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HTLV-1/2 seroprevalence and coinfection rate in Brazilian first-time blood donors: an 11-year follow-up; Soroprevalência e taxa de coinfecção do HTLV-1/2 em doadores de sangue de primeira vez brasileiros: 11 anos de estudo

Pinto, Mariana Tomazini; Rodrigues, Evandra Strazza; Malta, Tathiane Maistro; Azevedo, Rochele; Takayanagui, Osvaldo Massaiti; Valente, Vanderléia Bárbaro; Ubiali, Eugênia Maria Amorim; Covas, Dimas Tadeu; Kashima, Simone
Fonte: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Publicador: Instituto de Medicina Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.91%
The seroprevalence and geographic distribution of HTLV-1/2 among blood donors are extremely important to transfusion services. We evaluated the seroprevalence of HTLV-1/2 infection among first-time blood donor candidates in Ribeirão Preto city and region. From January 2000 to December 2010, 1,038,489 blood donations were obtained and 301,470 were first-time blood donations. All samples were screened with serological tests for HTLV-1/2 using enzyme immunoassay (EIA). In addition, the frequency of coinfection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Chagas disease (CD) and syphilis was also determined. In-house PCR was used as confirmatory test for HTLV-1/2. A total of 296 (0.1%) first-time donors were serologically reactive for HTLV-1/2. Confirmatory PCR of 63 samples showed that 28 were HTLV-1 positive, 13 HTLV-2 positive, 19 negative and three indeterminate. Regarding HTLV coinfection rates, the most prevalent was with HBV (51.3%) and HCV (35.9%), but coinfection with HIV, CD and syphilis was also detected. The real number of HTLV-infected individual and coinfection rate in the population is underestimated and epidemiological studies like ours are very informative.

Seroprevalence and Modifiable Risk Factors for Toxocara spp. in Brazilian Schoolchildren

Cassenote, Alex Jones Flores; Lima, Alba R. de Abreu; Pinto Neto, José M.; Elefant, Guita Rubinsky
Fonte: PLOS; San Francisco Publicador: PLOS; San Francisco
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Background: Toxocariasis is a worldwide helminthic zoonosis caused by infection with the larvae of the ascarid worms that comprise the Toxocara spp. Children are particularly prone to infection because they are exposed to the eggs in sandboxes and playgrounds contaminated with dog and cat feces. Certain behaviors, such as a geophagy habit, poor personal hygiene, a lack of parental supervision, close contact with young dogs, and ingestion of raw meat, as well as gender, age, and socioeconomic status, affect the prevalence of the disease. However, previous studies of the risk factors for toxocariasis have generally produced inconsistent results. An epidemiological cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the seroprevalence of IgG anti- Toxocara spp. antibodies and associated factors in schoolchildren from a region in the southeast of Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings: A total of 252 schoolchildren aged 1 to 12 years (120 males and 132 females) were assessed. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on Toxocara canis larval excretory-secretory antigens was used to determine outcomes. A questionnaire was used to collect information on children, family, and home characteristics. Clinical and laboratory data completed the dataset investigated in this study. Seroprevalence was 15.5% (95%CI 11.5–19.8). Geophagy (aPR 2.38 [95%CI 1.36–4.18]...

Cytomegalovirus and Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in a Brazilian liver transplant waiting list

Almeida, Ricardo Augusto Monteiro de Barros; Silva, G. F.; Llanos, J. C.; Winckler, C. C.; Gomes, M. R B; Biagioni, D. S.; Paula, R. C C; Meira, D. A.; Bakonyi, A.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 881-884
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplantation. Disseminated toxoplasmosis after liver transplantation is a rare but fatal event. Serologic screening of the donor and the recipient is essential to prophylactic management, early diagnosis and therapeutic strategies to minimize the consequences of these infections. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of CMV and Toxoplasma gondii (TG) in a Brazilian liver transplant waiting list (LTWL). Serological data were collected from 44 candidates on the LTWL between May 2003 and November 2004. Serological investigation of antibodies IgM and IgG against CMV (anti-CMV) and TG (anti-T. gondii) was performed using fluorometry commercial kits. IgG anti-CMV was positive in 37 patients (94.9%) out of 39 available results. There were not IgM anti-CMV positive results. Out of 36 analyzed patients, 22 (61.1%) presented positive IgG anti-T. gondii and none had positive IgM anti-T. gondii. The high CMV seroprevalence among our LTWL reinforces the need for appropriate protocols to avoid related complications, like reactivation and superinfection by CMV. Environmental and drug prophylactic strategies against primary infection and reactivation...

Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in a low-income community in the São Paulo municipality, SP, Brazil

Francisco,Fabio de Moraes; Souza,Silvio Luís Pereira de; Gennari,Solange Maria; Pinheiro,Sonia Regina; Muradian,Vanessa; Soares,Rodrigo Martins
Fonte: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Publicador: Instituto de Medicina Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.12%
Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common zoonoses worldwide. The seroprevalence for T. gondii in human population from Brazil might range from 40 to 80%. The aim of this paper was to study the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in children from age one to 15 living in a low socioeconomic community, named community of Jardim São Remo in the year of 2002. The community is located in the West area of São Paulo municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 110 (32.4%, CI 95%: 27.5 - 37.7) of the 339 children tested with indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. The titration of the samples revealed 29 children with serum titer equal to 16, 14 children with 32, 18 children with 64, 21 children with 128, 20 children with 256 and eight children with serum titer > 512. The age dependence of the prevalence of T. gondii infection and the association between seroprevalence for T. gondii and seroprevalence for T. canis suggest that the infection is chiefly postnatal. Seroconversion in infant population of community Jardim São Remo occurs in children as young as two years old, earlier than in the children attended at health centers of São Paulo city. The seroprevalence of T. gondii in children from Jardim São Remo was compared to the prevalence in children from other urban centers of Brazil.

Syphilis seroprevalence estimates of Santa Catarina blood donors in 2010

Baião,Aysla Marcelino; Kupek,Emil; Petry,Andrea
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Introduction Knowledge of blood donor characteristics is essential to better guide clinical and serological screening for hemotherapy. The objective of this study was to determine the syphilis seroprevalence and the associated factors of blood donors in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Methods This population-based study from the State of Santa Catarina used information obtained from blood donation records. We analyzed 83,396 blood donor records generated from donors who were considered eligible to donate between January and August 2010. The aim of the study was to estimate the syphilis seroprevalence and its relationship with educational level, age, gender, geographical region and having donated blood in the past 12 months. We used descriptive analyses and a Poisson regression to calculate the prevalence ratios for the variables of interest. Results We found a 0.14% overall seroprevalence and significant differences among the following: first-time blood donors (0.19%) versus repeat donors (0.03% to 0.08%); low educational levels (0.30%) versus medium and high educational levels (0.08% to 0.19%); and donors who did not report their residence (0.88%) or age (6.94%) versus those who did. Increased syphilis seroprevalence was also significantly associated with increased age. Conclusion High syphilis seroprevalence was associated with lower educational level...

Seroprevalence and seroincidence of Leptospira infection in dogs during a one-year period in an endemic urban area in Southern Brazil

Morikawa,Vivien Midori; Bier,Daniele; Pellizzaro,Maysa; Ullmann,Leila Sabrina; Paploski,Igor Adolfo Dexheimer; Kikuti,Mariana; Langoni,Hélio; Biondo,Alexander Welker; Molento,Marcelo Beltrão
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.07%
INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis is a zoonosis that affects both humans and animals. Dogs may serve as sentinels and indicators of environmental contamination as well as potential carriers for Leptospira. This study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence and seroincidence of leptospirosis infection in dogs in an urban low-income community in southern Brazil where human leptospirosis is endemic. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was designed that consisted of sampling at recruitment and four consecutive trimestral follow-up sampling trials. All households in the area were visited, and those that owned dogs were invited to participate in the study. The seroprevalence (MAT titers ≥100) of Leptospira infection in dogs was calculated for each visit, the seroincidence (seroconversion or four-fold increase in serogroup-specific MAT titer) density rate was calculated for each follow-up, and a global seroincidence density rate was calculated for the overall period. RESULTS: A total of 378 dogs and 902.7 dog-trimesters were recruited and followed, respectively. The seroprevalence of infection ranged from 9.3% (95% CI; 6.7 - 12.6) to 19% (14.1 - 25.2), the seroincidence density rate of infection ranged from 6% (3.3 - 10.6) to 15.3% (10.8 - 21.2)...

The Seroprevalence of Equine Trypanosomosis in the Pantanal

Dávila,Alberto MR; Souza,Silvana S; Campos,Cristiane; Silva,Roberto Aguilar MS
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Since little information is available on the epizootiological status of Trypanosoma evansi in South America and particularly Brazil, we evaluated equine serum samples collected in 1993, 1994, 1995 and 1997 for the presence of antibodies against this trypanosome species. Our study shows corroborative evidence about the correlation among high T. evansi seroprevalence and the rainy season in the Pantanal, Brazil. The higher seroprevalence was 79.2% in horses from a ranch located in the Nhecolândia sub-region in 1994 and the lower 5.8% in animals from the same ranch in 1997. No seroprevalence was found in 1993. The possible re-introduction of T. evansi in the region as well as the relationship among our results with the outbreaks reported in 1994, are briefly discussed.

Seroprevalence of human herpesvirus 8 infection in children born to HIV-1- infected women in São Paulo, Brazil

Machado,D.M.; Sumita,L.M.; Pannuti,C.S.; Succi,R.C.M.; Moraes-Pinto,M.I.; Souza,V.A.U.F.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37%
Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) appears to be transmitted mainly by sexual contact. However, several studies suggest that in developing countries the infection may be acquired early in life by routes other than sexual transmission. The present study estimated the seroprevalence of HHV-8 in Brazilian children born to HIV-1-infected mothers. The serum samples were collected in a cross-sectional cohort study from 99 children born to HIV-infected mothers (median age 3.27 years; range 1.5-13.8 years) attending the outpatient clinic of the Federal University of São Paulo. IgG antibodies to HHV-8 latency-associated nuclear antigen and lytic phase antigens were detected by immunofluorescence assays. The samples tested were collected from children aged 12 months or older to exclude the possibility of cross-placental antibody transport. The total prevalence of anti-lytic antibodies in this population (5/99; 5%) reveals that HHV-8 infection can occur during childhood. Children aged 1.5 to 2 years had a seroprevalence of 2% (1/50) and children aged 3.25 to 13.8 years had a seroprevalence of 8% (4/49). This difference was not statistically significant, probably because of the small size of the sample, but it suggests that HHV-8 infection occurs more commonly late in infancy. Further prospective studies are necessary to evaluate the timing and risk factors for primary HHV-8 infection in the pediatric population.

HIV-1 seroprevalence in the general population of Salvador, Bahia State, Northeast Brazil

Dourado,Inês; Milroy,Craig A.; Mello,Marco Antônio Gomes; Ferraro,Geraldo Argolo; Castro-Lima Filho,Humberto; Guimarães,Monick Lindenmeyer; Morgado,Mariza Gonçalves; Teixeira,Maria Gloria; Barreto,Maurício L.; Galvão-Castro,Bernardo
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37%
To estimate HIV-1 seroprevalence in the general population of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 3,437 residents from 1998 to 2000. Subjects were drawn from 30 sentinel areas representing a wide range of living conditions. Plasma samples were screened for HIV-1 antibodies by ELISA and confirmed by immunofluorescent assay. Subtype determination by HMA was performed after proviral DNA amplification. Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony was performed with the neighbor-joining method. Overall HIV-1 seroprevalence was 0.55% (19/3,446): 0.8% for men and 0.36% for women. Seroprevalence was higher in the 31-45-year age group (1%) and among persons with family income less than twice the minimum wage (0.78%) as compared to 0.33% for the higher income group. Syphilis was detected in 37% of HIV seropositive individuals. Phylogenetic inferences identified 10 samples as subtype B in the env region and 2 samples with Benv/Fgag/Fpol and Fenv/Bgag. Age > 30 years, male gender, and income < 2 times the minimum wage were identified as risk factors for HIV-1 infection. Extrapolating the proportion of seropositive individuals to Salvador, the number of HIV-1 infected individuals was estimated at 13,750.

Seroprevalence survey of H9N2 avian influenza virus in backyard chickens around the Caspian Sea in Iran

Hadipour,MM
Fonte: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas Publicador: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Since 1998, an epidemic of avian influenza occurred in the Iranian poultry industry. The identified agent presented low pathogenicity, and was subtyped as an H9N2 avian influenza virus. Backyard chickens can play an important role in the epidemiology of H9N2 avian influenza virus infection. Close contact of backyard chickens with migratory birds, especially with aquatic birds, as well as neighboring poultry farms, may pose the risk of transmitting avian influenza virus, but little is known about the disease status of backyard poultry. A H9N2 avian influenza virus seroprevalence survey was carried out in 700 backyard chickens from villages around the Caspian Sea, Northern Iran, using the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test. The studied backyard chickens had not been previously vaccinated and showed no clinical signs of disease. The mean antibody titers found were 6.8, 7.5, 5.9, 7.2, 5.7, 6.4, 6.2 and the seroprevalence was 76.2%, 79.5%, 68.18%, 78.27%, 65%, 72.31% and 71.4% as found in seven villages. Overall HI titer and seroprevalence against H9N2 were 6.52 and 72.98%, respectively.

Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C markers at the population level in the municipality of Caxias do Sul, southern Brazil

Menegol,Débora; Spilki,Fernando Rosado
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37%
Chronic viral hepatitis are main public health problems worldwide. Data about the seroprevalence to Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV e HCV) at the population level are scarce on Brazil and especially for the Southern region of the country. The seroprevalence to HBV and HBC antigens was evaluated on a large portion of the population of the municipality of Caxias do Sul (427,858 inhabitants), Brazil. A total of 60,604 individual serum samples collected from 2008 to 2011 were screened for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and for antibodies against HBsAg; anti HCV antibodies were measured by ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay). Overall, 1.63% of the individuals were positive for HBsAg and 1.43% showed seropositivity to HCV. From the total, 31,749 samples were analyzed for HBsAg and 28,855 for HCV. For HBsAg, 519 samples showed positive (1.63%) while the results for 37 patients (0.12%) remained inconclusive. For the anti-HCV test, 412 individuals (1.43%) showed positive. From the positive samples for HBsAg 216 (50.6%) were from male individuals whereas for anti-HCV the seroprevalence was slightly higher for females 216 (52.4%). The higher prevalence for both hepatitis viruses were found among individuals at the age group of 40 to 59 years and the lower levels of positivity for both HBV and HBC were among children and teenagers.

Socioeconomic Status and HIV Seroprevalence in Tanzania : A Counterintuitive Relationship

Msisha, W. M.; Kapiga, S. H.; Earls, F.; Subramanian, S. V.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between multiple dimensions of socioeconomic status (SES) and HIV seroprevalence in Tanzania. METHODS: Using a large nationally representative sample of 7515 sexually active adults drawn from the 2003-04 Tanzania HIV/AIDS Indicator Survey, we analysed the relationship between multiple SES measures and HIV seroprevalence using weighted logistic regression models. RESULTS: In adjusted models, individuals in the highest quintile of standard of living had increased odds ratio (OR) of being HIV-positive (male: OR 2.38, 95% CI 1.17-4.82; female: OR 3.74, 95% CI 2.16-6.49). Occupational status was differentially associated with HIV in men and women; women in professional jobs had higher OR of being HIV-positive (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.02-2.38), whereas unemployed men had higher risk of being HIV-positive (OR 3.49, 95% CI 1.43-8.58). No marked association was found between increasing education and HIV seroprevalence for men (P = 0.83) and women (P = 0.87). CONCLUSION: Contrary to the prevailing perception that low SES individuals tend to be more vulnerable to HIV-infection, we found a positive association between standard of living and HIV-infection. Strategies aimed at reducing HIV-infection needs to be cognizant of the complex social heterogeneity in the patterns of HIV-infection.

Seroprevalence and seroincidence of Leptospira infection in dogs during a one-year period in an endemic urban area in Southern Brazil

Morikawa, Vivien Midori; Bier, Daniele; Pellizzaro, Maysa; Ullmann, Leila Sabrina; Dexheimer Paploski, Igor Adolfo; Kikuti, Mariana; Langoni, Helio; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Molento, Marcelo Beltrao
Fonte: Soc Brasileira Medicina Tropical Publicador: Soc Brasileira Medicina Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 50-55
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.07%
Introduction: Leptospirosis is a zoonosis that affects both humans and animals. Dogs may serve as sentinels and indicators of environmental contamination as well as potential carriers for Leptospira. This study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence and seroincidence of leptospirosis infection in dogs in an urban low-income community in southern Brazil where human leptospirosis is endemic. Methods: A prospective cohort study was designed that consisted of sampling at recruitment and four consecutive trimestral follow-up sampling trials. All households in the area were visited, and those that owned dogs were invited to participate in the study. The seroprevalence (MAT titers >= 100) of Leptospira infection in dogs was calculated for each visit, the seroincidence (seroconversion or four-fold increase in serogroup-specific MAT titer) density rate was calculated for each follow-up, and a global seroincidence density rate was calculated for the overall period. Results: A total of 378 dogs and 902.7 dog-trimesters were recruited and followed, respectively. The seroprevalence of infection ranged from 9.3% (95% CI; 6.7 - 12.6) to 19% (14.1 - 25.2), the seroincidence density rate of infection ranged from 6% (3.3 - 10.6) to 15.3% (10.8 - 21.2)...

Seroprevalence and risk factors for bovine brucellosis in Jordan

Al-Majali, A.; Talafha, A.; Ababneh, M.
Fonte: Korean Society of Veterinary Science Publicador: Korean Society of Veterinary Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37%
We investigated the seroprevalence and risk factors for Brucella seropositivity in cattle in Jordan. The sera from 671 cows were randomly collected from 62 herds. The antibodies against Brucella were detected using a Rose Bengal plate test and indirect ELISA. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on the cattle herds' health and management. A multiple logistic regression model was constructed to identify the risk factors for Brucella seropositivity. The true prevalence of antibodies against Brucella in individual cows and cattle herds was 6.5% and 23%, respectively. The seroprevalence of brucellosis in cows older than 4 years of age was significantly higher than that in the younger cows. The seroprevalence of brucellosis in cows located in the Mafraq, Zarqa and Ma'an governorates was significantly higher than that of the other studied governorates. The multiple logistic regression model revealed that a larger herd size (odd ratio OR = 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.6) and mixed farming (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.7, 3.7) were risk factors for cattle seropositivity to Brucella antigens. On the other hand, the use of disinfectants (OR = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.1) and the presence of adequate veterinary services (OR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.2, 3.2) were identified as protective factors.; Ahmad M. Al-Majali...

Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus antibodies in blood donors in southern, Brazil

Souza,Marli Adelina; Passos,Ana Maria; Treitinger,Arício; Spada,Celso
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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INTRODUCTION: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a matter of concern for blood bank professionals and blood transfusion recipients, especially in cases of transfusions to neonates and immunocompromised patients. Thus, the present study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of CMV IgG and IgM antibodies among blood donors in the city of Lages, in the mountain region of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, and to investigate possible associations between the socioeconomic characteristics of donors and CMV serological status. METHODS: A seroepidemiological cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,045 blood samples from donors that were used in serological screening over a one-year investigation. All the analyses were conducted using the microparticle enzyme immunoassay with Biokit® reagents (Barcelona, Spain), in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. RESULTS: Anti-CMV IgG seroprevalence in the sample studied was 96.4% (95% CI: 95.23 - 97.50) and that of anti-CMV IgM was 2.3% (95% CI: 1.39 - 3.20). There were no statistically significant associations between the presence of antibodies and the socioeconomic characteristics of donors. CONCLUSIONS: The blood donors in the study region had high seroprevalence of anti-CMV IgG. Thus...

Seroprevalence of Porcine torovirus (PToV) in Spanish farms

Alonso Padilla, Julio; Pignatelli Garrigós, Jaime; Simon Grifé, Meritxell; Plazuelo, Susana; Casal i Fàbrega, Jordi; Rodríguez Aguirre, Dolores
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.07%
Background: Torovirus infections have been associated with gastroenteritis and diarrhea in horses, cows, pigs and humans, especially in young animals and in children. Although asymptomatic in a large percentage of cases, however toroviruses may pose a potential threat to worsen disease outcome in concurrent infections with other enteric pathogens. Previous studies based on the analysis of limited numbers of samples indicated high seroprevalences against porcine torovirus (PToV) in various European countries. The aim of this work was to perform a seroepidemiological survey of PToV in Spanish farms in order to define the seroprevalence against this virus. Results: Serum samples (n = 2664) from pigs of different ages were collected from 100 Spanish farms coming from 10 regions that concentrate 96.1% of the 3392 farms with 80 or more sows censused in Spain. Samples were screened by means of an indirect enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) based on a recombinant PToV nucleocapsid protein as antigen. The analysis of the whole serum collection yielded a total of 95.7% (2550/2664) seropositive samples. The highest prevalence (99.6%, 1382/1388) and ELISA values (average O.D. ± standard deviation) were observed in the sows (1.03±0.36) and the lowest prevalence (59.4%...

Soroprevalência de toxoplasmose em comunidade de baixa renda da municipalidade de São Paulo, SP, Brasil; Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in a low-income community in the São Paulo municipality, SP, Brazil

Francisco, Fabio de Moraes; Souza, Silvio Luís Pereira de; Gennari, Solange Maria; Pinheiro, Sonia Regina; Muradian, Vanessa; Soares, Rodrigo Martins
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2006 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.12%
A toxoplasmose é uma das zoonoses mais comuns em todo o mundo. Estima-se que a soroprevalência desta enfermidade na população humana do Brasil esteja entre 40 e 80%. O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar a soroprevalência para a infecçção pelo T. gondii em crianças entre um e 15 anos de idade em uma comunidade de baixa renda denominada comunidade Jardim São Remo, durante o ano de 2002. A comunidade estudada localiza-se na região Oeste do município de São Paulo, no estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Anticorpos contra T. gondii foram encontrados em 110 (32,4% IC 95%: 27.5 - 37.7) das 339 crianças submetidas ao teste de imunofluorescência indireta. A titulação das amostras revelou 29 amostras com título igual a 16, 14 crianças com título igual a 32, 18 crianças com título 64, 21 crianças com título 128, 20 crianças com título 256 e oito crianças com título maior ou igual a 512. A relação entre a idade das crianças e soroprevalência para toxoplasmose e a associação positiva entre soroprevalência para T. gondii e soroprevalência para T. canis sugere que a infecção ocorre principalmente após o nascimento. A soroconversão na população infantil da comunidade Jardim São Remo ocorre em crianças a partir de dois anos de idade...

Cross-sectional seroprevalence of antibodies against 6, 11, 16 and 18 human papilloma virus (HPV) types among teenagers and young women in Italy

Lupi,Silvia; Bergamini,Mauro; Guidi,Enrica; Gregorio,Pasquale
Fonte: Istituto Superiore di Sanità Publicador: Istituto Superiore di Sanità
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37%
BACKGROUND. Little is known about human papilloma virus (HPV) seroprevalence in the healthy Italian population. The aim of the study was to assess seroprevalence of antibodies against HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18 among girls and young women in Italy. METHODS. Sera were tested with a commercially available ELISA assay detecting specific IgG. Results. Seroprevalence was 54.1% in girls between 11 to 18 years old and 8.2% in over 18s. Overall seropositivity in birth cohorts invited for free immunization reached 72.8% and was significantly higher than in other age subgroups. The highest levels of antibodies were detected in girls of 12 years old that should have just completed the vaccination schedule. Conclusion. A standardized seroepidemiological survey on HPV represents a useful tool for identifying groups at risk in which immunization is recommended, monitoring of vaccinated women, assessing whether booster vaccination is required.

HIV-1 seroprevalence in the general population of Salvador, Bahia State, Northeast Brazil

Dourado,Inês; Milroy,Craig A.; Mello,Marco Antônio Gomes; Ferraro,Geraldo Argolo; Castro-Lima Filho,Humberto; Guimarães,Monick Lindenmeyer; Morgado,Mariza Gonçalves; Teixeira,Maria Gloria; Barreto,Maurício L.; Galvão-Castro,Bernardo
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37%
To estimate HIV-1 seroprevalence in the general population of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 3,437 residents from 1998 to 2000. Subjects were drawn from 30 sentinel areas representing a wide range of living conditions. Plasma samples were screened for HIV-1 antibodies by ELISA and confirmed by immunofluorescent assay. Subtype determination by HMA was performed after proviral DNA amplification. Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony was performed with the neighbor-joining method. Overall HIV-1 seroprevalence was 0.55% (19/3,446): 0.8% for men and 0.36% for women. Seroprevalence was higher in the 31-45-year age group (1%) and among persons with family income less than twice the minimum wage (0.78%) as compared to 0.33% for the higher income group. Syphilis was detected in 37% of HIV seropositive individuals. Phylogenetic inferences identified 10 samples as subtype B in the env region and 2 samples with Benv/Fgag/Fpol and Fenv/Bgag. Age > 30 years, male gender, and income < 2 times the minimum wage were identified as risk factors for HIV-1 infection. Extrapolating the proportion of seropositive individuals to Salvador, the number of HIV-1 infected individuals was estimated at 13,750.

HIV seroprevalence and associated risk factors among male inmates at the Belize Central Prison

Gough,Ethan; Edwards,Paul
Fonte: Organización Panamericana de la Salud Publicador: Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2009 EN
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OBJECTIVES: To determine the seroprevalence of HIV and identify associated risk factors among inmates at the Belize Central Prison, managed by the Kolbe Foundation, Belize. METHODS: A voluntary sample of 623 participants was obtained from the male inmate population incarcerated during the period from 15 January to 5 March 2005. HIV serostatus was determined on location using the Abbott Determine Assay for HIV-1/2 for screening, and the MedMira MiraWell Rapid HIV-1/2 Test for confirmatory testing. Remaining serum was tested by ELISA at the Central Medical Laboratory, Belize. Demographic and risk behavior data were collected using an interviewer administered pre-tested questionnaire. A multivariate logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders and to identify independent associations with HIV seropositivity. RESULTS:Of the 623 inmates in the sample, 25 tested positive for HIV-1/2 antibody for a seroprevalence of 4.0% (95% Confidence Interval 2.7, 6.0). After adjustment for confounding, HIV serostatus was positively associated with male-to-male sexual activity outside prison, age, and district of residence before current incarceration. CONCLUSIONS: The seroprevalence in the Central Prison was almost twice that estimated for the adult population of Belize in 2004 (2.4%). However...