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"O papel da avaliação de riscos no gerenciamento de produtos agrotóxicos: diretrizes para a formulação de políticas públicas" ; Risk Assessment for the Management of Pesticides: Subsidies for Formulating Public Policies.

Oliveira, Sérgia de Souza
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/02/2005 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
Objetivo: Fornecer subsídios para a formulação de políticas públicas baseadas na avaliação de riscos, para o gerenciamento de agrotóxicos, tendo como foco de estudo os atuais procedimentos técnicos utilizados em nível federal para registro de produtos agrotóxicos, e as exigências relacionadas à avaliação de riscos presentes em dois acordos internacionais sobre substâncias químicas. Resultados: O gerenciamento das substâncias químicas é descentralizado, sem pauta de ação definida e realizado por meio da individualização dos riscos das substâncias. Pelo menos quatorze instituições federais possuem alguma atuação no gerenciamento. A atuação unilateral da maioria das instituições envolvidas gera uma legislação fragmentada, e implementada sob baixo grau de coordenação. O controle da implementação é feito pelo Estado, por meio da fiscalização dos padrões de emissão definidos, ou pela restrição ou proibição. Apesar de existir um rico arcabouço legal, ele não garante que a sociedade esteja usufruindo benefícios, uma vez que a falta de dados oficiais, e o reduzido número de resultados de investigações científicas relacionados ao tema, dificultam as tentativas de análise. Os principais atores envolvidos no gerenciamento dos agrotóxicos são os ministérios da Saúde...

Avaliação quantitativa do risco microbiológico em águas e biossólidos: estado da arte; Quantitative microbial risk assessment: state of the art in water and biosolids

Ignoto, Raquel de Fátima
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/10/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.05%
A avaliação quantitativa de risco microbiológico é o processo utilizado para estimar a probabilidade de infecção, doença ou morte após exposição a microrganismos patogênicos presente em águas, biossólidos, alimentos e ar. Essa pesquisa tem como objetivo descrever o estado da arte da avaliação qualitativa de risco microbiológico associadas a águas e biossólidos, bem como descrever as abordagens e etapas utilizadas na condução do processo, relatar a aplicabilidade e discutir as dificuldades e necessidades na condução da AQRM. Sendo uma pesquisa de caráter descritivo-explicativo, realizou-se revisão de literatura sobre a temática nas seguintes bases de dados: Scielo, LILACS, DEDALUS, MEDLINE e PUBMED e nos documentos produzidos pela Organização Mundial de Saúde e U.S. Environmental Protect Agency. Na literatura consultada verificou-se que a AQRM vem sendo utilizada desde o início da década de 1980 para estimar os riscos à saúde humana. Existem diferentes abordagens utilizadas na condução da ferramenta, diferem na forma de organizar e sistematizar as informações, porém são similares. A abordagem mais utilizada é a proposta pela NRC e consta de quatro etapas: identificação do perigo, avaliação de exposição...

Análise crítica dos valores de ingestão diária aceitável estabelecidos para praguicidas no Brasil, em relação às agências internacionais e à agência de proteção ambiental americana, e suas implicações na avaliação do risco; Critical analysis of the acceptable daily intake values established for pesticides in Brazil related to international agencies and the United States Environmental Protection Agency, and implications in risk assessment

Amaral, Ligia Mesquita Sampaio do
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/03/2013 PT
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66.05%
O processo de avaliação do risco relacionado a substâncias químicas é utilizado no âmbito da segurança alimentar para a saúde humana, visto que diversas substâncias, tais como aditivos e, particularmente, contaminantes, como praguicidas e medicamentos veterinários, podem estar potencialmente presentes nos alimentos para consumo humano. Tradicionalmente, autoridades de diversos países recomendam limites máximos aceitáveis dessas substâncias nos alimentos, que são obtidos durante o processo de avaliação do risco. A Ingestão Diária Aceitável (IDA) é um exemplo desse tipo de limite máximo. Diversos critérios devem ser observados no estabelecimento da IDA, sendo que o julgamento científico do avaliador pode contribuir extensivamente na obtenção desse valor. Nesse contexto, o objetivo desse trabalho é realizar uma análise crítica dos valores de IDA estabelecidos para praguicidas no Brasil, em relação às IDAs estabelecidas para os mesmos praguicidas pela Organização das Nações Unidas para Alimentação e a Agricultura / Organização Mundial de Saúde, na Europa e nos Estados Unidos (EUA), considerando o NOAEL, a espécie animal, a duração do estudo toxicológico, o endpoint selecionado e os fatores de incertezas aplicados...

Development of a fuzzy qualitative risk assessment model applied to construction industry

Pinto, Abel Fernando do Nascimento
Fonte: Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia Publicador: Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.03%
Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Doutor em Engenharia Industrial; The construction industry is plagued by occupational risky situations and poor working conditions. Risk Assessment for Occupational Safety (RAOS) is the first and key step to achieve adequate safety levels, particularly to support decision-making in safety programs. Most construction safety efforts are applied informally under the premise that simply allocating more resources to safety management will improve safety on site. Moreover, there are many traditional methods to address RAOS, but few have been adapted and validated for use in the construction industry, thus producing poor results. The contribution of this dissertation is a qualitative fuzzy RAOS model, tailored for the construction industry, named QRAM (Qualitative Risk Assessment Model). QRAM is based on four dimensions: Safety Climate Adequacy, (work accidents) Severity Factors, (work accidents) Possibility Factors and Safety Barriers Effectiveness. The risk assessment is based on real data collected by observation of reality, interviews with workers, foreman and engineers and consultation of site documents (working procedures, reports of work accident investigation, etc.), avoiding the use of data obtained by statistical tecnhiques. To rating each parameter it was defined qualitative evaluators - linguistic variables - which allow to perform a user-friendly knowledge elicitation. QRAM was...

Risk assessment for chemical substances: the link between toxicology and public health

Paumgartten,Francisco J. R.
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/1993 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.09%
Virtually all chemical substances may cause adverse health effects, depending on the dose and conditions under which individuals are exposed to them. Toxicology - the study of harmful effects of chemicals on living organisms - provides the scientific data base on which risk assessment of adverse health effects stands. Risk assessment (RA) is the process of estimating the probability that a chemical compound will produce adverse effects on a given population, under particular conditions of exposure. Risk assessment process consists of four stages: Hazard Identification (HI), Exposure Assessment (EA), Dose-Response Assessment (DRA), and Risk Characterization (RC). The risk assessment process as a whole makes it possible to carry out cost(risk)/benefit analysis, and thus risk management, on a rational basis. A capacity to undertake risk assessment is thus sine qua non for making decisions that are concerned with achieving a balance between economic development and adequate protection of public health and the environment.

Critical notes on microbiological risk assessment of food

Reij,Martine W.; van Schothorst,Michiel
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2000 EN
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66.1%
Although numerous papers on Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) of food products have been published, a number of issues related to it remain unresolved. This paper explains the role of Microbiological Risk Assessment in the context of Risk Analysis as outlined by Codex Alimentarius. It reviews some representative work in the area, with particular emphasis on the objectives, outputs and conclusions of the studies, and on how researchers propose using the resulting Risk Estimate for decision making. Several problems and sources of confusion concerning MRA are identified, such as terminology, the application of Risk Estimates to establish Food Safety Objectives and microbiological criteria for foods, lack of data, and the difference between Risk Assessment and the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point system (HACCP). In the context of Codex Alimentarius, MRA was developed as a tool for decision making and priority setting by government risk managers. However, elements of Risk Assessment can be used for other purposes. A transparent description of a Risk Assessment study is useful for Risk Communication. Industrial food safety managers can compare the effect of various hypothetical production scenarios using estimates of the level and the probability of a pathogen in the product at the time that it is consumed. This limited form of Risk Assessment could better be called Safety Assessment...

An investigation of clinical and sensor-based fall-risk assessment in community-dwelling older adults

Power, Valerie
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; ul_theses_dissertations
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.07%
peer-reviewed; Accurate, efficient methods of assessing fall-risk are required to identify at-risk community-dwelling older adults and implement timely falls prevention interventions. Sensor-based fall-risk assessment (SBFRA) methods have been developed to objectively assess and quantify fall-risk by analysing functional task performance, but research exploring their clinical applications is lacking. The current research aimed to investigate if SBFRA could perform clinically-meaningful fall-risk assessment in community-dwelling older adults (i.e. could it accurately classify older adults according to their level of fall-risk), and to explore its use among high-risk older adults participating in a community-based falls prevention intervention. Following thorough examination of current evidence and issues of feasibility, clinical and SBFRA was carried out among High-Risk (n=38) and Low-Risk (n=33) groups of older adults in the community, the High-Risk group being participants in a community-based falls prevention intervention. An array of sensor-derived variables extracted from static and dynamic task performances distinguished between High-Risk and Low-Risk groups; among them, novel sensor-derived variables that quantified standing balance and TUG performance strategy and quality...

Agricultural Supply Chain Risk Assessment in the Caribbean

Arias Carballo, Diego; Laura, dos Reis
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.03%
A rapid agricultural supply chain risk assessment, recently developed by the World Bank, constitutes a useful tool for a system-wide approach to identify risks, risk exposure, the severity of potential loses, and options for risk management either by supply chain participants (individually or collectively) or by third parties (government). Supply chain risk management is the systematic process of managing the most damaging events that can negatively affect the supply chain, and their likely incidence and impact(s). The proposed unit of analysis for risk and risk management assessment is the supply chain, logistics and communications are embedded in all these flows, and poor logistics and communications are often a major source of risk facing an agricultural supply chain. The agri-food system also includes farmers and a diverse range of firms, including backward-linked input suppliers and forward-linked intermediaries, processors, exporters, wholesalers, and retailers.

Understanding Risk in an Evolving World : Emerging Best Practices in Natural Disaster Risk Assessment

Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.07%
The 10-year-long Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) set out to substantially reduce impacts from natural disasters by 2015. Despite efforts toward this goal, economic losses from natural disasters are rising from US$50 billion each year in the 1980s, to just under $200 billion each year in the last decade (World Bank and GFDRR 2013). The economic losses sustained by lower- and middle-income countries alone over the last 30 years represent a full third of all total development assistance in the same time period, offsetting tremendous efforts by governments, multilateral organizations, and other actors. As the HFA period ends against a backdrop of challenging disaster risk trends, and consultations toward a post-2015 framework move forward, it is important to reflect on the role of disaster risk assessments in achieving disaster and climate resilience, and on the contributions risk assessments have made over the last 10 years. Understanding Risk in an Evolving World: Emerging Best Practices in Natural Disaster Risk Assessment...

Factors influencing accuracy of caries risk assessment among South Australian Children.

Ha, Diep Hong
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2011
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
This thesis examined factors associated with the accuracy of caries risk assessment by South Australian Dental Service (SADS) staff for children enrolled in the school dental service. Understanding those factors can help to address variation in accuracy of assessment and ultimately caries risk among children. The aims of this thesis were to examine the relationship between clinician’s assessment of caries risk at a baseline examination and subsequent caries development and to explore the association between accuracy in caries risk assessment and clinician- and patient-related factors. This study consisted of four sub-studies which addressed a set of specific objectives. Two data sources were used in the analysis. The first dataset was obtained from the South Australian component of the Child Dental Health Survey, an ongoing national surveillance survey of the oral health status of Australian children attending school dental services in all states and territories. Data on caries experience were extracted from electronic examination records collected during the period 2002–2005. These data included caries experience (decayed, missing and filled tooth surfaces) of the deciduous (dmfs) and permanent dentition (DMFS). The level of risk status assigned by clinicians at the baseline examination as well as socio-demographic factors of those children...

Improving attendance for cardiovascular risk assessment in Australian general practice: an RCT of a monetary incentive for patients

Stocks, N.; Allan, J.; Frank, O.; Williams, S.; Ryan, P.
Fonte: BioMed Central Ltd. Publicador: BioMed Central Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
Background: Preventive health care is an important part of general practice however uptake of activities by patients is variable. Monetary incentives for doctors have been used in the UK and Australia to improve rates of screening and immunisation. Few studies have focussed on incentives for patients to attend preventive health care examinations. Our objective was to investigate the use of a monetary incentive to increase patient attendance with their general practitioner for a cardiovascular risk assessment (CVRA). Methods: A pragmatic RCT was conducted in two Australian general practices. Participating GPs underwent academic detailing for cardiovascular risk assessment. 301 patients aged 40–74, who did not have cardiovascular disease, were independently randomised to receive a letter inviting them to a no cost cardiovascular risk assessment with their GP, or the same letter plus an offer of a $25 shopping voucher if they attended. An audit of patient medical records was also undertaken and a patient questionnaire administered to a sub sample of participants. Our main outcome measure was attendance for cardiovascular risk assessment. Results: In the RCT, 56/301(18.6%) patients attended for cardiovascular risk assessment, 29/182 (15.9%) in the control group and 27/119 (22.7%) in the intervention group. The estimated difference of 6.8% (95% CI: -2.5% to 16.0%) was not statistically significant...

A preliminary examination of specific risk assessment for sexual offenders against children

Proeve, M.
Fonte: Routledge Publicador: Routledge
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.05%
Specific risk questions concerning sexual offending, such as risk of offending against male victims given identified female victims, have seldom been discussed in the child sexual abuse literature. Two approaches to specific risk questions are described: (a) conditional probability calculations, and (b) the development of risk assessment instruments. It is concluded that specific risk questions should be addressed by the use of established instruments for assessing risk of general sexual recidivism rather than by the development of additional specific risk assessment instruments. Research supporting risk assessment instruments and cautions about their use are discussed. Finally, the application of risk assessments for sexual offenders and assessments of risk to siblings of incest victims is discussed.; Michael Proeve

RELIABILITY AND RISK ASSESSMENT OF NETWORKED URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE SYSTEMS UNDER NATURAL HAZARDS

Rokneddin, Keivan
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.04%
Modern societies increasingly depend on the reliable functioning of urban infrastructure systems in the aftermath of natural disasters such as hurricane and earthquake events. Apart from a sizable capital for maintenance and expansion, the reliable performance of infrastructure systems under extreme hazards also requires strategic planning and effective resource assignment. Hence, efficient system reliability and risk assessment methods are needed to provide insights to system stakeholders to understand infrastructure performance under different hazard scenarios and accordingly make informed decisions in response to them. Moreover, efficient assignment of limited financial and human resources for maintenance and retrofit actions requires new methods to identify critical system components under extreme events. Infrastructure systems such as highway bridge networks are spatially distributed systems with many linked components. Therefore, network models describing them as mathematical graphs with nodes and links naturally apply to study their performance. Owing to their complex topology, general system reliability methods are ineffective to evaluate the reliability of large infrastructure systems. This research develops computationally efficient methods such as a modified Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations algorithm for network reliability...

Methods in Flood Hazard and Risk Assessment

Wright, Daniel B.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Risk and Vulnerability Assessment
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This technical note provides an overview for authorities who wish to conduct flood hazard and risk assessments and who must develop a step-by-step plan for carrying out the assessment that is appropriate and feasible in the local context. It is important to keep in mind, however, that many aspects of flood hazard and risk assessment requires specific expertise and experience. It is not advisable to conduct these assessments if your team lacks this experience, and this technical note does not provide specific guidelines, which can vary dramatically depending on local and regional conditions.

Proposal to develop enhancements and extensions of formal models for risk assessment in software projects; Enhancements and extensions of formal models for risk assessment in software projects

Murrah, Michael R.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xxiv, 117 p. : ill. (some col.) ;
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; Print Copy Title states: Enhancements and extensions of formal models for risk assessment in software projects; Over the past 40 years limited progress has been made to help practitioners estimate the risk and the required effort necessary to deliver software solutions. Recent developments improve this outlook. Researchers from the Naval Postgraduate School developed a formal model for risk assessment used to estimate software project risk. This model is based on easily obtainable software metrics quantifiable early in the software development process. The previous risk assessment model was developed on data collected from a series of experiments conducted on the Vite'Project simulation. This unique approach provided a starting point towards a proven formal model for risk assessment, one that can be applied early in the software development lifecycle. Approaching software risk estimation has never previously been successfully accomplished in this manner. This research provides definitive evidence that software risk assessment can be conducted early in software development using quantifiable metrics and simple techniques. Previous models have been enhanced based on calibrations against post-mortem projects. These enhancements result from many threads of research; extension of input metrics...

Limitations and improvements to the risk assessment process in Olive Oil Mills: the views of OSH practitioners

Rodrigues, M.; Romero, J.; Arezes, P.; Soriano-Serrano, M.
Fonte: Sociedade Portuguesa de Segurança e Higiene Ocupacionais (SPOSHO) Publicador: Sociedade Portuguesa de Segurança e Higiene Ocupacionais (SPOSHO)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.07%
Although most of the accidents occurred in Olive Oil Mill (OOM) resulted from “basic” risks, there is a need to apply adequate tools to support risk decisions that can meet the specificities of this sector. This study aims to analyse the views of Occupational, Safety & Health (OSH) practitioners about the risk assessment process in OOM, identifying the key difficulties inherent to the risk assessment process in these sector, as well as identifying some improvements to the current practice. This analysis was based on a questionnaire that was developed and applied to 13 OSH practitioners working at OOM. The results showed that the time available to perform the risk assessment is the more frequent limitation. They believe that the methodologies available are not an important limitation to this process. However, a specific risk assessment methodology, that includes acceptance criteria adjusted to the OOM reality, using risk metrics supported on the frequency of accidents and workdays lost, were indicated as being also an important contributions improve the process. A semi-quantitative approach, complemented with the use of the sector accident statistics, can be a good solution for this sector. However, further strategies should also be adopted...

Risk assessment for osteoporotic fractures among men and women from a prospective population study: the EPIC-Norfolk study

Moayyeri, Alireza
Fonte: University of Cambridge; Department of Public Health and Primary Care Publicador: University of Cambridge; Department of Public Health and Primary Care
Tipo: Thesis; doctoral; PhD
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.04%
For appendices see hardbound copy deposited in the Manuscripts Reading Room, Cambridge University Library.; Osteoporotic fractures are a major and increasing clinical and public health concern internationally. Identification of individuals at high risk for fragility fractures may enable us to target preventive interventions more effectively. In this thesis, I aimed to evaluate novel risk factors for osteoporosis and develop a fracture risk assessment model among the middle-aged and older people. I used data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study, which is a large population-based prospective study started in 1993. About 25,000 men and women were assessed at baseline and about 15,000 of them returned for a second examination 4 years later. All participants are followed up to the present for clinical events including fractures. My work is in two parts. For the first part, I examined the risk of fracture associated with some novel or less well studied risk factors. These risk factors included change in height over time, respiratory function, physical activity and body fat mass. We found that men and women with annual height loss >0.5 cm are at increased risk of hip and any fracture (relative risk=1.9 (95% CI 1.3-2.7) per cm/year height loss). One litre lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) was associated with a 2-fold risk of hip fracture in men and women. We also observed a non-linear association...

Work-related upper limb musculoskeletal disorders (WRULMSDS) risk assessment: different tools, different results!: What are we measuring?

Serranheira,Florentino; Sousa Uva,António de
Fonte: Medicina y Seguridad del Trabajo Publicador: Medicina y Seguridad del Trabajo
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/09/2008 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
Several methods may be used for Work-Related Upper Limbs Musculoskeletal Disorders (WRULMSDs) risk assessment. We compare different methods and their results at the same workplace trying to increase a more accurate WRULMSDs risk assessment based at the hazard identification. This study took place at an automotive plant and included all the workstations (n=366) which has been previously studied with OCRA checklist. The methodology included the re-application of OCRA checklist at all workstations with scores OCRA ≥16,5 (n=152). At workplaces with high risk (n=71) we also applied three other methods of «risk evaluation»: (a) Rapid Upper Limb Assessment; (b) Strain Index; and (c) Hand Activity Level. Work activity has been also videotaped and the main risk factors were analyzed. The analysis is focused on the right upper limb. Outcomes were different with the use of each method, notably, they show disagreement in the categorization of high-risk workstations. So, (a) OCRA has a moderate correlation (p<0,001) with SI (rSp=0,52) and with (b) HAL (rSp=0,42); (c) HAL has a strong correlation with SI (rSp =0,77) and (d) RULA scores are not correlated with the others methods. OCRA, SI, RULA and HAL show evidence of distinct risk results that confirm the need of a selection criterion. The knowing of witch risk factors are presents at each workstation permit the selection of the most accurate method. Different WRULMSD’s risk assessment results will influence risk management and just with a workstation rigorous knowledge and the consequent method selection criterion...

Total cardiovascular risk assessment and management using two prediction tools, with and without blood cholesterol

Nordet,Porfirio; Mendis,Shanthi; Dueñas,Alfredo; de la Noval,Reinaldo; Armas,Nurys; L. de la Noval,Ismael; Pupo,Hilda
Fonte: Medical Education Cooperation with Cuba Publicador: Medical Education Cooperation with Cuba
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.09%
INTRODUCTION: Over the last decade, total cardiovascular risk assessment and management has been recommended by cardiovascular prevention guidelines in most high-income countries and by WHO. Cardiovascular risk prediction charts have been developed based on multivariate equations of values of some well-known risk factors such as age, sex, smoking, systolic blood pressure and diabetes, including or omitting total blood cholesterol. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were: to determine the distribution of cardiovascular risk in a Cuban population using the WHO/International Society of Hypertension risk prediction charts with and without cholesterol; and to assess applicability of the risk prediction tool without cholesterol in a middle-income country, by evaluating concordance between the two approaches and comparing projected drug requirements resulting from each (at risk thresholds of ≥20% and ≥30%) and for the single-risk-factor approach. METHODS: From April through December 2008, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 1287 persons (85.8% of the sample selected), aged 40-80 years living in a polyclinic catchment area of Havana, Cuba, based on the protocol and data from a WHO multinational study. The study used the two sets of the WHO and the International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) risk prediction charts...

Risk assessment for chemical substances: the link between toxicology and public health

Paumgartten,Francisco J. R.
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/1993 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.09%
Virtually all chemical substances may cause adverse health effects, depending on the dose and conditions under which individuals are exposed to them. Toxicology - the study of harmful effects of chemicals on living organisms - provides the scientific data base on which risk assessment of adverse health effects stands. Risk assessment (RA) is the process of estimating the probability that a chemical compound will produce adverse effects on a given population, under particular conditions of exposure. Risk assessment process consists of four stages: Hazard Identification (HI), Exposure Assessment (EA), Dose-Response Assessment (DRA), and Risk Characterization (RC). The risk assessment process as a whole makes it possible to carry out cost(risk)/benefit analysis, and thus risk management, on a rational basis. A capacity to undertake risk assessment is thus sine qua non for making decisions that are concerned with achieving a balance between economic development and adequate protection of public health and the environment.