversion to masculine activities, coupled with preference for girl playmates and feminine activities, (e) preference for female role, (f) feminine voice inflection and predominantly feminine content in speech, and (g) verbal statements about the desire or preference to be a girl. The subject was treated sequentially in the clinic and home environments by his mother, trained to be his therapist. The mother was taught to reinforce masculine behaviors and to extinguish feminine behaviors, by using social reinforcement in the clinic and a token reinforcement procedure in the home. During this treatment, his feminine behaviors sharply decreased and masculine behavior increased. The treatment effects were found to be largely response-specific and stimulus-specific; consequently, it was necessary to strengthen more than one masculine behavior and weaken several feminine behaviors...

Cortical mechanisms for reinforcement learning in competitive games

Seo, Hyojung; Lee, Daeyeol
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.9%
Game theory analyses optimal strategies for multiple decision makers interacting in a social group. However, the behaviours of individual humans and animals often deviate systematically from the optimal strategies described by game theory. The behaviours of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in simple zero-sum games showed similar patterns, but their departures from the optimal strategies were well accounted for by a simple reinforcement-learning algorithm. During a computer-simulated zero-sum game, neurons in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex often encoded the previous choices of the animal and its opponent as well as the animal's reward history. By contrast, the neurons in the anterior cingulate cortex predominantly encoded the animal's reward history. Using simple competitive games, therefore, we have demonstrated functional specialization between different areas of the primate frontal cortex involved in outcome monitoring and action selection. Temporally extended signals related to the animal's previous choices might facilitate the association between choices and their delayed outcomes, whereas information about the choices of the opponent might be used to estimate the reward expected from a particular action. Finally, signals related to the reward history might be used to monitor the overall success of the animal's current decision-making strategy.

Psychopathy-related traits and the use of reward and social information: a computational approach

Brazil, Inti A.; Hunt, Laurence T.; Bulten, Berend H.; Kessels, Roy P. C.; de Bruijn, Ellen R. A.; Mars, Rogier B.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/12/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.88%
Psychopathy is often linked to disturbed reinforcement-guided adaptation of behavior in both clinical and non-clinical populations. Recent work suggests that these disturbances might be due to a deficit in actively using information to guide changes in behavior. However, how much information is actually used to guide behavior is difficult to observe directly. Therefore, we used a computational model to estimate the use of information during learning. Thirty-six female subjects were recruited based on their total scores on the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), a self-report psychopathy list, and performed a task involving simultaneous learning of reward-based and social information. A Bayesian reinforcement-learning model was used to parameterize the use of each source of information during learning. Subsequently, we used the subscales of the PPI to assess psychopathy-related traits, and the traits that were strongly related to the model's parameters were isolated through a formal variable selection procedure. Finally, we assessed how these covaried with model parameters. We succeeded in isolating key personality traits believed to be relevant for psychopathy that can be related to model-based descriptions of subject behavior. Use of reward-history information was negatively related to levels of trait anxiety and fearlessness...

Protective equipment as treatment for stereotypic hand mouthing: sensory extinction or punishment effects?

Mazaleski, J L; Iwata, B A; Rodgers, T A; Vollmer, T R; Zarcone, J R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1994 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.67%
We examined the effects of noncontingent and contingent protective equipment as treatment for self-injurious hand mouthing exhibited by 2 individuals with profound mental retardation. Results of a functional analysis assessment revealed that neither subject's self-injury was maintained by social reinforcement: One subject's self-injury was cyclical in nature; the other's occurred during all assessment conditions but most frequently when left alone. In the noncontingent-equipment condition, oven mitts were placed on the individual's hands at the beginning of a session and remained on throughout. In the contingent-equipment condition, the mitts were briefly placed on the individual's hands following occurrences of hand mouthing. For 1 subject, noncontingent mitts produced a large decrease in the rate of hand mouthing and contingent mitts produced similar results following a return to baseline. Hand mouthing was also reduced in the 2nd subject, but this individual was exposed only to the contingent-equipment condition (i.e., there was no prior history with the noncontingent-equipment condition). These results suggest either a punishment or a time-out interpretation rather than an extinction interpretation to account for the behavior-reducing effects of contingent protective equipment on self-injury.

The role of attention in the treatment of attention-maintained self-injurious behavior: noncontingent reinforcement and differential reinforcement of other behavior.

Vollmer, T R; Iwata, B A; Zarcone, J R; Smith, R G; Mazaleski, J L
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1993 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.89%
Because there are potentially serious limitations to differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) (which is probably the most widely used treatment procedure for behavior problems), we examined an alternative procedure--noncontingent reinforcement (NCR). Three females with developmental disabilities, all of whom engaged in severe self-injurious behavior, participated. During a pretreatment functional analysis, each subject's self-injury was shown to be differentially sensitive to social attention as a maintaining consequence. Next, each subject was exposed to a DRO treatment and an NCR treatment. During DRO, attention was delivered contingent on the absence of self-injury for prespecified intervals. During NCR, attention was delivered on a fixed-time schedule that was not influenced by the subject's behavior. Results showed that both procedures were highly effective in reducing self-injury, probably because the functional reinforcer for self-injury was used during treatment. Furthermore, there was evidence that NCR attenuated several of the limitations of DRO. These results are particularly interesting in light of the long experimental history of NCR as a control rather than as a therapeutic procedure.

Efeitos de histórias de reforço social sobre o seguir regras; Effects of social reinforcement histories on rule-following

Albuquerque, Luiz Carlos de; Universidade Federal do Pará; Matsuo, Gilsany Leão; Universidade Federal do Pará; Paracampo, Carla Cristina Paiva; Universidade Federal do Pará
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; avaliado por pares; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/04/2010 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.26%
The objective was to study the effects of social reinforcement histories on rule-following using 12 undergraduate students exposed to a matching-to-sample procedure. The task was to point out each one of the three comparison stimuli in a given sequence. In both experimental conditions, no sequence was reinforced or instructed in Phase 1. Phase 2 initiated the rule corresponding to the contingencies and Phase 3 with the rule that was discrepant to the contingencies. In Phases 2 and 3, the only reinforced sequence was the one specified by the correspondent rule of Phase 2. The two conditions differed in the consequences programmed for the correct sequence. The correct sequence would produce social reinforcement in Condition 1 and would produce social reinforcement, plus points exchangeable for money in Condition 2. The correct sequence was reinforced in continuous reinforcement. All 12 participants followed the correspondent rule in Phase 2. In Phase 3, four out of six participants in Condition 1 and three out of six participants in Condition 2 followed the discrepant rule. It is suggested that a history of social reinforcement for following a correspondent rule can contribute to maintain a subsequent following of a rule discrepant from the contingencies. Keywords: contingencies of reinforcement; social reinforcement history; instructional control.; Com o objetivo de investigar os efeitos de histórias de reforço social sobre o seguimento de regras...

Childhood poverty, early motherhood and adult social exclusion

Hobcraft, John; Kiernan, Kathleen
Fonte: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /07/1999 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.81%
Childhood poverty and early parenthood are both high on the political agenda. The key new issue addressed in this research is the relative importance of childhood poverty and of early motherhood as correlates of outcomes later in life. How far are the 'effects' of early motherhood on later outcomes due to childhood precursors, especially experience of childhood poverty? If there are powerful associations of both childhood poverty and early parenthood with later adult outcomes, there are a number of subsidiary questions relating to the magnitude of these associations, the particular threshold levels of childhood poverty that prove most critical, and whether it is, as often assumed, only teenage mothers who are subsequently disadvantaged, or also those who have their first birth in their early twenties? The source of data for this study is the National Child Development Study. We examine a range of outcomes at age 33 in a number of domains representing different aspects of adult social exclusion, including: welfare, socio-economic, physical health, and emotional well-being, as well as demographic behaviour. We control for a wide range of childhood factors: poverty; social class of origin and of father; mother's and father's school leaving age; family structure; housing tenure; mother's and father's interest in education; personality attributes; performance on educational tests; and contact with the police by age 16. We show that there are clear associations for the adult outcomes with age at first birth...

The Social Reproductive Labour and Globalization; Trabalho de Reprodução Social e Globalização

Casalini, Brunella
Fonte: Prim@ Facie - Law, History and Politics; Prima Facie - Direito, História e Política Publicador: Prim@ Facie - Law, History and Politics; Prima Facie - Direito, História e Política
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Pesquisa Jurídica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/05/2011 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.76%
The aim of this paper is to describe the main changes globalization and the engendering of work and migration have produced in the politics of reproductive labour, and to address several important questions they raise from a political and ethical point of view. I intend to argue here that it is the privatization of care and the exploitation of reproductive labour, not its remuneration, that constitutes a problem today. From the perspective of both local and global justice, the privatization of care poses a threat, due the consequences it entails in terms of different purchasing power not only between rich and poor countries, but even within rich countries themselves, between higher and lower classes. Moreover, from a gender perspective, the commodification of reproductive labour today assumes forms that are functional to the reinforcement of patriarchal power structures and create an apparent conflict of interest between women, along lines of class, colour and race. At the same time, the new division of reproductive labour threatens to undermine everything that has been achieved since the 1970s, in terms of gender parity, equal division of care labour between men and women and the politics of reconciliation between labour and caring.; O objetivo deste ensaio é descrever as principais mudanças que a globalização e o engendramento do trabalho e da migração tem produzido na política de trabalho reprodutivo...