Página 1 dos resultados de 48 itens digitais encontrados em 0.017 segundos

O consumo público de eventos esportivos: um olhar para além dos estádios de futebol

Almeida, Erick Bastos de
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Dissertação
PT_BR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36%
O presente estudo investigou o consumo público de eventos esportivos ao vivo dentro e fora do âmbito dos estádios. O objetivo principal do estudo foi determinar se o fã (torcedor), percebe uma relação de substituição ou de complementaridade entre as atitudes favoráveis ao comparecimento ao estádio ou a outros locais públicos para assistir a jogos de futebol. Adicionalmente, o estudo objetivou a investigação da influência da identificação do fã do esporte (torcedor) com seu time na atitude e consumo público do espetáculo do futebol no estádio ou em outros locais públicos; bem como se as características demográficas (gênero e faixa etária) exercem algum tipo de efeito moderador sobre as relações estudadas. Para abordar estes temas buscou-se referência na SIT – Social Identity Theory e na SCT – Self- Categorization Theory. Foi realizado um levantamento (survey), envolvendo torcedores dos 4 times cariocas de maior torcida, mediante entrevistas estruturadas assistidas. A amostra foi intencional e de conveniência e a coleta de dados totalizou 507 questionários válidos. A análise dos dados foi realizada em duas etapas. A primeira contemplando uma análise fatorial exploratória, que objetivou a observação preliminar da qualidade das escalas. A segunda etapa contemplou uma análise fatorial confirmatória com o objetivo de purificar as escalas. Foram avaliadas a confiabilidade e a validade convergente...

Crowdedness Mediates the Effect of Social Identification on Positive Emotion in a Crowd: A Survey of Two Crowd Events

Novelli, David; Drury, John; Reicher, Stephen; Stott, Clifford
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/11/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.95%
Exposure to crowding is said to be aversive, yet people also seek out and enjoy crowded situations. We surveyed participants at two crowd events to test the prediction of self-categorization theory that variable emotional responses to crowding are a function of social identification with the crowd. In data collected from participants who attended a crowded outdoor music event (n = 48), identification with the crowd predicted feeling less crowded; and there was an indirect effect of identification with the crowd on positive emotion through feeling less crowded. Identification with the crowd also moderated the relation between feeling less crowded and positive emotion. In data collected at a demonstration march (n = 112), identification with the crowd predicted central (most dense) location in the crowd; and there was an indirect effect of identification with the crowd on positive emotion through central location in the crowd. Positive emotion in the crowd also increased over the duration of the crowd event. These findings are in line with the predictions of self-categorization theory. They are inconsistent with approaches that suggest that crowding is inherently aversive; and they cannot easily be explained through the concept of ‘personal space’.

GrOup based physical Activity for oLder adults (GOAL) randomized controlled trial: study protocol

Beauchamp, Mark R.; Harden, Samantha M.; Wolf, Svenja A.; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Liu, Yan; Dunlop, William L.; Schmader, Toni; Sheel, Andrew W.; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Estabrooks, Paul A.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.95%
Background: Physical activity has health benefits across the lifespan, yet only 13 % of Canadian older adults are sufficiently active. Results from a number of observational studies indicate that adults display positive preferences for exercising with others of a similar age and same gender, and that intra-group age- and gender-similarity are associated with elevated exercise adherence. However, research has yet to experimentally examine the extent to which intra-group age- and gender-related similarity affect exercise adherence behaviors. Methods/design The GrOup-based physical Activity for oLder adults (GOAL) trial is a three-arm randomized control trial that will examine the efficacy of two different group-based exercise programs for older adults (informed by the tenets of self-categorization theory) in relation to a standard group-based exercise program. Within this manuscript we outline the design and proposed evaluation of the GOAL trial. The first arm is comprised of exercise groups made up of participants of a similar-age and of the same gender; the second arm consists of groups with similar-aged mixed gender participants; the control arm is comprised of mixed-aged mixed gender participants. We aim to compare the adherence rates of participants across conditions...

Racioethnic differences in job satisfaction: A test of orthogonal cultural identification theory and self -categorization theory

Friday, Shawnta Shajuan
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.95%
The theories of orthogonal cultural identification and self-categorization are offered as links in examining the possible racioethnic differences in job satisfaction. It is posited that racioethnicity (Cox & Blake, 1991) is multidimensional with at least three conceptually distinct dimensions. Since there is a need for consistent terminology with respect to these distinct dimensions, the following new terms are offered to differentiate among them: "physioethnicity" refers to the physiological dimension of racioethnicity; "socioethnicity" refers to the sociocultural dimension; and "psychoethnicity" refers to the psychological dimension.^ Results showed that for the dominant group (Hispanics in this case) (1) bicultural and multicultural individuals were more satisfied with coworkers than acultural and monocultural individuals and (2) individuals with higher strength of psychoethnicity were more satisfied with coworkers, the work itself, and supervision than those with lower strength of psychoethnicity. The findings suggest racioethnic differences within the dominant group and between groups beyond race. ^

A gendered self or a gendered context? A social identity approach to gender differences

Ryan, Michelle K
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.9%
This thesis examines the way in which traditional accounts of gender differences in the self-concept have relied on distal explanatory factors, and have thus conceptualised the gendered self as stable across both time and situation. This notion of a stable, gendered self has been implicated as underlying of a range of psychological gender differences (e.g., Cross & Madson, 1997), such as those in moral reasoning (e.g., Gillian, 1982) and ways of knowing (e.g., Belenky et al., 1989). As a result, these behaviours are also seen to be stable across time and context.¶ ...; yes

Construals of Human Rights Law: Protecting Subgroups As Well As Individual Humans

Nolan, Mark
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.77%
This research develops the social psychological study of lay perception of human rights and of rights-based reactions to perceived injustice. The pioneering work by social representation theorists is reviewed. Of particular interest is the use of rights-based responses to perceived relative subgroup disadvantage. It is argued that these responses are shaped by the historical development of the legal concept of unique subgroup rights; rights asserted by a subgroup that cannot be asserted by outgroup members or by members of a broader collective that includes all subgroups. ¶ ...; yes

A gendered self or a gendered context? a social identity approach to gender differences

Ryan, Michelle K
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Formato: 1856510 bytes; 356 bytes; 356 bytes; 356 bytes; 356 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream; application/octet-stream; application/octet-stream; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.97%
This thesis examines the way in which traditional accounts of gender differences in the self-concept have relied on distal explanatory factors, and have thus conceptualised the gendered self as stable across both time and situation. This notion of a stable, gendered self has been implicated as underlying of a range of psychological gender differences (e.g., Cross & Madson, 1997), such as those in moral reasoning (e.g., Gillian, 1982) and ways of knowing (e.g., Belenky et al., 1989). As a result, these behaviours are also seen to be stable across time and context. An alternative perspective is investigated, which looks to social identity theory and self-categorisation theory for a conceptualisation of both gender and the self-concept as being malleable and context-dependent (e.g., Turner et al., 1987). The social identity perspective describes the way in which proximal aspects of the social context affect the expression of gender-related behaviours, attitudes, and beliefs. In this way, the social identity perspective provides an analysis of group membership, group norms, and social influence which can not only account for the differences that are observed between men and women, but can also offer an analysis of the context-dependence of these difference and an approach by which gender differences can be mollified. A series of nine empirical studies are reported...

Predicting political involvement : the role of social identity and commitment to opinion-based groups

Bliuc, Ana-Maria
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.07%
This thesis examines the main predictors of political involvement from a social identity perspective, thus the main questions addressed is when people decide to take collective action in relation to shared ideas. It is argued that group selfdefinition should predict intentions to undertake political behaviours. Surprisingly the existing literature does not unequivocally show that the strength of subjective group membership is a good predictor of group behaviour in general, or political behavioural intentions in particular. The thesis proposes four key solutions to this problem. The first is that the relationship will tend to be strong when groups are in conflict: intergroup conflict seems to help organize behaviour into oppositional forms. Secondly, the group membership will be a stronger predictor when the groups are normatively relevant to the predicted behaviour. As social identity theorists have long argued, group behaviour is only predicted by group membership when that behaviour is consistent with a relevant norm for the group. Thirdly, the relationship will tend to be strong when relevant groups are chosen, and the focus here is on opinion-based groups: groups defined on the basis of a shared opinion. Fourthly...

Social cooperation : redefining the self in self-interest

Morrison, Brenda Elizabeth
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.12%
This thesis examines the social psychological process underlying social cooperation. Reviews are presented of (a) the interdependence account of social cooperation; and (b) the structure of and solutions to social dilemmas, the paradigm through which social cooperation is studied. Based on these reviews, two assumptions in this literature are then elaborated on: (i) the primacy of the individual self and (ii) the conceptualization of the group. Building on this critique, a theoretical review of the social identity account is then presented, through the development of social identity and self-categorization theories. While both the interdependence and social identity accounts grew from the work of the early interactionists -- Lewin, Asch and Sherif-- these accounts are now fundamentally distinct. Interdependence theorists understand social cooperation as a function of interdependence structure and transformational processes of individuals; while, social identity theorists understand social cooperation as a function of social context and categorization processes of individuals. While the latter approach does not discount the role that objective interdependence can play in social identification, it argues that interdependence...

Identity and public attitudes to foreign aid: a framework for bottom-up policy reform

Gandy, Kizzy Marie Prem
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.01%
How can we close the gap between the policy commitments governments make at the international level and policy implementation at the domestic level in order to address global problems such as poverty and climate change? I integrate the constructivist perspective in international relations and self-categorization theory in social psychology to propose an identitybased approach to bottom-up policy reform. Identities are context-dependent categorisations of ‘self’ and ‘other’ which help actors navigate reality. I argue that policy outputs are determined by the state’s identity whereas each citizen’s policy preferences are determined by the multiple identities which comprise their self-concept. State identities constitute cultural norms and the state’s international image relative to other states. Citizen identities constitute personal value priorities (personal identities) and group memberships (social identities). Citizens contribute to the state identity but a state’s identity is bigger than the sum of its parts. Therefore, the aggregate preferences of individual citizens may not necessarily correspond to policy outputs. This is not undemocratic because people do not engage in policy issues unless doing so is stereotypical of their current context-dependent identity. In addition...

Beyond the information given : capacity, context and the categorization process in impression formation

Reynolds, Katherine Jane
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.36%
This thesis exammes the impression formation process, with particular reference to the distinction between individuated and stereotypic impression formation. The emphasis is on issues such as: What factors influence our impressions? When are impressions based on a person's individual qualities? When do we form stereotypic impressions of others? What processes underpin the formation of more individuated or stereotypic impressions? Two theoretical perspectives, social cognition and self-categorization theory, offer divergent explanations of the impression formation process and are the theoretical and empirical focus of the thesis. The argument developed in recent impression formation models based on the social coguition approach is that there are two impression formation processes. Categorization is defined as the process used to form stereotypic impressions, and a categorization-free process is thought to underlie individuated impression formation. Whether one process or the other operates is determined by motivational factors which impact on the level of attention allocated to impression formation, such that increased attention is inversely related to stereotyping. Alternatively, self-categorization theory argues that the types of impressions we form of others are the product of the relational...

Mood and stereotyping : a self-categorization theory approach

Tweedie, Janet Helen
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.19%
This thesis examines the role of mood in the social psychological process of stereotyping. We ask the question: how does an individual's mood affect the way in which they perceive both others and themselves in terms of their social identity? This area of research originally developed as an attempt to integrate findings from two important fields: affect and cognition, and group behaviour and stereotyping. Importantly, the overarching meta-theory in which these areas of research have traditionally been embedded is that of the cognitive miser (Fiske & Taylor, 1984). Previous research has conceptualised stereotypes as somewhat rigid, inflexible by-products of the way in which we perceive our social world. Research has focussed largely on the categorization process as an information reduction mechanism that enables us to cope with our cognitive limitations. Along with this emphasis, stereotyping has been inextricably linked to prejudice and discrimination. About the same time as the cognitive miser metaphor was dominant in stereotyping research, a resurgence of interest into the effects of mood on cognition was in place. This quickly grew into a large and influential body of work that focussed on the way in which mood influences information processing strategies. Positive moods were linked to heuristic processing and negative moods to substantive processing. The integration of these areas of research led to the examination of mood's effects on stereotyping. As stereotypes were seen as a form of cognitive shortcut...

Predictors of prejudice perceptions and the role of group identification in international students

Danielidou, Liana.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.85%
The purpose of the present study was first to determine what influences international students' perceptions of prejudice, and secondly to examine how perceptions of prejudice would affect international students' group identification. Variables such as stigma vulnerability and contact which have been previously linked with perceptions of prejudice and intergroup relations were re-examined (Berryman-Fink, 2006; Gilbert, 1998; Nesdale & Todd, 2000), while variables classically linked to prejudicial attitudes such as right-wing authoritarianism and openness to experience were explored in relation to perceptions of prejudice. Furthermore, the study examined how perceptions of prejudice might affect the students' identification choices, by testing two opposing models. The first model was based on the motivational nature of social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1986) while the second model was based on the cognitive nature of self-categorization theory/ rejection-identification model (Turner, Hogg, Oakes, Reicher, & Wetherell, 1987; Schmitt, Spears, & Branscombe,2003). It was hypothesized that stigma vulnerability, right-wing authoritarianism, openness to experience and contact would predict both personal and group perceptions of prejudice. It was also hypothesized that perceptions of prejudice would predict group identification. If the self-categorizationlrejection-identification model was supported...

Task-groups as self-categories: A social identity perspective on status generalization

Oldmeadow, Julian; Platow, Michael; Foddy, Margaret
Fonte: University of Iowa Publicador: University of Iowa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.8%
In this paper we incorporate the concept of self-categorization into status characteristics theory to offer a group-based approach to status generalization. We suggest that task-groups can be understood as self-categories, and that the cognitive and motiv

Self-categorization, status, and social influence

Oldmeadow, Julian; Platow, Michael; Foddy, Margaret; Anderson, Donna
Fonte: American Sociological Association Publicador: American Sociological Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.98%
The domain of social influence is central to social psychology, and is claimed as a core aspect of the explanatory domain of two important theories: self-categorization theory and the theory of status characteristics and expectation states. In this paper

The Thermo-Mechanical Dynamics of DNA Self-Assembled Nanostructures

Mao, Vincent Chi Ann
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 7504848 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //2010 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.87%

The manufacturing of molecular-scale computing systems requires a scalable, reliable, and economic approach to create highly interconnected, dense arrays of devices. As a candidate substrate for nanoscale logic circuits, DNA self-assembled nanostructures have the potential to fulfill these requirements. However, a number of open challenges remain, including the scalability of DNA self-assembly, long-range signal propagation, and precise patterning of functionalized components. These challenges motivate the development of theory and experimental techniques to illuminate the connections among the physical, optical, and thermodynamic properties of DNA self-assembled nanostructures.

In this thesis, three tools are developed, validated, and applied to study the thermo-mechanical properties of DNA nanostructures: 1) a method to quantitatively measure the quality of DNA grid self-assembly, 2) a spectrofluorometer capable of capturing fluorescence and absorbance data under simultaneous multi-wavelength excitation, and 3) a Monte Carlo simulator that models the ensemble response of DNA nanostructures as simple harmonic oscillators.

The broad contributions of this dissertation are as follows: 1) insight into the thermo-mechanical properties of DNA grid nanostructures...

Variability in Impression Formation: Investigating the Role of Motivation, Capacity, and the Categorization Process

Reynolds, Katherine J; Oakes, Penelope J.
Fonte: Sage Publications Inc Publicador: Sage Publications Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.09%
Current theory and research suggests that stereotyping is inversely related to the allocation of attentional resources. For example, motivational factors (e.g., interdependence, accuracy goals) are argued to increase attentional investment and encourage individuation. Within this model, a neglected feature of the impression formation process is the role of the perceivers' own self-definition. Based on self-categorization theory, it is argued that whether the salient self-other categorization is defined in interpersonal or group terms, respectively, will determine whether impressions will be more individuated or stereotypic. Two experiments are reported where the effect of interdependence (Experiment 1) and accuracy goals (Experiment 2) as well as the salient comparative context (interpersonal, intergroup) on impression formation were investigated. The results suggest that the nature of self-other categorizations does play a significant role in explaining variability in impression formation.

Psychological groups and political psychology: A response to Huddys Critical examination of social identity theory

Oakes, Penelope J.
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.98%
In a recent article in this journal, Leonie Huddy (2001) asks whether the social identity approach developed by Tajfel, Turner, and their collaborators can "advance the study of identity within political science" (p. 128). She concludes that "various shortcomings and omissions in its research program" (p. 128) hinder the application of the approach to political phenomena. This paper presents a response to Huddy's evaluation of the social identity approach. Several aspects of her account of social identity work are challenged, especially her suggestion that it ignores subjective aspects of group membership. The interpretation of the minimal group paradigm is discussed in detail, as are issues of identity choice, salience, and variations in identity strength. The treatment of groups as process in social identity theory and self-categorization theory is given particular emphasis.

Social identity, social influence and reactions to potentially stressful tasks: support for the self-categorization model of stress

Haslam, S. Alexander; Jetten, Jolanda; O'Brien, Anne; Jacobs, Elissa
Fonte: John Wiley & Sons Inc Publicador: John Wiley & Sons Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.06%
An experiment was conducted to investigate the role that social influence plays in the appraisal of a potentially stressful situation. Participants (N = 40) preparing for a mental arithmetic task were exposed to a message in which the task was described as stressful or challenging. The message was delivered by the same person in each condition but this person was said to be either an ingroup member (a University student) or an outgroup member (a stress disorder sufferer). Consistent with predictions derived from self-categorization theory, message source and message content interacted to determine the stress experienced while performing the task. Findings imply that the impact of informational support is not constant but varies systematically as a function of the group membership of the support provider. Implications for theory and practice are discussed with emphasis on the importance of social context as a determinant not only of what information people are exposed to about stress but also of how that information is construed.

Fluidity in the self-concept: the shift from personal to social identity

Onorato, Rina; Turner, John C
Fonte: John Wiley & Sons Inc Publicador: John Wiley & Sons Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
Dominant personality models of the self-concept (e.g. self-schema theory) conceive of the self as a relatively stable cognitive representation or schema. The self-schema controls how we process self-relevant information across a myriad of situations. Conversely, self-categorization theory argues that self-perception is highly variable and context-dependent. It was hypothesized in two studies (N = 114 and 200) that the effect of personal self-schemas on information-processing would be eliminated when the context makes a conflicting higher-order identity salient. Results largely supported self-categorization theory. Across various dependent measures (trait endorsements, response latencies, and confidence in self-descriptions), participants generally responded in line with the salient identity, even if this pattern of responding directly contradicted their personal self-schema. Implications for dominant personality models of the self-concept are examined.