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Two arch criteria of the ilium for sex determination of immature skeletal remains: A test of their accuracy and an assessment of intra- and inter-observer error

Cardoso, Hugo F. V.; Saunders, Shelley R.
Fonte: Universidade de Coimbra Publicador: Universidade de Coimbra
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: aplication/PDF
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.22%
Although the assignment of sex to immature skeletal remains is considered problematic, some traits have been considered useful for both forensic and bioarchaeological applications. One such trait is the arch criterion found in subadult ilia, which is defined relative to the greater sciatic notch-auricular surface area. In adults, the composite arch has also been described in relation to this area and has proven relatively successful in sex determination. This study offers an examination of the accuracy of the arch criterion and the composite arch in determining the sex of subadult skeletal remains, and an assessment of intra- and inter-observer scoring error. A sample of 97 skeletons of known sex and age (<15 years) from the Lisbon collection (Portugal) were selected and the traits were scored by three observers on orthogonal photos of each ilium. In general the agreement within (67.7-88.5%) and between (50.5-76.3%) examiners was poor and overall accuracy (26.7-52.6%) did not meet the expectations of that reported in previous studies. The authors suggest that this derives from great variation in morphology, difficulties in interpreting criteria and possibly a lack of association between the expression of the traits and sex. Careful examination of sex-related morphology in the immature skeleton and additional blind tests of so-called useful traits should continue to be carried out.; http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T6W-4S2VFY1-1/1/207963d293280dcfbc0bec484ebcc100

Sex determination studies in two species of teleost fish, Oreochromis niloticus and Leporinus elongatus

Baroiller, Jean-Francois; Nakayama, Ichiro; Foresti, Fausto; Chourrout, Daniel
Fonte: Acad Sinica Inst Zoology Publicador: Acad Sinica Inst Zoology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 279-285
ENG
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Genetic analyses of sex determination have identified sex chromosomes in many teleost fish species. However, there are several cases for which sex ratios do not fit perfectly with the expectations of heterogametic systems, suggesting the influence of either minor sex determining genes or environmental influences on the process of sex differentiation. The frequent absence of sex chromosome markers makes the identification of minor sex-determining genes very difficult. It is easier to test first the hypothesis of environmental sex determination (ESD) by studying the temperature effect, since temperature-dependent sex determination has been demonstrated to occur in several vertebrate groups including 1 fish species. To contribute to a better understanding of fish sex determination, we have tested the effects of high temperatures on sex ratios of Oreochromis niloticus, and have attempted to isolate sex chromosome molecular markers in Leporinus elongatus. Treatments of O. niloticus fry at 36 degrees C applied for 10 days and more, and starting 1 week after fertilization markedly increased the proportion of males, and progeny-testing these males confirmed that some of them are sex-reversed genetic females. Two non-coding sequences of L. elongatus Z and W chromosomes were cloned by genomic subtraction. They cross-hybridized with the genome of a close species without providing sex-specific patterns. A collection of L. elongates individuals was subjected to gonadal and chromosomal sexing...

Cytogenetic analysis of Epicauta atomaria (Meloidae) and Palembus dermestoides (Tenebrionidae) with Xyp sex determination system using standard staining, C-bands, NOR and synaptonemal complex microspreading techniques

Almeida, Mara Cristina de; Zacaro, Adilson Ariza; Cella, Doralice Maria
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 147-157
ENG
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The mitotic and meiotic chromosomes of the beetles Epicauta atomaria (Meloidae) and Palembus dermestoides (Tenebrionidae) were analysed using standard staining, C-banding and silver impregnation techniques. We determine the diploid and haploid chromosome numbers, the sex determination system and describe the chromosomal morphology, the C-banding pattern and the chromosome(s) bearing NORs (nucleolar organizer regions). Both species shown 2n = 20 chromosomes, the chromosomal meioformula 9 + Xyp, and regular chromosome segregation during anaphases I and II. The chromosomes of E. atomaria are basically metacentric or submetacentric and P. dermestoides chromosomes are submetacentric or subtelocentric. In both beetles the constitutive heterochromatin is located in the pericentromeric region in all autosomes and in the Xp chromosome; additional C-bands were observed in telomeric region of the short arm in some autosomes in P. dermestoides. The yp chromosome did not show typical C-bands in these species. As for the synaptonemal complex, the nucleolar material is associated to the 7th bivalent in E. atomaria and 3rd and 7th bivalents in P. dermestoides. Strong silver impregnated material was observed in association with Xyp in light and electron microscopy preparations in these species and this material was interpreted to be related to nucleolar material.

Sex determination in mythology and history

Mittwoch,Ursula
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2005 EN
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The history of ideas on how the sexes became divided spans at least three thousand years. The biblical account of the origin of Eve, and the opinions of the philosophers of classical Greece, have unexpected bearings on present-day ideas. The scientific study of sex determination can be said to have begun in the 17th century with the discovery of spermatozoa, but the origin and function of the "spermatic animalcules" eluded investigators until 1841. The mammalian egg was discovered in 1827, and in the last quarter of the century fertilization was observed. The view current at that time, that sex determination was under environmental control, gave way to the idea of chromosomal determination in the first quarter of the 20th century. The study of human and other mammalian chromosomes during the third quarter of the century, and the discovery of sex-chromosome abnormalities, emphasized the importance of the Y chromosome for male sex determination. The last quarter of the century witnessed a hunt for the "testis-determining" gene, thought to be responsible for the differentiation of Sertoli cells, and culminating in the isolation of SRY (Sry in the mouse). However, an increasing number of additional genes and growth factors were found to be required for the establishment of male sex. During the same period evidence emerged that male development was accompanied by enhanced growth...

Sex determination in annual fishes: searching for the master sex-determining gene in Austrolebias charrua (Cyprinodontiformes, Rivulidae)

Arezo,María José; Papa,Nicolás; Guttierrez,Verónica; García,Graciela; Berois,Nibia
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2014 EN
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66.32%
Evolution of sex determination and differentiation in fishes involves a broad range of sex strategies (hermaphroditism, gonochorism, unisexuality, environmental and genetic sex determination). Annual fishes inhabit temporary ponds that dry out during the dry season when adults die. The embryos exhibit an atypical developmental pattern and remain buried in the bottom mud until the next rainy season. To elucidate genomic factors involved in the sex determination in annual fish, we explored the presence of a candidate sex-specific gene related to the cascade network in Austrolebias charrua. All phylogenetic analyses showed a high posterior probability of occurrence for a clade integrated by nuclear sequences (aprox. 900 bp) from both adults (male and female), with partial cDNA fragments of A. charrua from juveniles (male) and the dsx D. melanogaster gene. The expressed fragment was detected from blastula to adulthood stages showing a sexually dimorphic expression pattern. The isolated cDNA sequence is clearly related to dsx D. melanogaster gene and might be located near the top of the sex determination cascade in this species.

Genomic Analysis of the Pacific Oyster (Crassostrea gigas) Reveals Possible Conservation of Vertebrate Sex Determination in a Mollusc

Zhang, Na; Xu, Fei; Guo, Ximing
Fonte: Genetics Society of America Publicador: Genetics Society of America
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/09/2014 EN
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56.29%
Despite the prevalence of sex in animal kingdom, we have only limited understanding of how sex is determined and evolved in many taxa. The mollusc Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas exhibits complex modes of sexual reproduction that consists of protandric dioecy, sex change, and occasional hermaphroditism. This complex system is controlled by both environmental and genetic factors through unknown molecular mechanisms. In this study, we investigated genes related to sex-determining pathways in C. gigas through transcriptome sequencing and analysis of female and male gonads. Our analysis identified or confirmed novel homologs in the oyster of key sex-determining genes (SoxH or Sry-like and FoxL2) that were thought to be vertebrate-specific. Their expression profile in C. gigas is consistent with conserved roles in sex determination, under a proposed model where a novel testis-determining CgSoxH may serve as a primary regulator, directly or indirectly interacting with a testis-promoting CgDsx and an ovary-promoting CgFoxL2. Our findings plus previous results suggest that key vertebrate sex-determining genes such as Sry and FoxL2 may not be inventions of vertebrates. The presence of such genes in a mollusc with expression profiles consistent with expected roles in sex determination suggest that sex determination may be deeply conserved in animals...

Triploid Plover Female Provides Support for a Role of the W Chromosome in Avian Sex Determination

Küpper, Clemens; Augustin, Jakob; Edwards, Scott V.; Székely, Tamás; Kosztolányi, András; Burke, Terry; Janes, Daniel E.
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Two models, Z Dosage and Dominant W, have been proposed to explain sex determination in birds, in which males are characterized by the presence of two Z chromosomes, and females are hemizygous with a Z and a W chromosome. According to the Z Dosage model, high dosage of a Z-linked gene triggers male development, whereas the Dominant W model postulates that a still unknown W-linked gene triggers female development. Using 33 polymorphic microsatellite markers, we describe a female triploid Kentish plover Charadrius alexandrinus identified by characteristic triallelic genotypes at 14 autosomal markers that produced viable diploid offspring. Chromatogram analysis showed that the sex chromosome composition of this female was ZZW. Together with two previously described ZZW female birds, our results suggest a prominent role for a female determining gene on the W chromosome. These results imply that avian sex determination is more dynamic and complex than currently envisioned.; Organismic and Evolutionary Biology

An XX/XY sex microchromosome system in a freshwater turtle, Chelodina longicollis (Testudines: Chelidae) with genetic sex determination

Ezaz, T.; Valenzuela, N.; Grutzner, F.; Miura, I.; Georges, A.; Burke, R.; Graves, J.
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publ Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publ
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 EN
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66.28%
Heteromorphic sex chromosomes are rare in turtles, having been described in only four species. Like many turtle species, the Australian freshwater turtle Chelodina longicollis has genetic sex determination, but no distinguishable (heteromorphic) sex chromosomes were identified in a previous karyotyping study. We used comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to show that C. longicollis has an XX/XY system of chromosomal sex determination, involving a pair of microchromosomes. C-banding and reverse fluorescent staining also distinguished microchromosomes with different banding patterns in males and females in ∼70% cells examined. GTG-banding did not reveal any heteromorphic chromosomes, and no replication asynchrony on the X or Y microchromosomes was observed using replication banding. We conclude that there is a very small sequence difference between X and Y chromosomes in this species, a difference that is consistently detectable only by high-resolution molecular cytogenetic techniques, such as CGH. This is the first time a pair of microchromosomes has been identified as the sex chromosomes in a turtle species.; Tariq Ezaz , Nicole Valenzuela, Frank Grützner, Ikuo Miura, Arthur Georges, Russell L. Burke and Jennifer A. Marshall Graves

Sex determination in platypus and echidna: autosomal location of SOX3 confirms the absence of SRY from monotremes

Wallis, M.; Waters, P.; Delbridge, M.; Kirby, P.; Pask, A.; Grutzner, F.; Rens, W.; Ferguson-Smith, M.; Graves, J.
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publ Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publ
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.21%
In eutherian (‘placental’) mammals, sex is determined by the presence or absence of the Y chromosome-borne gene SRY, which triggers testis determination. Marsupials also have a Y-borne SRY gene, implying that this mechanism is ancestral to therians, the SRY gene having diverged from its X-borne homologue SOX3 at least 180 million years ago. The rare exceptions have clearly lost and replaced the SRY mechanism recently. Other vertebrate classes have a variety of sex-determining mechanisms, but none shares the therian SRY-driven XX female:XY male system. In monotreme mammals (platypus and echidna), which branched from the therian lineage 210 million years ago, no orthologue of SRY has been found. In this study we show that its partner SOX3 is autosomal in platypus and echidna, mapping among human X chromosome orthologues to platypus chromosome 6, and to the homologous chromosome 16 in echidna. The autosomal localization of SOX3 in monotreme mammals, as well as non-mammal vertebrates, implies that SRY is absent in Prototheria and evolved later in the therian lineage 210–180 million years ago. Sex determination in platypus and echidna must therefore depend on another male-determining gene(s) on the Y chromosomes, or on the different dosage of a gene(s) on the X chromosomes.; M. C. Wallis...

Temperature-sex determination in Podocnemis expansa (Testudines, Podocnemididae)

Bonach,Kelly; Malvasio,Adriana; Matushima,Eliana R.; Verdade,Luciano M.
Fonte: Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2011 EN
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66.26%
This study has been carried out at the central region of the Araguaia river on the border between the states of Goiás and Mato Grosso in the Brazilian Amazon Basin from September to December 2000. We recorded temperature fluctuation, clutch-size, incubation period and hatching success rate and hatchlings' sex ratio of five nests of Podocnemis expansa (Schweigger, 1812). Despite the relatively small sample size we infer that: a) nests of P. expansa in the central Araguaia river have a lower incubation temperature than nests located further south; however, incubation period is shorter, hatching success rate is lower and clutch-size is larger; b) Podocnemis expansa may present a female-male-female (FMF) pattern of temperature sex-determination (TSD); c) thermosensitive period of sex determination apparently occur at the last third of the incubation period; and, d) future studies should prioritize the relationship between temperature variation (i.e., range and cycle) and embryos development, survivorship and sex determination.

Genética y citogenética de la determinación del sexo en Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera, Braconidae); Genetics and cytogenetics of sex determination in Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera, Braconidae)

Carabajal Paladino, Leonela Z.
Fonte: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires Publicador: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; tesis doctoral; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2011 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.19%
El parasitoide bracónido Diachasmimorpha longicaudata es ampliamente utilizado como controlador biológico de moscas de los frutos; sin embargo, es escaso el conocimiento disponible sobre su genética. A fin de aportar información y mejorar su cría masiva, se estudió su sistema de determinación del sexo mediante la realización de cruzamientos de alta y baja endogamia, utilizando herramientas de citogenética para determinar el nivel de ploidía de la descendencia. Asimismo, se analizó su espermatogénesis y su cariotipo en detalle, realizando aportes a la Teoría de Interacción Mínima, desarrollada para el estudio de la evolución del cariotipo en Hymenoptera. En este parasitoide el sexo se determina por haplodiploidía (machos haploides, hembras diploides), pero en condiciones de alta endogamia ocurre un sesgo significativo de la proporción de sexos hacia machos, debido a la generación de machos diploides. El sexo estaría determinado por el estado de un promedio de tres loci no ligados. Los individuos homocigotas para los loci sexuales se desarrollan en machos diploides. Esta información permitirá mejorar los protocolos de cría masiva de la especie, tratando de minimizar el nivel de endogamia a fin de evitar un incremento en la producción de machos. El estudio citogenético permitió corroborar el número cromosómico descripto previamente. Se analizó la cantidad...

Determinación sexual en primates neotropicales: el caso de los monos aulladores; Sex determination in neotropical primates: the example of the howler monkeys

Steinberg, Eliana Ruth
Fonte: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires Publicador: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; tesis doctoral; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2011 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.24%
La Cariosistemática permite comparar taxa relacionados, en particular especies. Una variable de análisis con valor diagnóstico es el tipo de sistema de determinación sexual. En este Trabajo de Tesis se analizaron monos aulladores del género Alouatta con sistemas de determinación sexual múltiple resultado de translocaciones Y-autosoma. Se los comparó con otros 3 Ceboidea (Cebus, Saimiri y Aotus) y con dos Hominoidea (Pan troglodytes y Homo sapiens) ante la diversidad de patrones de determinación sexual, en particular en machos. Se realizó la primera caracterización del cariotipo de Alouatta pigra que mostró 2N=58, X_1X_1X_2X_2 / X_1X_2Y_1Y_2. Se estudió conservación genómica por FISH con las sintenias 3/15 y 3/21 evidenciando que estas asociaciones no estarían conservadas en las especies mesoamericanas A. pigra y A. palliata. Este estudio junto al de homeologías cromosómicas, mostró que los autosomas involucrados en las translocaciones que darían origen a los multivalentes sexuales en las especies sudamericanas y mesoamericanas serían distintos. En el marco conceptual de “Evidencia Total”, el análisis combinado de variables moleculares y cromosómicas resolvió las relaciones de parentesco entre las especies de aulladores de ambos orígenes americanos...

Genetic, endocrine, and environmental components of sex determination and differentiation in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.)

Piferrer, Francesc; Blázquez, Mercedes; Navarro-Martín, Laia; González Cabeza, Alicia
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 918459 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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9 pages, 1 figure, 3 tables.-- PMID: 15862554 [PubMed].-- Printed version published May 15, 2005.-- Issue title: "5th International Symposium on Fish Endocrynology" (Castellón, Spain, Sep 5-9, 2004).; The European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) is a differentiated gonochoristic marine teleost of the family Moronidae (closely related to the hermaphrodites of the family Serranidae), where many juvenile males exhibit intratesticular oocytes, suggesting a certain sexual lability. Like most fish, the sea bass does not have recognizable heterochromosomes or sex-linked markers but there are clear parental effects on the sex ratios. The data available so far indicate that the proportion of females resulting from individual crossings may range from as little as 1 to about 70%. Sex differentiation proceeds in a caudo-cranial fashion and starts when fish reach 8–9 cm standard length (usually about 200 days post-hatching, dph, under typical rearing conditions), with females differentiating first. Both forms of aromatase have been cloned in this species and their temporal expression has been studied. Brain aromatase is detectable already in the larval stages but its involvement in sex differentiation is not yet clear. The ovarian form increases after 100 dph before ovarian differentiation...

Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination in Fish Revisited: Prevalence, a Single Sex Ratio Response Pattern, and Possible Effects of Climate Change

Ospina-Álvarez, Natalia; Piferrer, Francesc
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 470051 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.37%
11 pages, 5 figures, 2 tables.-- PMID: 18665231 [PubMed].-- Supporting information available: Supplementary Table "Field and laboratory data used for the assessment of the presence of temperature-dependent sex determination in gonochoristic fish" and list of references.; [Background] In gonochoristic vertebrates, sex determination mechanisms can be classified as genotypic (GSD) or temperature-dependent (TSD). Some cases of TSD in fish have been questioned, but the prevalent view is that TSD is very common in this group of animals, with three different response patterns to temperature.; [Methodology/Principal Findings] We analyzed field and laboratory data for the 59 fish species where TSD has been explicitly or implicitly claimed so far. For each species, we compiled data on the presence or absence of sex chromosomes and determined if the sex ratio response was obtained within temperatures that the species experiences in the wild. If so, we studied whether this response was statistically significant. We found evidence that many cases of observed sex ratio shifts in response to temperature reveal thermal alterations of an otherwise predominately GSD mechanism rather than the presence of TSD. We also show that in those fish species that actually have TSD...

Determinação do sexo de psitacídeos por radioimunoensaio (RIE) de esteróides sexuais a partir de excretas cloacais; Psittacine sex determination by radioimunoassay (RIA) of sex steroids using fecal samples

Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Oliveira, Cláudio Alvarenga de
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2006 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.23%
Para o presente estudo utilizaram-se amostras de excretas cloacais de 50 aves da família Psittacidae, previamente sexadas. Os andrógenos e estrógenos fecais foram extraídos com Tampão Fosfato Salino (PBS) e com uma solução PBS:Álcool Etílico (4:1) e a mensuração hormonal foi realizada em "kits" comerciais para radioimunoensaio no Laboratório de Dosagens Hormonais (LDH) do Departamento de Reprodução Animal (VRA) da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia (FMVZ) da Universidade de São Paulo (USP). O sexo de cada ave foi confirmado utilizando como parâmetro o intervalo de confiança (95%) da média dos valores transformados dos índices do fator testosterona e seus metabólitos. Setenta por cento das aves tiveram o sexo confirmado pela técnica do radioimunoensaio. Os resultados encontrados demonstram a necessidade da realização de mais estudos para a determinação do sexo de aves monomórficas por meio de técnicas não invasivas.; For the current study, it were used fecal samples from 50 psittacines, previously sexed by PCR from blood cells. The fecal androgens and estrogens metabolites were extracted with PBS (Phosfate Buffer Saline) or PBS:Ethil Alchool (4:1) and measured by comercial radioimunoassay kits at the "Laboratório de Dosagens Hormonais" of the "Departamento de Reprodução Animal" of the "Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia" of the "Universidade de São Paulo". The sex determination of the birds were performed using the confidence interval (95%) for transformed androgens values. 70% of birds had the sex confirmed by radioimunoassay. The results showed that further studies for sex determination on monomorphic birds by non-invasive techniques are necessary.

Uncovering the Transcription Factor Network Underlying Mammalian Sex Determination

Natarajan, Anirudh
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.28%

Understanding transcriptional regulation in development and disease is one of the central questions in modern biology. The current working model is that Transcription Factors (TFs) combinatorially bind to specific regions of the genome and drive the expression of groups of genes in a cell-type specific fashion. In organisms with large genomes, particularly mammals, TFs bind to enhancer regions that are often several kilobases away from the genes they regulate, which makes identifying the regulators of gene expression difficult. In order to overcome these obstacles and uncover transcriptional regulatory networks, we used an approach combining expression profiling and genome-wide identification of enhancers followed by motif analysis. Further, we applied these approaches to uncover the TFs important in mammalian sex determination.

Using expression data from a panel of 19 human cell lines we identified genes showing patterns of cell-type specific up-regulation, down-regulation and constitutive expression. We then utilized matched DNase-seq data to assign DNase Hypersensitivity Sites (DHSs) to each gene based on proximity. These DHSs were scanned for matches to motifs and compiled to generate scores reflecting the presence of TF binding sites (TFBSs) in each gene's putative regulatory regions. We used a sparse logistic regression classifier to classify differentially regulated groups of genes. Comparing our approach to proximal promoter regions...

A systems-level view of mammalian sex determination.

Munger, Steven Carmen
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2010
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.39%

Pathologies of sexual development are common in humans and reflect the precarious processes of sex determination and sexual differentiation. The gonad forms as a bipotential organ, and recent results from the Capel lab revealed that it is initially balanced between testis and ovarian fates by opposing and antagonistic signaling networks. In XY embryos, this balance is disrupted by the transient expression of the Y-linked gene, Sry, which activates genes that promote the testis pathway and oppose the ovarian pathway. While the roles of a few genes have been defined by mutation, current evidence suggests that the interactions of many genes and signaling pathways are involved in the establishment of sexual fate. For example, most cases of disorders of sexual development (DSDs) are unexplained by mutations in known sex determination genes. In addition, recent microarray studies in the mouse revealed that nearly half the transcriptome is expressed in the gonad at the time of sex determination (Embryonic day 11.5, or E11.5), and as many as 1,500 genes are expressed in a sexually dimorphic pattern at this early stage. Thus the sexual fate decision in the developing gonad likely depends on a complex network of interacting factors that converge on a critical threshold.

To begin to elucidate the transcription network topology underlying sex determination...

Evolution of mammalian sex chromosomes and sex determination genes: insights from monotremes.

Toledo-Flores, Deborah Fernanda
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.4%
Genetic sex determination systems are generally based on the presence of differentiated sex chromosomes. Birds have a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system in which males are ZZ and females ZW, whereas mammals have an XX/XY system with males being XY and females XX. Monotremes have an extraordinary sex chromosome system that consists of multiple sex chromosomes: 5X5Y in platypus and 5X4Y in echidna. Intriguingly, the monotreme sex chromosomes show extensive homology to the bird ZW and not to the therian XY. However, sex determination in monotremes is still a mystery; the Y-specific Sry gene that triggers male sex determination in therian mammals is absent and so far very few genes have been identified on Y chromosomes in monotremes. To gain more insights into the gene content of Y-chromosomes and to identify potential sex determination genes in the platypus a collaborative large scale transcriptomic approach led to the identification of new male specific genes including the anti-Muellerian hormone AMH that I mapped to Y₅, this makes Amhy an exciting new candidate for sex determination in monotremes. Platypus chromosome 6 is largely homologous to the therian X and therefore it represents the therian proto sex chromosome. In addition, this autosome features a large heteromorphic nucleolus organizer region (NOR) and associates with the sex chromosomes during male meiosis (Casey and Daish personal communication). I investigated chromosome 6 heteromorphism in both sexes and found a number of sex-specific characteristics related to the extent of the NOR heteromorphism...

Sex determination in Turdus amaurochalinus (Passeriformes: Muscicapidae): morphometrical analysis supported by CHD gene

de Andrade Silva,Katyucha Von Kossel; Lôbo-Hajdu,Gisele; Alves,Maria Alice S.
Fonte: Revista de Biología Tropical Publicador: Revista de Biología Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.25%
Sex determination is important for conservation and population studies, particularly for reproduction programs of threatened species and behavioural ecology. Turdus amaurochalinus, Creamy-bellied Thrush, only exhibits sexual dimorphism during the breeding season, when males are considered to show intense yellow bills, and females and immature males show dark brown bills. The objectives of this study were: 1) to determine the sex of individuals using genetic techniques, and 2) to test the hypothesis that sex dimorphism can be detected by morphometry. This study was carried out at Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, a preserved area located on the North coast of Rio de Janeiro State. The birds were captured using ornithological nets, singly marked with metal rings, weighed, measured and had blood samples collected before being released. The sex of 42 T. amaurochalinus individuals was determined using the CHD gene marker. A total of 20 males and 22 females were identified from June to August, with peak capture frequency in June. Turdus amaurochalinus females and males differed significantly in morphometrical measures. The most important traits to distinguish males from females were wing length (Student t-test=4.34, df=40, p=0.0001) and weight (Student t-test=2.08...

Temperature-dependent sex determination in an uncertain world: advances and perspectives

Escobedo-Galván,Armando H.
Fonte: Instituto de Biología Publicador: Instituto de Biología
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2013 EN
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Recently, scientific attention has increased around the ecological and evolutionary effects of climate change on species with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Arguably the most significant effect of climate change on TSD species will be the imbalance of sex ratios, which, in turn, would threaten population viability. Recent laboratory studies suggest that current climate change may not necessarily result in skewed sex ratios for most TSD species; these observations could challenge the current perception of interplay between climate change and TSD. Here, I present a brief review of the previous and new insights regarding ecological implications of TSD species to climatic changes.