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Forever young? The costs of preparation for retirement

Nunes, Vera Maria Amaro
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Ciências Psicológicas, Sociais e da Vida Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Ciências Psicológicas, Sociais e da Vida
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2014 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.35%
A conjugação do aumento da expectativa de vida e da diminuição das pensões de reforma tem levado trabalhadores de todo o mundo a assumir uma maior responsabilidade relativamente às suas poupanças para a reforma. Diversas pesquisas mostram que mesmo um pequeno grau de planeamento resulta numa melhor situação económica na reforma, mas que o grau de planeamento da reforma continua baixo. Uma possível explicação reside na existência de custos de planeamento. Propomos que estes custos resultam, entre outros aspetos, da escassez de tempo, da complexidade dos produtos financeiros, de falta de conhecimentos financeiros e de habilidades específicas, como numeracia, e de ansiedade e stresse associados às decisões financeiras. Assim, os nossos principais objetivos foram demonstrar que os custos psicológicos de planeamento da reforma afetam o planeamento e as poupança, e investigar a sua relação com outras variáveis importantes neste âmbito, tais como motivação, valência afetiva e perspetiva temporal. Assumindo que o comportamento de poupança é em grande medida orientado pela impaciência, pretendíamos também explorar um possível efeito do contexto de reforma e do grau de referência ao tempo futuro das linguagens na impaciência. Os nossos resultados mais importantes são que os custos psicológicos de preparação para a reforma emergem como uma variável que pode afetar a forma como as pessoas tomam as suas decisões de reforma e deve ser tomada em consideração de forma a superar as dificuldades que sentida no planeamento da reforma. As mulheres parecem ter mais dificuldade em planear a reforma e estar particularmente em risco de não conseguir manter o padrão de vida durante a reforma...

Annuities and Other Retirement Products : Designing the Payout Phase

Rocha, Roberto; Vittas, Dimitri; Rudolph, Heinz P.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.29%
This book examines recent changes in the landscape of retirement products and annuity markets in five countries. All the selected countries (Australia, Chile, Denmark, Sweden, and Switzerland) have mandatory or quasi-mandatory savings schemes. But they also exhibit significant differences in the structure of their pension systems, the relative importance of public pillars, the role and structure of private provision, the level of annuitization, and the structure and focus of their regulatory frameworks. Five studies have been commissioned to examine the state of annuity markets in each of these countries. The findings of these studies are summarized in the last five chapters of this book. The chapters of this book is discusses the various risks faced by pensioners and the risk characteristics of alternative retirement products, and it reviews the risks faced by providers of retirement products and the management and regulatory challenges of dealing with those risks. The chapter then discusses the risks faced by providers and reviews the challenges of various regulatory issues...

Closing the Coverage Gap : The Role of Social Pensions and Other Retirement Income Transfers

Holzmann, Robert; Robalino, David A.; Takayama, Noriyuki
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.24%
The book has four specific objectives: (a) to discuss the role of retirement income transfers in the context of a strategy for expanding old- age income security and preventing poverty among the elderly; (b) to take stock of international experience with the design and implementation of these programs; (c) to identify key policy issues that need to receive attention during the design and implementation phases; and (d) to offer some preliminary policy recommendations and propose next steps. The chapter one discusses the rationale for retirement income transfers. The main justifications are the limited coverage of the mandatory pension systems (chapter two) and the risk of poverty during old age (chapter three). Chapter four then examines the rights, based approach to expansion of social security coverage based on the conventions and recommendations of the International Labor Organization (ILO). The middle part of the book deals with international experience. Chapters five, six, and seven reviews selected programs in low-income...

Reform and Backlash to Reform : Economic Effects of Ageing and Retirement Policy

Jensen, Svend E. Hougaard; Jorgensen, Ole Hagen
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.23%
Using a stochastic general equilibrium model with overlapping generations, this paper studies (i) the effects on both extensive and intensive labor supply responses to changes in fertility rates, and (ii) the potential of a retirement reform to mitigate the effects of fertility changes on labor supply. In order to neutralize the effects on effective labor supply of a fertility decline, a retirement reform, designed to increase labor supply at the extensive margin, is found to simultaneously reduce labor supply at the intensive margin. This backlash to retirement reform requires the statutory retirement age to increase more than proportionally to fertility changes in order to compensate for endogenous responses of the intensity of labor supply. The robustness of this result is checked against alternative model specifications and calibrations relevant to an economic region such as Europe.

The Market for Retirement Products in Australia

Brunner, Gregory Gordon; Thorburn, Craig
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.25%
Australia introduced a mandatory retirement savings scheme in 1992. This built on pre-existing voluntary occupational plans. The new scheme has been very successful in expanding coverage and mobilizing large financial savings that are equal to close to 100 percent of GDP. However, Australia does not impose restrictions on payout options. The payout phase used to be dominated by lump sum withdrawals, which accounted for 80 percent of benefit payments as recently as 2002. But pension payments increased in recent years and now represent 45 percent of total payments. The vast majority of these pension payments take the form of term annuities and allocated annuities. The latter are similar to phased withdrawals in Chile but run for fixed terms of up to 25 years rather than for lifetime terms. The demand for life annuities and lifetime phased withdrawals is very limited. The paper discusses the factors that have shaped the pattern of demand for retirement products, including the availability of the universal age pension and the effect of clawback provisions...

The Financial Crisis and Mandatory Pension Systems in Developing Countries : Short-and Medium-Term Responses for Retirement Income Systems

Dorfman, Mark; Hinz, Richard; Robalino, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.27%
The international financial crisis has severely affected the value of pension fund assets worldwide. The unfolding global recession will also impose pressures on public pension schemes financed on a pay-as-you-go basis, while limiting the capacity of governments to mitigate both of theses effects. Governments are reacting to these events in different ways. Some are asking whether the balance between funded defined-contribution and unfunded pension schemes should be reconsidered. A few have already taken actions to reverse prior reforms. This note discusses the potential impacts of the financial crisis on fully funded and pay-as-you-go retirement-income systems in World Bank client countries, and identifies key short-and medium-term policy responses.

How do couples adjust themselves to retirement?

Loureiro, Helena Maria Almeida Macedo; Mendes, Aida Maria de Oliveira Cruz; Fernandes, Ana Alexandre; Camarneiro, Ana Paula Forte; Fonseca, António Manuel Godinho da; Veríssimo, Manuel; Carvalho, Maria Madalena; Silva, Margarida Alexandra N. C. G. M. Mo
Fonte: Escola Superior de Enfermagem de Coimbra Publicador: Escola Superior de Enfermagem de Coimbra
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em 10/02/2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.25%
Introduction: Ageing population is a great challenge for modern societies which have to adapt themselves to this new reality. Increasing longevity and low birth rates also contribute to an aged population, with implications both socially and economically. With increased longevity, people live more years after retirement and should be more prepared to deal with the difficulties that can arise from this transition. Retirement is one of the major transitions in adult life and it can originate different kind of vulnerabilities. If it difficult to retire alone, it can be even more difficult when it happens as a couple. Objective: The project REATIVA is a Portuguese project funded by the European Union and the Portuguese government which has as goal to promote health during the transition to retirement. We aimed to know the perceptions of couples who experience adaptation to the retirement process and the strategies adopted to address them. Methodology: The research team conducted a descriptive study of a qualitative nature. The target population was couples in which at least one of their spouses was retired for less than five years, registered in health care providers in Primary Health Care of the Regional Health Administration Center. The selected participants were subjected to an approach for semi-structured interview...

How do couples adjust themselves to retirement?

Loureiro, Helena Maria Almeida Macedo; Mendes, Aida Maria de Oliveira Cruz; Fernandes, Ana Alexandre; Camarneiro, Ana Paula Forte; Fonseca, António Manuel Godinho da; Veríssimo, Manuel; Carvalho, Maria Madalena; Rodrigues, Rogério Manuel Clemente; Pedr
Fonte: Escola Superior de Enfermagem de Coimbra Publicador: Escola Superior de Enfermagem de Coimbra
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 11/02/2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.25%
Introduction: Ageing population is a great challenge for modern societies which have to adapt themselves to this new reality. Increasing longevity and low birth rates also contribute to an aged population, with implications both socially and economically. With increased longevity, people live more years after retirement and should be more prepared to deal with the difficulties that can arise from this transition. Retirement is one of the major transitions in adult life and it can originate different kind of vulnerabilities. If it difficult to retire alone, it can be even more difficult when it happens as a couple. Objective: The project REATIVA is a Portuguese project funded by the European Union and the Portuguese government which has as goal to promote health during the transition to retirement. We aimed to know the perceptions of couples who experience adaptation to the retirement process and the strategies adopted to address them. Methodology: The research team conducted a descriptive study of a qualitative nature. The target population was couples in which at least one of their spouses was retired for less than five years, registered in health care providers in Primary Health Care of the Regional Health Administration Center. The selected participants were subjected to an approach for semi-structured interview...

Portuguese retirees' perceptions about their transition to retirement

Pedreiro, Ana Teresa; Loureiro, Helena Maria Almeida Macedo; Ferreira, Marianela; Carvalho, Maria Madalena
Fonte: Escola Superior de Enfermagem de Coimbra Publicador: Escola Superior de Enfermagem de Coimbra
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em 10/02/2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.29%
Introduction: Retirement is one of the major transitions in a person life. The work identity is, many times, the only identity the person has and so a loss of identity can be felted after retirement. It can also lead to different vulnerabilities, including health vulnerabilities. Increasing longevity leads to more years after retirement with all the social and economic costs around this situation. People need to be prepared to deal with retirement and prepare themselves for more active and functional years. Objective: Our main objective is to know the perceptions of Portuguese retirees about their transition to retirement. We intend to understand how Portuguese retirees experience their transition to retirement, if this transition affects their health, which are the networks in which they rely and the strategies they use to deal with this transition. Methodology: We conducted a descriptive study of a qualitative nature. The target population was retirees (retired for less than five years) registered in health care providers in Primary Health Care of the Regional Health Administration Center. The selected participants were subjected to an approach by focus group, after signing informed consent, and the information was gathered by digital audio recording and subjected to thematic analysis using the NVivo10® program. Results: The following themes emerged: before retirement...

Portuguese retirees' perceptions about their transition to retirement

Pedreiro, Ana Teresa; Loureiro, Helena Maria Almeida Macedo; Ferreira, Marianela; Carvalho, Maria Madalena
Fonte: Escola Superior de Enfermagem de Coimbra Publicador: Escola Superior de Enfermagem de Coimbra
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 11/02/2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.29%
Introduction: Retirement is one of the major transitions in a person life. The work identity is, many times, the only identity the person has and so a loss of identity can be felted after retirement. It can also lead to different vulnerabilities, including health vulnerabilities. Increasing longevity leads to more years after retirement with all the social and economic costs around this situation. People need to be prepared to deal with retirement and prepare themselves for more active and functional years. Objective: Our main objective is to know the perceptions of Portuguese retirees about their transition to retirement. We intend to understand how Portuguese retirees experience their transition to retirement, if this transition affects their health, which are the networks in which they rely and the strategies they use to deal with this transition. Methodology: We conducted a descriptive study of a qualitative nature. The target population was retirees (retired for less than five years) registered in health care providers in Primary Health Care of the Regional Health Administration Center. The selected participants were subjected to an approach by focus group, after signing informed consent, and the information was gathered by digital audio recording and subjected to thematic analysis using the NVivo10® program. Results: The following themes emerged: before retirement...

Retirement: How Retirees and their Families Perceive this Life Transition?

Loureiro, Helena Maria Almeida Macedo; Mendes, Aida Maria de Oliveira Cruz; Fernandes, Ana Alexandre; Camarneiro, Ana Paula Forte; Fonseca, António Manuel Godinho da; Veríssimo, Manuel; Carvalho, Maria Madalena; Silva, Margarida Alexandra N. C. G. M. Mo
Fonte: Escola Superior de Enfermagem de Coimbra Publicador: Escola Superior de Enfermagem de Coimbra
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 19/06/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.24%
Problem Statement: Retirement states the final of "active life". Desired by many, but also feared by others, who have made their work a source of pleasure, personal investment and social recognition. The positive experience of this event depends on many factors and may spread into different dimensions of individuals' life. The effects that retirement has on people who retire are recognized but is unknown whether this transition interferes on their families and on their health. Usually retirement occurs during middle age and this event has several impacts on its protagonists. These impacts will probably also have consequences on the family systemic of these individuals. However, the lack of empirical evidence does not allow access to this knowledge and much less to the effect that this transition has in health. Motivation: In an attempt to understand the adaptive processes that retirees and their families may be subject to, the research question was: How individuals and their families perceive the experience of transition, caused by retirement? It was our aim to understand the experiences of individuals and families in the process of retirement, identifying nursing strategies that conduct to the promotion of family health. Approach: : This was a qualitative study...

An historical analysis and comparison of the military retirement system and the federal employee retirement system

Breth, Bruce R.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiv, 85 p.;28 cm.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.29%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The most significant change to private sector as well as civil service employee retirement systems over the past 15 years has been the transition from defined benefit to defined contribution retirement plans. This trend has shifted a significant portion of the risk involved in funding retirement from corporations and the federal government to employees. This thesis examines the military retirement system and the Civil Service Retirement System/Federal Employee Retirement System, from their introduction to present day, addressing the reasons for major changes during their evolution. Government studies, private studies, periodicals and Internet resources were consulted to identify significant developments and legislation affecting the military retirement system and Federal Employee Retirement System (FERS). While the retirement system for federal employees has transitioned from a strict defined benefit system to a system with a defined contribution element, the military retirement system has not yet incorporated a defined contribution component. The trend of persistent legislative attention towards the military retirement system implies that the 1980 and 1986 reductions didn't cut deep enough and future reductions are possible. The success of FERS suggests that the application of a defined contribution element to the current military retirement system is very likely in the future; http://www.archive.org/details/historicalanalys00bret; Lieutenant Commander...

Is poor mental health a risk factor for retirement? Findings from a longitudinal population survey

Olesen, Sarah C; Butterworth, Peter; Rodgers, Bryan
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 10 pages
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.24%
Purpose Poor mental health may influence people’s decisions about, and ability to, keep working into later adulthood. The identification of factors that drive retirement provides valuable information for policymakers attempting to mitigate the effects of population ageing. This study examined whether mental health predicts subsequent retirement in a general population sample, and whether this association varied with the timing of retirement. Methods Longitudinal data from 2,803 people aged 45–75 years were drawn from five waves of the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey. Discrete-time survival analyses were used to estimate the association between mental health and retirement. Mental health was measured using the Mental Health Index (MHI-5). The relative influences of other health, social, financial, and work-related predictors of retirement were considered to determine the unique contribution of mental health to retirement behaviour. Results Poor mental health was associated with higher rates of retirement in men (hazard rate ratio, HRR 1.19, 95% CI 1.01–1.29), and workforce exit more generally in women (HRR 1.14, 95% CI 1.07–1.22). These associations varied with the timing of retirement and were driven by early retirees specifically. Physical functioning...

Retirement : Can Pension Reform Reverse the Trend to Earlier Retirement?; El retiro: Puede la reform de las pensiones invertir la tendencia hacia el retiro anticipado? La retraite : la reforme des pensions peut-elle inverser la tendence a la retraite anticipee?

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.28%
This edition of the Pension Reform Primer examines the global trend in early retirement among rich and poorer countries, the reasons for people retiring early, the burden of early retirement on the pension system, recent policy initiatives to promote employment of older workers, and people's responses to incentives. The paper notes there is a clear relationship between early retirement and incentives in the pension system, a result confirmed by other international studies and by more detailed econometric analysis of individual countries' systems. It finds that retirement depends on many other factors, such as individual health or the level of unemployment. But financial incentives in the tax and pension system have important effects on the retirement deciosion.

Women's Retirement Age in Vietnam : Gender Equality and Sustainability of the Social Security Fund; Tuoi nghi huu cua lao dong un Viet Nam : binh dang gioi va su ben vung cua quy bao hiem xa hoi

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Women in Development and Gender Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.29%
The issue of the retirement age is fundamentally linked to policies on social protection. It is an issue that inevitably causes debate and has proponents, men and women, who argue on both sides. During preparation of the gender equality law in Vietnam, several options were presented for changing the retirement age of women. However, the National Assembly could not make a decision as the debate was rife with mostly emotional arguments. A more constructive dialogue could be pursued if presented with economic and social arguments of each option, or alternative options. During the labor code revision in 2009, this study will hopefully provide a good basis for decision making as well as for further policy dialogue on the issue. The main objective of this study is to provide economic and social arguments on different options for women's retirement age in Vietnam to serve as a basis for further consultation and policy dialogue with the Government.

The Labor Supply and Retirement Behavior of China’s Older Workers and Elderly in Comparative Perspective

Giles, John; Wang, Dewen; Cai, Wei
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.29%
This paper highlights the employment patterns of China's over-45 population and, for perspective, places them in the context of work and retirement patterns in Indonesia, Korea, the United States, and the United Kingdom. As is common in many developing countries, China can be characterized as having two retirement systems: a formal system, under which urban employees receive generous pensions and face mandatory retirement by age 60, and an informal system, under which rural residents and individuals in the informal sector rely on family support in old age and have much longer working lives. Gender differences in age of exit from work are shown to be much greater in urban China than in rural areas, and also greater than observed in Korea and Indonesia. Descriptive evidence is presented suggesting that pension eligible workers are far more likely to cease productive activity at a relatively young age. A strong relationship between health status and labor supply in rural areas is observed, indicating the potential role that improvements in access to health care may play in extending working lives and also providing some basis for a common perception that older rural residents tend to work as long as they are physically capable. The paper concludes with a discussion of measures that may facilitate longer working lives as China's population ages.

The Market for Retirement Products in Sweden

Palmer, Edward
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.28%
Far-reaching changes in the regulation of financial markets and the organization of public pensions in the 1980s and 1990s transformed the landscape for retirement products in Sweden. First, banking and insurance were extensively deregulated in the 1980s, while the securities markets experienced major expansion. Insurance received a large boost from the authorization of unit-linked products in the early 1990s. Second, the public pension system was reformed. Survivor benefits for widows were eliminated from the public pillar in the late 1980s, leading to a large increase in demand for term life insurance. The old defined benefit public pension system was replaced by a notional or nonfinancial defined contribution (NDC) scheme, while a funded defined contribution (FDC) component was also created in the public pillar. The four occupational pension funds that cover the majority of Swedish workers were also converted into FDC schemes. This paper reviews the implications of these changes for the Swedish annuity market. It discusses the regulation of payout options in Sweden...

Retirement and the Poverty of the Elderly in Portugal

Albuquerque, Paula; Arcanjo, Manuela; Escária, Vítor;; Nunes, Francisco; Pereirinha, José A.
Fonte: ISEG – Departamento de Economia Publicador: ISEG – Departamento de Economia
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em //2006 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.24%
The effect of retirement on economic welfare, indirectly measured by income, has not been studied widely, namely due to the lack of longitudinal data. A large literature exists about poverty in old age, mainly based on cross sectional survey data, but usually those studies are not able to study the transitional effect of retirement on income as they do not observe the workers who do retire before and after their retirement. The knowledge of this phenomenon is, however, of crucial relevance given the growing number of elderly people, the trend towards earlier retirement, and continuing relatively high poverty rates among the elderly. This paper analyses the association between transitions into retirement and the probability of becoming poor, considering different definitions of low income and of retirement, following what has been proposed in the literature. It is based on longitudinal data from the European Community Household Panel (ECHP) for Portugal survey waves 1-8 covering 1994-2001. Taking advantage of the longitudinal nature of the data used, we consider how the process of becoming retired is associated with an increased risk of having a low income, focusing on changes in the years immediately before and immediately after retirement for people who retire. The analysis is then focused on a sample of people who do retire during the analysed period. The paper starts by presenting evidence comparing low income incidence among retired people and the rest of the population on each of the waves of ECHP. Afterwards it analyses some factors associated with the changes in individuals' income over a number of years around retirement. The dynamics of household income changes for people who retire are studied and which personal and household characteristics are associated with a higher risk of having low income in the years around retirement are explored. Finally...

Women's Retirement Insecurity Across U.S. Birth Cohorts

Isaacs, Katelin
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 809159 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //2010 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.3%

Older women in the U.S. face greater risks of economic insecurity in comparison with other age groups and with men their own age. Although these risks have been documented in prior research, few studies investigate the life course mechanisms underlying women's retirement insecurity. This dissertation seeks to fill this gap by using a life course perspective and the theory of cumulative disadvantage to examine how women's earlier work and family experiences shape subsequent economic resources in retirement. The three major types of retirement resources in the U.S. - Social Security benefits, occupational pensions, and private retirement wealth - are considered. Analyses use a variety of modeling techniques and panel data from the Health and Retirement Study linked to restricted access Social Security Administration files. In addition, this dissertation specifically investigates retirement insecurity across birth cohorts of older women.

The first substantive chapter examines how Social Security benefit eligibility type is influenced by four major life course predictors: marital continuity, family timing, employment commitment, and cohort change. Social Security benefit type is an important indicator of retirement security for women because...

Self-Regulation before and after a Developmental Transition: a Study of Adaptive Goal Change in Retirement

Aspnes, Ann
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 1733420 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em 08/08/2008 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.27%

Retirement is the quintessential transition from mid-life to late-life for many working Americans. However, questions about the positive and negative effects of retirement have sparked widely divergent empirical findings. Developmental theories of self-regulation may add to the understanding of the subtle differences and transitions within retirement. Retirement may be viewed as a transition in resources (e.g., psychological, social, and financial), so that individual mental health outcomes are linked to how well these resources are reallocated. According to goal disengagement perspectives, failure either in disengagement from past goals or reengagement in new goals can lead to decreased well-being and increased depression. Further, as individuals enter late-life, their focus may turn away from growth and achievement and more toward preventing losses and maintaining current resources. In the present study, it was hypothesized that when pre-retirement individuals were compared against early and late post-retirement individuals, engagement in developmentally relevant goals (e.g., self, family, and leisure) in retirees would be associated with better mental health outcomes while retirees who reported continued engagement in less developmentally accessible goals (i.e....