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Sexual behavior and knowledge of sexually transmitted infections among university students in Sao Paulo, Brazil

CAETANO, Maria Eugenia; LINHARES, Iara Moreno; PINOTTI, Jose Aristodemo; FONSECA, Angela Maggio da; WOJITANI, Maria Dulce; GIRALDO, Paulo Cesar
Fonte: ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD Publicador: ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.36%
Objective: To investigate the sexual behavior and knowledge about sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among undergraduate students in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Methods: Self-reported questionnaires were used. Results: Most of the 447 students in the study were single (97.3%), in their first year of university (87.7%), and the mean ages were 20.4 years (males) and 19.8 years (females). Vaginal intercourse was practiced by 69.7% of males and 48.4% of females, oral sex by 64.5% of males and 43.7% of females, and anal sex by 18.4% of males and 14.1% of females. Use of a condom during vaginal sex was practiced by 80.4% of males and 74.8% of females and during anal sex by 47.8% of males and 30.0% of females. Knowledge of transmission of STIs was greater than 90% for HIV, syphilis, genital herpes, and gonorrhea; 63%-76% for HPV and genital warts; 30%-34% for Trichomonas and only 16% for Chlamydia. Only 25%-34% knew that HIV was transmitted by breastfeeding; 56%-60% knew that HIV was transmitted by anal sex. Conclusion: Many students engage in high-risk sexual behavior with multiple partners and use condoms inconsistently. Knowledge of the acquisition and modes of sexual and vertical transmission of HIV are strikingly deficient. (C) 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sexual behavior and knowledge of sexually transmitted infections among university students in Sao Paulo, Brazil

CAETANO, Maria Eugenia; LINHARES, Iara Moreno; PINOTTI, Jose Aristodemo; FONSECA, Angela Maggio da; WOJITANI, Maria Dulce; GIRALDO, Paulo Cesar
Fonte: ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD Publicador: ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.36%
Objective: To investigate the sexual behavior and knowledge about sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among undergraduate students in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Methods: Self-reported questionnaires were used. Results: Most of the 447 students in the study were single (97.3%), in their first year of university (87.7%), and the mean ages were 20.4 years (males) and 19.8 years (females). Vaginal intercourse was practiced by 69.7% of males and 48.4% of females, oral sex by 64.5% of males and 43.7% of females, and anal sex by 18.4% of males and 14.1% of females. Use of a condom during vaginal sex was practiced by 80.4% of males and 74.8% of females and during anal sex by 47.8% of males and 30.0% of females. Knowledge of transmission of STIs was greater than 90% for HIV, syphilis, genital herpes, and gonorrhea; 63%-76% for HPV and genital warts; 30%-34% for Trichomonas and only 16% for Chlamydia. Only 25%-34% knew that HIV was transmitted by breastfeeding; 56%-60% knew that HIV was transmitted by anal sex. Conclusion: Many students engage in high-risk sexual behavior with multiple partners and use condoms inconsistently. Knowledge of the acquisition and modes of sexual and vertical transmission of HIV are strikingly deficient. (C) 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Como as infeções sexualmente transmissíveis são apresentadas em manuais escolares de 16 países e que formas de prevenção são facultadas; How the sexually transmitted infections are presented in school manuals in 16 countries and which prevention ways are provided

Ferreira, Cláudia; Bernard, Sandie; Clément, Pierre; Carvalho, Graça Simões de
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Viseu. Escola Superior de Saúde Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Viseu. Escola Superior de Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2012 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.34%
No âmbito do projeto Europeu Biohead-Citizen “Biologia, Saúde e Educação Ambiental para uma melhor cidadania” foi levada a cabo uma análise comparativa no tópico “Reprodução Humana e Sexualidade”, para a qual se construiu uma grelha de análise específica aplicada em manuais escolares de 16 países (Alemanha, Chipre, Estónia, Finlândia, França, Hungria, Itália, Líbano, Lituânia, Malta, Marrocos, Polónia, Portugal, Roménia, Tunísia, Senegal). No presente trabalho apresentam-se os resultados sobre a forma como as Infeções Sexualmente Transmissíveis (IST) são apresentadas nos manuais e que meios de prevenção destas doenças são referidos. A SIDA é a IST mais comummente apresentada, estando presente em todos os manuais escolares analisados dos vários países, sendo que a ocorrência de outras IST (clamídia, herpes genital, papiloma vírus humano, sífilis, gonorreia, cancroide, hepatite viral, vaginite) é variável entre os manuais dos 16 países. No que concerne métodos de prevenção das IST, o uso do preservativo masculino nas relações sexuais é o mais referido, sendo as imagens geralmente de um preservativo masculino enrolado no seu invólucro ou fora deste, ou desenrolado. Os manuais de França Senegal e Tunísia são os que se encontram mais ancorados no modelo Biomédico...

Core group approach to identify college students at risk for sexually transmitted infections

Sánchez-Alemán,Miguel A; Conde-Glez,Carlos J; Uribe-Salas,Felipe
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.26%
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the core group for sexually transmitted infections (STI) among college students. METHODS: Cross-sectional study carried out in a convenience sample comprising 711 college students of the public university of Morelos, Mexico, between 2001 and 2003. Sociodemographic and sexual behavior information were collected using self-applied questionnaires. Herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2) infection was tested in the blood. The number of sexual partners in the last year and cocaine consumption were used as indicators to construct the dependent variable "level of STI risk" in three categories: low, medium and high risk (core group). A multinomial analysis was conducted to evaluate whether different sex behaviors were associated with the variable "level of STI risk". RESULTS: There was significant association between HSV-2 seroprevalence and the variable "level of STI risk": 13%, 5.6% and 3.8% were found in high (core group), medium and low categories, respectively. There were gender differences regarding the core group. Men started having sexual intercourse earlier, had more sex partners, higher alcohol and drug consumption, higher frequency of sex intercourse with sex workers, exchanging sex for money, occasional and concurrent partners compared to women. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings suggest existing contextual characteristics in the study population that affect their sex behavior. In Mexico...

Sexually transmitted infections, bacterial vaginosis, and candidiasis in women of reproductive age in rural Northeast Brazil: a population-based study

Oliveira,Fabíola Araújo; Pfleger,Viola; Lang,Katrin; Heukelbach,Jörg; Miralles,Iracema; Fraga,Francisco; Sousa,Anastácio Queiroz; Stoffler-Meilicke,Marina; Ignatius,Ralf; Kerr,Ligia Franco Sansigolo; Feldmeier,Hermann
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.33%
Population-based data on sexually transmitted infections (STI), bacterial vaginosis (BV), and candidiasis reflect the epidemiological situation more accurately than studies performed in specific populations, but such data are scarce. To determine the prevalence of STI, BV, and candidiasis among women of reproductive age from a resource-poor community in Northeast Brazil, a population-based cross sectional study was undertaken. All women from seven hamlets and the centre of Pacoti municipality in the state of Ceará, aged 12 to 49 years, were invited to participate. The women were asked about socio-demographic characteristics and genital symptoms, and thereafter examined gynaecologically. Laboratory testing included polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for human papillomavirus (HPV), ligase chain reaction (LCR) for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, ELISA for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) and fluorescent treponema antibody absorption test (FTA-ABS) for syphilis, and analysis of wet mounts, gram stains and Pap smears for trichomoniasis, candidiasis, and BV. Only women who had initiated sexual life were included in the analysis (n = 592). The prevalences of STI were: HPV 11.7% (95% confidence interval: 9.3-14.7)...

Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among HIV-infected women in Brazil

Travassos,Ana Gabriela Álvares; Brites,Carlos; Netto,Eduardo M.; Fernandes,Sheyla de Almeida; Rutherford,George W.; Queiroz,Conceição Maria
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.3%
This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and associated risk factors in HIV-infected pregnant women followed for prenatal care in Salvador, Bahia. This was a cross-sectional study of 63 women seeking prenatal care at a reference center. Participants were interviewed regarding socio-epidemiological and clinical history, and were tested for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti HTLV I/II, VDRL, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, CD4 count, and HIV plasma viral load. The main outcome variable was the presence of any STI. The mean age of patients was 28.2 years (16-40 years). 23 (36.5%) were diagnosed with at least one STI. The frequency of diagnoses was: HBV, 3.2%; HCV, 8.1%; HTLV I/II, 3.4%; syphilis, 9.5%; Chlamydia trachomatis, 11.1%; HPV, 15.0%; Mycoplasma hominis, 2.1%, and Ureaplasma urealyticum, 2.1%. No case of Neisseria gonorrhoeae was identified. No association was found between socio-epidemiological variables and the presence of an STI. CD4 T lymphocyte < 500 cells/µl (p = 0.047) and plasma viral load >1,000 copies (p = 0.027) were associated with the presence of sti. stis are frequent in pregnant women infected with hiv, and all hiv-infected pregnant women should be screened to decrease transmission of these pathogens and to protect their own health.

A paradigm shift in testing for sexually transmitted infections

Ross, J D C; Ison, C; Radcliffe, K W
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.26%
A new set of UK guidelines on screening and testing for sexually transmitted infection

Behavioral Convergence: Implications for Mathematical Models of Sexually Transmitted Infection Transmission

Aral, Sevgi O.; Ward, Helen
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/12/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.26%
Recent trends in the behaviors of some groups with high sexual activity and of the general population in some countries suggest that sexual behavior profiles of high and low sexual activity categories may be converging and may call into question the assumptions around sexual mixing that are built into theoretical models of sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission dynamics. One category of high sexual activity, sex work, has been undergoing modification in many societies, becoming more acceptable, more dispersed, and larger in volume in some societies and shrinking in others. Concurrent with changes in the characteristics of sex work, the accumulating data on the sexual behaviors of the general population suggest a shift toward those of sex workers, including large numbers of sex partners and short-duration partnerships. The closing of the gap between behaviors associated with high and low sexual activity may have important implications for theories of sexual structure and models of transmission dynamics for STIs, including HIV infection.

Uganda : The Sexually Transmitted Infections Project

Mulusa, Mary
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC; World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC; World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.37%
There is evidence suggesting a change in the HIV incidence in Uganda, where its prevalence has dropped in certain communities, and age groups, most notably among women in the 15-29 years age group. The note reviews key features of the Sexually Transmitted Infections Project in the country, identifying change in sexual behavior as the most important approach to preventing HIV spread. The Project also emphasized on mitigation of the personal impact of AIDS, supporting treatment, training of health workers, and provision of drugs, in addition to institutional development, gender issues, and global partnerships. But regardless, of the high level of general awareness of HIV/AIDS, the positive trends observed do not mean that the epidemic has been overcome in Uganda, where current prevalence levels still present an enormous challenge. Lessons address political commitment, and local ownership as essential to overcome the epidemic, highlighting the work of the Namungalwe Women Task Force, whose activities, partly contributed to mitigating the epidemic. Nonetheless...

The Sexually Transmitted Infections Prevention and Care Project, Zimbabwe

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.45%
To quickly and effectively, estimate the medications needed to treat sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and AIDS-related infections over a five year period, procure the drugs on international tender and survey drug availability among facilities before and after the procured medications arrive in country and are distributed. The Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) Prevention and Care Project in Zimbabwe has decreased costs for pharmaceuticals by 60 percent and increased the availability of STI drug in health facilities from 68 percent to 89 percent within the first two years of the project.

Incentivising Safe Sex : A Randomised Trial of Conditional Cash Transfers for HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention in Rural Tanzania

de Walque, Damien; Dow, William H.; Nathan, Rose; Abdul, Ramadhani; Abilahi, Faraji; Gong, Erick; Isdahl, Zachary; Jamison, Julian; Jullu, Boniphace; Krishnan, Suneeta; Majura, Albert; Migue, Edward; Moncada, Jeanne; Mtenga, Sally; Mwanyangala, Mathew Ale
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.57%
Objective The authors evaluated the use of conditional cash transfers as an HIV and sexually transmitted infection prevention strategy to incentivise safe sex. Design An unblinded, individually randomised and controlled trial. Setting 10 villages within the Kilombero/Ulanga districts of the Ifakara Health and Demographic Surveillance System in rural south-west Tanzania. Participants The authors enrolled 2399 participants, aged 18–30 years, including adult spouses. Interventions Participants were randomly assigned to either a control arm (n=1124) or one of two intervention arms: low-value conditional cash transfer (eligible for $10 per testing round, n=660) and high-value conditional cash transfer (eligible for $20 per testing round, n=615). The authors tested participants every 4 months over a 12-month period for the presence of common sexually transmitted infections. In the intervention arms, conditional cash transfer payments were tied to negative sexually transmitted infection test results. Anyone testing positive for a sexually transmitted infection was offered free treatment, and all received counselling. Main outcome measures The primary study end point was combined prevalence of the four sexually transmitted infections...

Potential Applications of Conditional Cash Transfers for Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Infections and HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa

Medlin, Carol; de Walque, Damien
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.42%
A growing number of developing countries have introduced conditional cash transfer programs that provide money to poor families with certain contingencies attached - such as requiring school attendance or regular immunization and health check-ups. As the popularity of conditional cash transfer programs has grown, experimentation with potential applications in other areas of health, such as sexual and reproductive health, and HIV prevention, in particular, has also increased. Evaluations of conditional cash transfer programs have focused almost exclusively on uptake of health and educational services, which make relatively low demands of participants compared with more complex interventions, which require the cessation of risky behaviors, such as smoking, obesity, and substance abuse. The literature on contingency management - based on the principle that behavioral change occurs when appropriate behaviors are reinforced and rewarded - provides a richer picture of the complexity of the use of conditionality to encourage healthy behavioral change. This paper examines developing countries' experiences with conditional cash transfer programs and the results of trials in clinical settings on the efficacy of contingency management...

Sinais e sintomas associados às doenças sexualmente transmissíveis no Brasil, 2005; Signs and symptoms associated with sexually transmitted infections in Brazil, 2005

Bastos, Francisco I; Cunha, Cynthia B; Hacker, Mariana A
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2008 POR; ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.26%
OBJETIVO: As doenças sexualmente transmissíveis (DST) constituem um dos principais determinantes da carga de doença das populações em todo o mundo. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a morbidade auto-referida associada à ocorrência de DST, segundo gênero. MÉTODOS: Os dados analisados referem-se à pesquisa realizada em 2005 e foram obtidos a partir de amostra probabilística em múltiplos estágios de 5.040 entrevistados, com 16-65 anos de idade, moradores nas regiões urbanas do Brasil. Esses dados foram cotejados com aqueles de pesquisa anterior, de 1998. Realizaram-se análises bivariadas, utilizando teste qui-quadrado de Pearson e regressão linear simples, seguidas por regressão logística. RESULTADOS: Tanto para homens quanto para mulheres as variáveis: testagem anterior para o HIV, crença pessoal de que pode haver amor sem fidelidade e número de pessoas com quem teve relações sexuais na vida mostraram-se significativamente associadas ao desfecho. Porém, somente entre as mulheres as covariáveis a seguir se mostraram independentemente associadas ao desfecho: renda familiar baixa, residência na Região Centro-Oeste, Sudeste e Sul, e relato de violência física. Para os homens, as variáveis independentemente associadas foram: faixa etária (35 anos ou mais)...

"Core group" para identificar universitários em risco para infecções sexualmente transmissíveis; Core group approach to identify college students at risk for sexually transmitted infections

Sánchez-Alemán, Miguel A; Conde-Glez, Carlos J; Uribe-Salas, Felipe
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2008 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.26%
OBJETIVO: Analisar o core group em estudantes universitários em risco de adquirir infecções sexualmente transmissíveis (IST). MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com amostra de conveniência composta por 711 estudantes de universidade pública de Morelos, no México, 2001-2003. Informações sociodemográficas e de comportamento sexual foram coletadas por meio de questionário auto-aplicável. Presença de infecção por Herpes simplex 2 foi diagnosticada por exame de sangue. O número de parceiros sexuais durante o último ano anterior à pesquisa e o consumo de cocaína foram indicadores utilizados para construir a variável dependente "nível de risco para adquirir IST" e definir três categorias: baixo, médio e alto risco (core group). Foi utilizada análise multinominal para avaliar se diferentes comportamentos sexuais estavam associados à variável "nível de risco para adquirir IST". RESULTADOS: Houve associação significativa entre a soroprevalência de HSV-2 e a variável "nível de risco para adquirir IST" nas categorias de alto (13%), médio (5,6%) e baixo (3,8%) risco. Foram encontradas diferenças entre os sexos em relação ao core group. Em comparação às mulheres, os homens começaram a ter relações sexuais mais cedo...

Use of new technologies to notify possible contagion of sexually-transmitted infections among men

Carnicer-Pont,Dolors; Barbera-Gracia,María Jesús; Fernández-Dávila,Percy; García de Olalla,Patricia; Muñoz,Rafael; Jacques-Aviñó,Constanza; Saladié-Martí,María Pilar; Gosch-Elcoso,Mercè; Arellano Muñoz,Encarna; Casabona,Jordi
Fonte: Gaceta Sanitaria Publicador: Gaceta Sanitaria
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.26%
Background: Among men who have sex with men (MSM), the association between searching for sexual partners' on the Internet and increased risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/HIV infection, together with current low levels of partner notification (PN), justifies a study to explore the intention to use new communication technologies for PN in Spain. Methods: Two cross-sectional surveys were performed: the first was administered online to visitors to web pages where the survey was advertised; the second was administered on paper to patients attending an STI Unit and centres similar to Community-Based Voluntary Counselling and Testing centres. Results: The study population comprised 1578 Spanish residents (median age, 34 years [range: 18 to 74]); 84% lived in urban areas, and 69% reported searching for sexual partners on the Internet. Thirty-seven per cent would be willing to use a website for PN, 26% did not know if they would use one, and 37% would not want to use one. The main reasons for not intending to notify STI/HIV were "shame or fear" (stable partner) and "not knowing how to contact them" (casual partner). The preferred method of notification was face to face (73%) for both stable and casual partners, although using new technologies (Short Messaging System...

Sexually transmitted infections associated with vulvovaginal symptoms in adolescents denying sexual activity

Velarde-Jurado,Elizabeth; Estrada-Reyes,Elizabeth; Eraña-Guerra,Luis; Raya-Rivera,Atlántida; Velázquez-Armenta,E Yadira; Nava-Ocampo,Alejandro A
Fonte: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública Publicador: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.52%
OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic evidence of a probable sexually transmitted infection associated with vulvovaginal symptoms in adolescents denying sexual activity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The medical records of female adolescents, aged 10-18 years were reviewed. These women received first-time medical care for vulvovaginitis, between 1995 and 1999 at Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez, (Children's Hospital). Comparisons between groups were performed, as appropriate, by the unpaired Student's t-test, the Z test or the chi-square test; statistically significant differences were set at a two-tailed p<0.05. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS: Of 258 adolescents with vulvovaginitis, 53 (20.5%) had a sexually transmitted microorganism and 52 of them denied ever having sexual activity. Age, education and socioeconomic level, development of sexual characters, and presence of menstruation did not differ between patients with and without sexually transmitted infections. The presence of sexually transmitted infections was associated with lower abdominal pain, abnormally colored vaginal discharge, a positive urine culture, and an abdominal ultrasonographic evidence, compatible with pelvic inflammatory disease (ultrasonographic odds ratio 144.8; 95% CI 51.0 to 411.3). CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between sexually transmitted infections in young women with vulvovaginitis and lower abdominal pain...

Knowledge and attitudes of students at a Caribbean offshore medical school towards sexually transmitted infections and use of condoms

Orisatoki,RO; Oguntibeju,OO
Fonte: West Indian Medical Journal Publicador: West Indian Medical Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.36%
BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections remain one of the predominant health issues that affect young adults. The aim of this study is to assess the level of knowledge, the attitudes and misconceptions of medical students at a Caribbean University towards STIs and condom use. METHOD: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among medical students by employing semi-structured questionnaires. RESULTS: Out of 150 questionnaires, 130 were completed, showing a response rate of 87%. The ages of the respondents ranged from 19 to 45 years with a mean age of 26 (SD 5.2) years. The findings indicated that the knowledge of students concerning STIs is high (95.4%). Twenty-four (18.5%) of the respondents had experienced vaginal/penile discharge following sexual intercourse over the last 6 months. The correlation of beliefs in condom usage and risky behaviour gives an odds ratio of 0.19 indicating a lower use of condoms among the students. A negative attitude towards condom usage was seen in 3.8% of the respondents. The main reason for condom usage was to prevent unwanted pregnancy and not to prevent contracting sexually transmitted infections. CONCLUSION: The knowledge of students about STIs in this study was found to be high, however...

Effectiveness of condoms in preventing sexually transmitted infections

Holmes,King K.; Levine,Ruth; Weaver,Marcia
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.3%
In June 2000, the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) organized a review of the scientific evidence on the effectiveness of condoms in preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The review concluded that condoms were effective in protecting against transmission of HIV to women and men and in reducing the risk of men becoming infected with gonorrhoea. Evidence for the effectiveness of condoms in preventing other STIs was considered to be insufficient. We review the findings of prospective studies published after June 2000 that evaluated the effectiveness of condoms in preventing STIs. We searched Medline for publications in English and included other articles, reports, and abstracts of which we were aware. These prospective studies, published since June 2000, show that condom use is associated with statistically significant protection of men and women against several other types of STIs, including chlamydial infection, gonorrhoea, herpes simplex virus type 2, and syphilis. Condoms may also be associated with protecting women against trichomoniasis. While no published prospective study has found protection against genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, two studies reported that condom use was associated with higher rates of regression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and clearance of cervical HPV infection in women and with regression of HPV-associated penile lesions in men. Research findings available since the NIH review add considerably to the evidence of the effectiveness of condoms against STIs. Although condoms are not 100% effective...

Sexually transmitted infections and private physicians in Peru, 2003

Hsieh,Evelyn J.; Blas,Magaly M.; La Rosa Roca,Sayda; Garcia,Patricia J.
Fonte: Organización Panamericana de la Salud Publicador: Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.3%
OBJECTIVES: To analyze demographic and practice characteristics of private physicians in 10 cities of Peru, and to shed light on the role of private practice in the delivery of medical care to patients with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). METHODS: As part of an interventional trial designed to improve physician management of STIs in 10 cities in Peru, detailed information was compiled regarding numbers of physicians in each city. A door-to-door survey was then conducted within each city of all private and public medical offices and institutions. Each physician encountered who had a private practice was asked to answer a questionnaire regarding demographic information, medical education, specialty, type of private and public practices currently engaged in, number of STI cases seen per month, and average earnings per consultation. RESULTS: Of 2 060 physicians working in the 10 cities, 507 reported having a private practice, either exclusively or concurrently with other clinical positions. Almost all the private physicians (97.4%) reported managing cases of STIs. Regional differences among private physicians were found in physician density, gender, and place of medical training. In addition, significant variations by gender were seen in rates of specialization...

Sexually transmitted infections associated with vulvovaginal symptoms in adolescents denying sexual activity

Velarde-Jurado,Elizabeth; Estrada-Reyes,Elizabeth; Eraña-Guerra,Luis; Raya-Rivera,Atlántida; Velázquez-Armenta,E Yadira; Nava-Ocampo,Alejandro A
Fonte: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública Publicador: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.52%
OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic evidence of a probable sexually transmitted infection associated with vulvovaginal symptoms in adolescents denying sexual activity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The medical records of female adolescents, aged 10-18 years were reviewed. These women received first-time medical care for vulvovaginitis, between 1995 and 1999 at Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez, (Children's Hospital). Comparisons between groups were performed, as appropriate, by the unpaired Student's t-test, the Z test or the chi-square test; statistically significant differences were set at a two-tailed p<0.05. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS: Of 258 adolescents with vulvovaginitis, 53 (20.5%) had a sexually transmitted microorganism and 52 of them denied ever having sexual activity. Age, education and socioeconomic level, development of sexual characters, and presence of menstruation did not differ between patients with and without sexually transmitted infections. The presence of sexually transmitted infections was associated with lower abdominal pain, abnormally colored vaginal discharge, a positive urine culture, and an abdominal ultrasonographic evidence, compatible with pelvic inflammatory disease (ultrasonographic odds ratio 144.8; 95% CI 51.0 to 411.3). CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between sexually transmitted infections in young women with vulvovaginitis and lower abdominal pain...