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A strategy for the identification of new abiotic stress determinants in arabidopsis using web-based data mining and reverse genetics

Azevedo, Herlânder; Correia, Joana Silva; Oliveira, Juliana Alice Ferreira; Laranjeira, Sara; Barbeta, C.; Silva, Vitor Amorim; Botella Mesa, Miguel; Neto, T. Lino; Tavares, R. M.
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publishers Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/12/2011 ENG
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66.26%
Since the sequencing of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome in 2000, plant researchers have faced the complex challenge of assigning function to thousands of genes. Functional discovery by in silico prediction or homology search resolved a significant number of genes, but only a minor part has been experimentally validated. Arabidopsis entry into the post-genomic era signified a massive increase in high-throughput approaches to functional discovery, which have since become available through publicly-available web-based resources. The present work focuses on an easy and straightforward strategy that couples data-mining to reverse genetics principles, to allow for the identification of new abiotic stress determinant genes. The strategy explores systematic microarray-based transcriptomics experiments, involving Arabidopsis abiotic stress responses. An overview of the most significant resources and databases for functional discovery in Arabidopsis is presented. The successful application of the outlined strategy is illustrated by the identification of a new abiotic stress determinant gene, HRR, which displays a heat stress-related phenotype after a loss-of-function reverse genetics approach.; No competing financial interests exist. The present work was supported by Foundation for Science and Technology (POCTI/AGR/45462/2002). H. Azevedo (SFRH/BPD/17198/2004)...

Construction and characterisation of a complete reverse genetics system of dengue virus type 3

Santos,Jefferson Jose da Silva; Cordeiro,Marli Tenorio; Bertani,Giovani Rota; Marques,Ernesto Torres de Azevedo; Gil,Laura Helena Vega Gonzales
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2013 EN
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66.29%
Dengue virulence and fitness are important factors that determine disease outcome. However, dengue virus (DENV) molecular biology and pathogenesis are not completely elucidated. New insights on those mechanisms have been facilitated by the development of reverse genetic systems in the past decades. Unfortunately, instability of flavivirus genomes cloned in Escherichia coli has been a major problem in these systems. Here, we describe the development of a complete reverse genetics system, based on the construction of an infectious clone and replicon for a low passage DENV-3 genotype III of a clinical isolate. Both constructs were assembled into a newly designed yeast- E. coli shuttle vector by homologous recombination technique and propagated in yeast to prevent any possible genome instability in E. coli . RNA transcripts derived from the infectious clone are infectious upon transfection into BHK-21 cells even after repeated passages of the plasmid in yeast. Transcript-derived DENV-3 exhibited growth kinetics, focus formation size comparable to original DENV-3 in mosquito C6/36 cell culture. In vitro characterisation of DENV-3 replicon confirmed its identity and ability to replicate transiently in BHK-21 cells. The reverse genetics system reported here is a valuable tool that will facilitate further molecular studies in DENV replication...

Generation of High-Yielding Influenza A Viruses in African Green Monkey Kidney (Vero) Cells by Reverse Genetics

Ozaki, Hiroichi; Govorkova, Elena A.; Li, Chenghong; Xiong, Xiaoping; Webster, Robert G.; Webby, Richard J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2004 EN
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46.26%
Influenza A viruses are the cause of annual epidemics of human disease with occasional outbreaks of pandemic proportions. The zoonotic nature of the disease and the vast viral reservoirs in the aquatic birds of the world mean that influenza will not easily be eradicated and that vaccines will continue to be needed. Recent technological advances in reverse genetics methods and limitations of the conventional production of vaccines by using eggs have led to a push to develop cell-based strategies to produce influenza vaccine. Although cell-based systems are being developed, barriers remain that need to be overcome if the potential of these systems is to be fully realized. These barriers include, but are not limited to, potentially poor reproducibility of viral rescue with reverse genetics systems and poor growth kinetics and yields. In this study we present a modified A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) influenza virus master strain that has improved viral rescue and growth properties in the African green monkey kidney cell line, Vero. The improved properties were mediated by the substitution of the PR8 NS gene for that of a Vero-adapted reassortant virus. The Vero growth kinetics of viruses with H1N1, H3N2, H6N1, and H9N2 hemagglutinin and neuraminidase combinations rescued on the new master strain were significantly enhanced in comparison to those of viruses with the same combinations rescued on the standard PR8 master strain. These improvements pave the way for the reproducible generation of high-yielding human and animal influenza vaccines by reverse genetics methods. Such a means of production has particular relevance to epidemic and pandemic use.

An improved reverse genetics system for influenza A virus generation and its implications for vaccine production

Neumann, Gabriele; Fujii, Ken; Kino, Yoichiro; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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46.32%
The generation of vaccines for highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, including those of the H5N1 subtype, relies on reverse genetics, which allows the production of influenza viruses from cloned cDNA. In the future, reverse genetics will likely be the method of choice for the generation of conventional influenza vaccine strains because gene reassortment by more traditional methods is cumbersome. Established systems for the artificial generation of influenza A viruses require transfection of cells with the eight to 12 plasmids that provide the eight influenza viral RNAs as well as the polymerase and nucleoproteins of the virus. However, cell lines appropriate for human vaccine production (e.g., Vero cells) cannot be transfected with high efficiencies. To overcome these problems, we established a reverse genetics system in which the eight RNA polymerase I transcription cassettes for viral RNA synthesis are combined on one plasmid. Similarly, two cassettes encoding the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase segments and six cassettes encoding the remaining proteins were combined. We also combined three RNA polymerase II transcription cassettes for the expression of the polymerase subunits. By combining these cassettes, we reduced the number of plasmids required for virus generation significantly and produced influenza A virus in Vero cells with higher efficiency than with the traditional 12 plasmid system. This new system is thus suitable for influenza virus vaccine production and may be applicable to other reverse genetics systems that rely on the introduction of several plasmids into eukaryotic cells.

An Adenovirus Vector-Mediated Reverse Genetics System for Influenza A Virus Generation▿

Ozawa, Makoto; Goto, Hideo; Horimoto, Taisuke; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
Plasmid-based reverse genetics systems allow the generation of influenza A virus entirely from cloned cDNA. However, since the efficiency of virus generation is dependent on the plasmid transfection efficiency of cells, virus generation is difficult in cells approved for vaccine production that have low transfection efficiencies (e.g., Vero cells). Here we established an alternative reverse genetics system for influenza virus generation by using an adenovirus vector (AdV) which achieves highly efficient gene transfer independent of cell transfection efficiency. This AdV-mediated reverse genetics system will be useful for generating vaccine seed strains and for basic influenza virus studies.

Reverse Genetics for Functional Genomics of Phytopathogenic Fungi and Oomycetes

Bhadauria, Vijai; Banniza, Sabine; Wei, Yangdou; Peng, You-Liang
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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46.26%
Sequencing of over 40 fungal and oomycete genomes has been completed. The next major challenge in modern fungal/oomycete biology is now to translate this plethora of genome sequence information into biological functions. Reverse genetics has emerged as a seminal tool for functional genomics investigations. Techniques utilized for reverse genetics like targeted gene disruption/replacement, gene silencing, insertional mutagenesis, and targeting induced local lesions in genomes will contribute greatly to the understanding of gene function of fungal and oomycete pathogens. This paper provides an overview on high-throughput reverse genetics approaches to decode fungal/oomycete genomes.

Rearranged Genomic RNA Segments Offer a New Approach to the Reverse Genetics of Rotaviruses▿

Troupin, Cécile; Dehée, Axelle; Schnuriger, Aurélie; Vende, Patrice; Poncet, Didier; Garbarg-Chenon, Antoine
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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46.26%
Group A rotaviruses (RV), members of the Reoviridae family, are a major cause of infantile acute gastroenteritis. The RV genome consists of 11 double-stranded RNA segments. In some cases, an RNA segment is replaced by a rearranged RNA segment, which is derived from its standard counterpart by partial sequence duplication. We report here a reverse genetics system for RV based on the preferential packaging of rearranged RNA segments. Using this system, wild-type or in vitro-engineered forms of rearranged segment 7 from a human rotavirus (encoding the NSP3 protein), derived from cloned cDNAs and transcribed in the cytoplasm of COS-7 cells with the help of T7 RNA polymerase, replaced the wild-type segment 7 of a bovine helper virus (strain RF). Recombinant RF viruses (i.e., engineered monoreassortant RF viruses) containing an exogenous rearranged RNA were recovered by propagating the viral progeny in MA-104 cells, with no need for additional selective pressure. Our findings offer the possibility to extend RV reverse genetics to segments encoding nonstructural or structural proteins for which no potent selective tools, such as neutralizing antibodies, are available. In addition, the system described here is the first to enable the introduction of a mutated gene expressing a modified nonstructural protein into an infectious RV. This reverse genetics system offers new perspectives for investigating RV protein functions and developing recombinant live RV vaccines containing specific changes targeted for attenuation.

Dual selection mechanisms drive efficient single-gene reverse genetics for rotavirus

Trask, Shane D.; Taraporewala, Zenobia F.; Boehme, Karl W.; Dermody, Terence S.; Patton, John T.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.36%
Current methods for engineering the segmented double-stranded RNA genome of rotavirus (RV) are limited by inefficient recovery of the recombinant virus. In an effort to expand the utility of RV reverse genetics, we developed a method to recover recombinant viruses in which independent selection strategies are used to engineer single-gene replacements. We coupled a mutant SA11 RV encoding a temperature-sensitive (ts) defect in the NSP2 protein with RNAi-mediated degradation of NSP2 mRNAs to isolate a virus containing a single recombinant gene that evades both selection mechanisms. Recovery is rapid and simple; after two rounds of selective passage the recombinant virus reaches titers of ≥104 pfu/mL. We used this reverse genetics method to generate a panel of viruses with chimeric NSP2 genes. For one of the chimeric viruses, the introduced NSP2 sequence was obtained from a pathogenic, noncultivated human RV isolate, demonstrating that this reverse genetics system can be used to study the molecular biology of circulating RVs. Combining characterized RV ts mutants and validated siRNA targets should permit the extension of this “two-hit” reverse genetics methodology to other RV genes. Furthermore, application of a dual selection strategy to previously reported reverse genetics methods for RV may enhance the efficiency of recombinant virus recovery.

Identification of Host Genes Involved in Geminivirus Infection Using a Reverse Genetics Approach

Lozano-Durán, Rosa; Rosas-Díaz, Tábata; Luna, Ana P.; Bejarano, Eduardo R.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/07/2011 EN
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46.21%
Geminiviruses, like all viruses, rely on the host cell machinery to establish a successful infection, but the identity and function of these required host proteins remain largely unknown. Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), a monopartite geminivirus, is one of the causal agents of the devastating Tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD). The transgenic 2IRGFP N. benthamiana plants, used in combination with Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS), entail an important potential as a tool in reverse genetics studies to identify host factors involved in TYLCSV infection. Using these transgenic plants, we have made an accurate description of the evolution of TYLCSV replication in the host in both space and time. Moreover, we have determined that TYLCSV and Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) do not dramatically influence each other when co-infected in N. benthamiana, what makes the use of TRV-induced gene silencing in combination with TYLCSV for reverse genetic studies feasible. Finally, we have tested the effect of silencing candidate host genes on TYLCSV infection, identifying eighteen genes potentially involved in this process, fifteen of which had never been implicated in geminiviral infections before. Seven of the analyzed genes have a potential anti-viral effect...

Reverse Genetics for Mammalian Reovirus

Boehme, Karl W.; Ikizler, Mine’; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Dermody, Terence S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
Mammalian orthoreoviruses (reoviruses) are highly tractable models for studies of viral replication and pathogenesis. The versatility of reovirus as an experimental model has been enhanced by development of a plasmid-based reverse genetics system. Infectious reovirus can be recovered from cells transfected with plasmids encoding cDNAs of each reovirus gene segment using a strategy that does not require helper virus and is independent of selection. In this system, transcription of each gene segment is driven by bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase, which can be supplied transiently by recombinant vaccinia virus (rDIs-T7pol) or by cells that constitutively express the enzyme. Reverse genetics systems have been developed for two prototype reovirus strains, type 1 Lang (T1L) and type 3 Dearing (T3D). Each reovirus cDNA was encoded on an independent plasmid for the first-generation rescue system. The efficiency of virus recovery was enhanced in a second-generation system by combining the cDNAs for multiple reovirus gene segments onto single plasmids to reduce the number of plasmids from 10 to 4. The reduction in plasmid number and the use of baby hamster kidney cells that express T7 RNA polymerase increased the efficiency of viral rescue, reduced the incubation time required to recover infectious virus...

Cloned cDNA of A/swine/Iowa/15/1930 internal genes as a candidate backbone for reverse genetics vaccine against influenza A viruses

Lekcharoensuk, Porntippa; Wiriyarat, Witthawat; Petcharat, Nuntawan; Lekcharoensuk, Chalermpol; Auewarakul, Prasert; Richt, Juergen A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.42%
Reverse genetics viruses for influenza vaccine production usually utilize the internal genes of the egg-adapted A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) strain. This egg-adapted strain provides high production yield in embryonated eggs but does not necessarily give the best yield in mammalian cell culture. In order to generate a reverse genetics viral backbone that is well-adapted to high growth in mammalian cell culture, a swine influenza isolate (A/swine/Iowa/15/30 (H1N1) (rg1930) that was shown to give high yield in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells was used as the internal gene donor for reverse genetics plasmids. In this report, the internal genes from rg1930 were used for construction of reverse genetics viruses carrying a cleavage site-modified hemagglutinin (HA) gene and neuraminidase (NA) gene from a highly pathogenic H5N1 virus. The resulting virus (rg1930H5N1) was low pathogenic in vivo. Inactivated rg1930H5N1 vaccine completely protected chickens from morbidity and mortality after challenge with highly pathogenic H5N1. Protective immunity was obtained when chickens were immunized with an inactivated vaccine consisting of at least 29 HA units of the rg1930H5N1 virus. In comparison to the PR8-based reverse genetics viruses carrying the same HA and NA genes from an H5N1 virus...

Rescue of Recent Virulent and Avirulent Field Strains of Bluetongue Virus by Reverse Genetics

van Gennip, René G. P.; van de Water, Sandra G. P.; Potgieter, Christiaan A.; Wright, Isabel M.; Veldman, Daniel; van Rijn, Piet A.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/02/2012 EN
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46.32%
Since 1998, Bluetongue virus (BTV)-serotypes 1, 2, 4, 9, and 16 have invaded European countries around the Mediterranean Basin. In 2006, a huge BT-outbreak started after incursion of BTV-serotype 8 (BTV8) in North-Western Europe. More recently, BTV6 and BTV11 were reported in North-Western Europe in 2008. These latter strains are closely related to live-attenuated vaccine, whereas BTV8 is virulent and can induce severe disease in ruminants, including cattle. In addition, Toggenburg orbivirus (TOV) was detected in 2008 in Swiss goats, which was recognized as a new serotype of BTV (BTV25). The (re-)emergency of known and unknown BTV-serotypes needs a rapid response to supply effective vaccines, and research to study this phenomenon. Recently, orbivirus research achieved an important breakthrough by the establishment of reverse genetics for BTV1. Here, reverse genetics for two recent BTV strains representing virulent BTV8 and avirulent BTV6 was developed. For this purpose, extensive sequencing of full-genomes was performed, resulting in the consensus sequences of BTV8/net07 and BTV6/net08. The recovery of ‘synthetic BTV’, respectively rgBTV8 and rgBTV6, completely from T7-derived RNA transcripts was confirmed by silent mutations by which these ‘synthetic BTVs’ could be genetically distinguished from wild type BTV...

Comparative Analysis of Reoviridae Reverse Genetics Methods

Trask, Shane D.; Boehme, Karl W.; Dermody, Terence S.; Patton, John T.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
Effective methods to engineer the segmented, double-stranded RNA genomes of Reoviridae viruses have only recently been developed. Mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRV) and bluetongue virus (BTV) can be recovered from entirely recombinant reagents, significantly improving the capacity to study the replication, pathogenesis, and transmission of these viruses. Conversely, rotaviruses (RVs), which are the major etiological agent of severe gastroenteritis in infants and children, have thus far only been modified using single-segment replacement methods. Reoviridae reverse genetics techniques universally rely on site-specific initiation of transcription by T7 RNA polymerase to generate the authentic 5′ end of recombinant RNA segments, but they vary in how the RNAs are introduced into cells: recombinant BTV is recovered by transfection of in vitro transcribed RNAs, whereas recombinant MRV and RV RNAs are transcribed intracellularly from transfected plasmid cDNAs. Additionally, several parameters have been identified in each system that are essential for recombinant virus recovery. Generating recombinant BTV requires the use of 5′ capped RNAs and is enhanced by multiple rounds of RNA transfection, suggesting that translation of viral proteins is likely the rate-limiting step. For RV...

Reverse Genetics Plasmid for Cloning Unstable Influenza A Virus Gene Segments

Zhou, Bin; Jerzak, Greta; Scholes, Derek T.; Donnelly, Matthew E.; Li, Yan; Wentworth, David E.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.36%
Reverse genetics approaches that enable the generation of recombinant influenza A viruses entirely from plasmids are invaluable for studies on virus replication, morphogenesis, pathogenesis, or transmission. Furthermore, influenza virus reverse genetics is now critical for the development of new vaccines for this human and animal pathogen. Periodically, influenza gene segments are unstable within plasmids in bacteria. The PB2 gene segment of a highly pathogenic avian H5 influenza virus A/Turkey/Ontario/7732/1966 (Ty/Ont) was unstable in commonly available cloning plasmids (e.g., pcDNA3.1/V5-His-TOPO) and in standard influenza virus reverse genetics plasmids (e.g., pHH21), which contain high copy origins of replication. Thus, a low-copy influenza reverse genetics plasmid (pGJ3C3) was developed to enable rapid cloning of unstable influenza A virus genes using ligation-independent recombination-based cloning. The unstable Ty/Ont PB2 gene segment was efficiently cloned using the pGJ3C3 plasmid and this clone was used to rescue a recombinant Ty/Ont virus. This low copy reverse genetics plasmid will be useful for cloning other unstable segments of influenza A viruses in order to rescue recombinant viruses, which will facilitate basic studies and vaccine seed stock production.

Construction and characterisation of a complete reverse genetics system of dengue virus type 3

Santos, Jefferson José da Silva; Cordeiro, Marli Tenório; Bertani, Giovani Rota; Marques, Ernesto Torres de Azevedo; Gil, Laura Helena Vega Gonzales
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
Dengue virulence and fitness are important factors that determine disease outcome. However, dengue virus (DENV) molecular biology and pathogenesis are not completely elucidated. New insights on those mechanisms have been facilitated by the development of reverse genetic systems in the past decades. Unfortunately, instability of flavivirus genomes cloned in Escherichia coli has been a major problem in these systems. Here, we describe the development of a complete reverse genetics system, based on the construction of an infectious clone and replicon for a low passage DENV-3 genotype III of a clinical isolate. Both constructs were assembled into a newly designed yeast- E. coli shuttle vector by homologous recombination technique and propagated in yeast to prevent any possible genome instability in E. coli . RNA transcripts derived from the infectious clone are infectious upon transfection into BHK-21 cells even after repeated passages of the plasmid in yeast. Transcript-derived DENV-3 exhibited growth kinetics, focus formation size comparable to original DENV-3 in mosquito C6/36 cell culture. In vitro characterisation of DENV-3 replicon confirmed its identity and ability to replicate transiently in BHK-21 cells. The reverse genetics system reported here is a valuable tool that will facilitate further molecular studies in DENV replication...

Application of Reverse Genetics for Producing Attenuated Vaccine Strains against Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses

UCHIDA, Yuko; TAKEMAE, Nobuhiro; SAITO, Takehiko
Fonte: The Japanese Society of Veterinary Science Publicador: The Japanese Society of Veterinary Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
In this study, reverse genetics was applied to produce vaccine candidate strains against highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of the H5N1 subtype. The H5 subtype vaccine strains were generated by a reverse genetics method in a biosafety level 2 facility. The strain contained the HA gene from the H5N1 subtype HPAIV attenuated by genetic modification at the cleavage site, the NA gene derived from the H5N1 subtype HPAI or the H5N3 subtype of avian influenza virus and internal genes from A/Puerto Rico/8/34. Vaccination with an inactivated recombinant virus with oil-emulsion completely protected chickens from a homologous viral challenge with a 640 HAU or 3,200 HAU/vaccination dose. Vaccination with a higher dose of antigen, 3,200 HAU, was effective at increasing survival and efficiently reduced viral shedding even when challenged by a virus of a different HA clade. The feasibility of differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) was demonstrated against a challenge with H5N1 HPAIVs when the recombinant H5N3 subtype viruses were used as the antigens of the vaccine. Our study demonstrated that the use of reverse genetics would be an option to promptly produce an inactivated vaccine with better matching of antigenicity to a circulating strain.

Étude de la protéine sigma 1 de réovirus par génétique inverse.

Brochu-Lafontaine, Virginie
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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46.26%
Réovirus, connu sous le nom REOLYSIN®, est présentement à l'étude à titre d'agent oncolytique. Or, la spécificité du virus pour les cellules cancéreuses pourrait être optimisée par une modification au niveau de la protéine d'attachement σ1. La présente étude vise à démontrer qu'une telle amélioration est possible par l'utilisation de la méthode nouvellement décrite de génétique inverse. Par cette technique, il est possible d'ajouter un polypeptide d'une longueur de quarante acides aminés à l'extrémité C-terminale de σ1. Il est aussi possible d'engendrer des virus mutés en leur site d'activité mucinolytique. Les virus nouvellement créés démontrent une efficacité de réplication diminuée, mais demeurent infectieux. Contrairement aux méthodes traditionnellement utilisées avec réovirus, la méthode de génétique inverse permet de conserver les mutations engendrées, par substitution ou addition, au cours des cycles de réplication. Une telle étude démontre qu'il serait possible de modifier le tropisme de réovirus.; Reovirus, also known under the tradename REOLYSIN®, is currently under clinical trial as an oncolytic agent. The specificity of the virus for transformed (cancerous) cells could be improved by modifications of the σ1 attachment protein. This study presents two ways to achieve this improvement by using a newly developed method of reverse genetics for double-stranded RNA viruses. As a proof of concept...

La génétique inverse dans l'étude des réovirus: Progrès, obstacles et développements futurs

Lemay, Guy
Fonte: John Libbey Eurotext Publicador: John Libbey Eurotext
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
FR
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46.21%
En génétique dite « classique », l’examen d’un phénotype conduit à l’étude des gènes impliqués dans son obtention. La génétique inverse est une méthode expérimentale très puissante dans laquelle, au contraire, le matériel génétique est modifié et utilisé pour reconstruire un organisme complet, afin de déterminer le résultat de ces modifications. Cette approche est spécialement bien adaptée à l'étude des virus, compte tenu de la relative simplicité et de la petite taille de leurs génomes; l’obstacle principal demeure de récupérer des virus infectieux à partir de génomes viraux clonés. Au cours des années, cet exploit a été accompli pour des représentants de presque toutes les familles de virus de mammifères. Jusqu’à récemment, les Reoviridae, virus à génome d'ARN bicaténaire segmenté, faisaient toutefois exception. Dans cette revue, les progrès réalisés vers la mise au point de la génétique inverse pour l'étude du réovirus seront discutés. La génétique inverse pourrait avoir un impact majeur dans l'optimisation de nouvelles souches de réovirus pour leur utilisation en thérapie comme agents oncolytiques et pour le développement de vaccins dans le cas des rotavirus et des orbivirus. Les travaux actuels font toutefois ressortir les limites de l'approche...

Addition of exogenous polypeptides on the mammalian reovirus outer capsid using reverse genetics

Brochu-Lafontaine, Virginie; Lemay, Guy
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.26%
Addition of exogenous peptide sequences on viral capsids is a powerful approach to study the process of viral infection or to retarget viruses toward defined cell types. Until recently, it was not possible to manipulate the genome of mammalian reovirus and this was an obstacle to the addition of exogenous sequence tags onto the capsid of a replicating virus. This obstacle has now been overcome by the advent of the plasmid-based reverse genetics system. In the present study, reverse genetics was used to introduce different exogenous peptides, up to 40 amino acids long, at the carboxyl-terminal end of the σ1 outer capsid protein. The tagged viruses obtained were infectious, produce plaques of similar size, and could be easily propagated at hight titers. However, attempts to introduce a 750 nucleotides-long sequence failed, even when it was added after the stop codon, suggesting a possible size limitation at the nucleic acid level.; L'addition aux capsides virales de séquences peptidiques exogènes est une approche puissante pour l'étude des processus d'infection virale ou pour cibler des virus vers des types cellulaires bien définis. Jusqu'à récemment, il n'était pas possible de manipuler le génome du réovirus de mammifères et ceci était un obstacle à l'addition de telles étiquettes exogènes sur la capside d'un virus pouvant se répliquer. Cet obstacle a maintenant été surmonté par la mise au point d'un système de génétique inverse à base de plasmides. Dans la présente étude...

Simple reverse genetics approach to elucidating the biosynthetic pathway of complex thiopeptide nocathiacin

Maochen Wei; Jing Deng; Shuzhen Wang; Nan Liu; Yijun Chen
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
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56.09%
Biothythetic pathway of the most drugable thiopeptide nocathiacin has been elucidated by applying reverse genetics method based on its structural features. The present study provides an efficient approach for an easy access to the biosynthetic gene clusters of complex bioactive peptides that are ribosomally synthesized with extensive posttranslational modifications.