Página 1 dos resultados de 468 itens digitais encontrados em 0.046 segundos

Analysis of mental health service financial models with a particular emphasis of Ireland

Datta, Anna
Fonte: Faculdade de Ciências Médicas. UNL Publicador: Faculdade de Ciências Médicas. UNL
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.86%
ABSTRACT: Financing is a critical factor in ensuring the optimal development and delivery of a mental health system. The primary method of financing worldwide is tax-based. However many low income countries depend on out-of-pocket payments. There is a report on Irish Health Care funding but none that deals exclusively with mental health care. This paper analyses the various financial models that exist globally with respect to financing the mental health sector, examines the impact of various models on service users, especially in terms of relative ‘financial burden’ and provides a more detailed examination of the current mental health funding situation in Ireland After extensive internet and hardcopy research on the above topics, the findings were analysed and a number of recommendations were reached. Mental health service should be free at the point of delivery to achieve universal coverage. Government tax-based funding or mandatory social insurance with government top-ups, as required, appears the optimal option, although there is no one funding system applicable everywhere. Out-of-pocket funding can create a crippling financial burden for service users. It is important to employ improved revenue collection systems, eliminate waste...

Magnified Effects of Changes in NIH Research Funding Levels

Larson, Richard C.; Ghaffarzadegan, Navid; Diaz, Mauricio Gomez
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.78%
What happens within the university-based research enterprise when a federal funding agency abruptly changes research grant funding levels, up or down? We use simple difference equation models to show that an apparently modest increase or decrease in funding levels can have dramatic effects on researchers, graduate students, postdocs, and the overall research enterprise. The amplified effect is due to grants lasting for an extended period, thereby requiring the majority of funds available in one year to pay for grants awarded in previous years. We demonstrate the effect in various ways, using National Institutes of Health data for two situations: the historical doubling of research funding from 1998 to 2003 and the possible effects of “sequestration” in January 2013. We posit human responses to such sharp movements in funding levels and offer suggestions for amelioration.

Stem Cell Research Funding Policies and Dynamic Innovation: A Survey of Open Access and Commercialization Requirements

Lévesque, Maroussia; Kim, Jihyun Rosel; Isasi, Rosario; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Plomer, Aurora; Joly, Yann
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.87%
This article compares and contrasts the pressures of both open access data sharing and commercialization policies in the context of publicly funded embryonic stem cell research (SCR). First, normative guidelines of international SCR organizations were examined. We then examined SCR funding guidelines and the project evaluation criteria of major funding organizations in the EU, the United Kingdom (UK), Spain, Canada and the United States. Our survey of policies revealed subtle pressures to commercialize research that include: increased funding availability for commercialization opportunities, assistance for obtaining intellectual property rights (IPRs) and legislation mandating commercialization. In lieu of open access models, funders are increasingly opting for limited sharing models or “protected commons” models that make the research available to researchers within the same region or those receiving the same funding. Meanwhile, there still is need for funding agencies to clarify and standardize terms such as “non-profit organizations” and “for-profit research,” as more universities are pursuing for-profit or commercial opportunities.

Rate My Data: Quantifying the Value of Ecological Data for Models of Terrestrial Carbon Cycle

Keenan, Trevor; Davidson, Eric; Munger, James; Richardson, Andrew
Fonte: Ecological Society of America Publicador: Ecological Society of America
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.63%
Primarily driven by concern about rising levels of atmospheric CO2, ecologists and earth system scientists are collecting vast amounts of data related to the carbon cycle. These measurements are generally time-consuming and expensive to make, and, unfortunately, we live in an era where research funding is increasingly hard to come by. Thus, important questions are: ‘Which data streams provide the most valuable information? ’ and, ‘How much data do we need? ’ These questions are relevant not only for model developers, who need observational data to improve, constrain and test their models, but also for experimentalists and those designing ecological observation networks. Here we address these questions using a model-data fusion approach. We constrain a process-oriented, forest ecosystem C cycle model with seventeen different data streams from the Harvard Forest. We iteratively rank each data source according to its contribution to reducing model uncertainty. Results show the importance of some measurements commonly unavailable to carbon cycle modelers, such as estimates of turnover times from different carbon pools. Surprisingly, many data sources are relatively redundant in the presence of others, and do not lead to a significant improvement in model performance. A few select data sources lead to the largest reduction in parameter based model uncertainty. Projections of future carbon cycling were poorly constrained when only hourly net ecosystem exchange measurements were used to inform the model. They were well constrained...

Shaping the Future of Research: a perspective from junior scientists

McDowell, Gary S.; Gunsalus, Kearney T. W.; MacKellar, Drew C.; Mazzilli, Sarah A.; Pai, Vaibhav P.; Goodwin, Patricia R.; Walsh, Erica M.; Robinson-Mosher, Avi; Bowman, Thomas A.; Kraemer, James; Erb, Marcella L.; Schoenfeld, Eldi; Shokri, Leila; Jackson
Fonte: F1000Research Publicador: F1000Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.65%
The landscape of scientific research and funding is in flux as a result of tight budgets, evolving models of both publishing and evaluation, and questions about training and workforce stability. As future leaders, junior scientists are uniquely poised to shape the culture and practice of science in response to these challenges. A group of postdocs in the Boston area who are invested in improving the scientific endeavor, planned a symposium held on October 2 nd and 3 rd, 2014, as a way to join the discussion about the future of US biomedical research. Here we present a report of the proceedings of participant-driven workshops and the organizers’ synthesis of the outcomes.

Crowdsourcing and crowdfunding mechanisms for scientific research funding Agencies – A Preliminary Entity Categorisation Matrix (PECM)

Cullina, Eoin; Conboy, Kieran; Morgan, Lorraine
Fonte: Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford Publicador: Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceObject; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.81%
peer-reviewed; Research has shown that crowdsourcing and crowdfunding are accelerators and facilitators of societal, business and institutional change, presenting numerous potential benefits to the triple helix of government, industry and university. Scientific Research Funding Agencies play an important role in the triple helix and play an important role in the development and instantiation of public policy. E-participation and e-government platforms have invited a new actor to the triple helix in the form of the crowd. The citizen as a member of the crowd presents potential solutions to public needs. This paper shows that whereas numerous models are available for the private and public use of crowdsourcing and crowdfunding, a limited number of models are available for use by science funding agencies. Accordingly, this research in progress paper attempts to fill this gap by examining the actors involved in the crowd process and presenting a preliminary categorisation of the associated types of users of the crowd. This paper is part of an overall project that focuses on building a suitable crowd model for these agencies. The research herein advances a Preliminary Entity Categorisation Model (PECM) to facilitate this process

Successful vaccines for naturally occurring protozoal diseases of animals should guide human vaccine research. A review of protozoal vaccines and their designs

Mcallister, M.M.
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.6%
Effective vaccines are available for many protozoal diseases of animals, including vaccines for zoonotic pathogens and for several species of vector-transmitted apicomplexan haemoparasites. In comparison with human diseases, vaccine development for animals has practical advantages such as the ability to perform experiments in the natural host, the option to manufacture some vaccines in vivo, and lower safety requirements. Although it is proper for human vaccines to be held to higher standards, the enduring lack of vaccines for human protozoal diseases is difficult to reconcile with the comparatively immense amount of research funding. Common tactical problems of human protozoal vaccine research include reliance upon adapted rather than natural animal disease models, and an overwhelming emphasis on novel approaches that are usually attempted in replacement of rather than for improvement upon the types of designs used in effective veterinary vaccines. Currently, all effective protozoal vaccines for animals are predicated upon the ability to grow protozoal organisms. Because human protozoal vaccines need to be as effective as animal vaccines, researchers should benefit from a comparison of existing veterinary products and leading experimental vaccine designs. With this in mind...

Estimation of Dynamic Nonlinear Random Effects Models with Unbalanced Panels

Albarrán, Pedro; Carrasco, Raquel; Carro, Jesús M.
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/draft; info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper
Publicado em 01/02/2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.64%
This paper presents and evaluates estimation methods for dynamic nonlinear correlated random effects (CRE) models with unbalanced panels. Accounting for the unbalancedness is crucial in dynamic non-linear models and it cannot be ignored even if the process that produces it is completely at random. Available approaches to estimate dynamic CRE models accounting for the initial conditions problem were developed for balanced panels and they do not work with unbalanced panels. In this type of dynamic models, just ignoring the unbalancedness produces inconsistent estimates of the parameters. Another potential "solution", used by some practitioners, is to take the sub-sample that constitutes a balanced panel and then to estimate the model using the available methods. Nonetheless, this approach is not feasible in some cases because the constructed balanced panel might not contain enough number of common periods across individuals. Moreover, when feasible, it discards useful information, which, as we show, leads to important efficiency losses. In this paper we consider several scenarios in which the sample selection process can be arbitrarily correlated with the permanent unobserved heterogeneity. The approaches we propose exploit all the observations available...

Opportunities and challenges of current electrophysiology research: a plea to establish ‘translational electrophysiology’ curricula

Lau, D.H.; Volders, P.G.A.; Kohl, P.; Prinzen, F.W.; Zaza, A.; Kaab, S.; Oto, A.; Schotten, U.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.56%
Cardiac electrophysiology has evolved into an important subspecialty in cardiovascular medicine. This is in part due to the significant advances made in our understanding and treatment of heart rhythm disorders following more than a century of scientific discoveries and research. More recently, the rapid development of technology in cellular electrophysiology, molecular biology, genetics, computer modelling, and imaging have led to the exponential growth of knowledge in basic cardiac electrophysiology. The paradigm of evidence-based medicine has led to a more comprehensive decision-making process and most likely to improved outcomes in many patients. However, implementing relevant basic research knowledge in a system of evidence-based medicine appears to be challenging. Furthermore, the current economic climate and the restricted nature of research funding call for improved efficiency of translation from basic discoveries to healthcare delivery. Here, we aim to (i) appraise the broad challenges of translational research in cardiac electrophysiology, (ii) highlight the need for improved strategies in the training of translational electrophysiologists, and (iii) discuss steps towards building a favourable translational research environment and culture.; Dennis H. Lau...

Managing Cultural Policy in Australia since WWII: Opera Australia and the Arm’s Length Principle

Bird, Jessica
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.83%
This research report provides an analysis and evaluation of the effect of politics on Cultural Policy and public funding for the Arts since World War II in Australia. This report was created due to an announcement by the current Australian Federal Government in July 2014 of an inaugural review to analyse the top four opera companies in Australia. The report analyses the historical growth of Cultural Policy and Arts funding in Australia and compares Australia with its artistic counterparts in the United States and Europe. An in depth case study was conducted on Opera Australia and the Metropolitan Opera of New York to uncover the political effects of Government funding on the operatic artform and their subsequent productions during the past seven years. Methods of research and analysis include the assessment of academic articles, journals and journalistic opinion pieces. Interviews were conducted with Opera Australia staff to utilise behind the scenes knowledge and historical accuracy of information. Observational research was conducted due to the nature of a four-day ANIP internship and subsequently deeper relationships with Opera Australia staff. Statistical data was gained from Government Organisations as well as Opera Australia surveys to create qualitative data to analyse the effects of Government Arts Funding on the Australian and International Public. Results of data indicate that Federal Arts funding increased steadily after World War II following the creation of the independent arts funding group The Australia Council. The method of funding through the Arm’s Length principle has allowed for independence and support for artistic excellence. Comparisons with the United States...

Latent Factor Models and Analyses for Operator Response Times

Gaver, Donald Paul; O'Muircheartaigh, I. G.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.67%
Two models are presented for the response times of different operators to different tasks where response is initiated by one or more cues provided by the system. One model for the log-response times is a mixed or latent factor model with unequal case fixed effects and variances. The other model for the log-response times is a non-Gaussian log-extreme-value model. Procedures for estimating the parameters by maximum likelihood are presented. The models are used to analyze response time data from simulator experiments involving nuclear power plant operators performing certain safety-related tasks. The findings of the models are critiqued and applications to risk analysis are sketched. Keyword: Extreme-value distribution; Weibull distribution. (KR); Naval Postgraduate School Research Council Research Program; http://archive.org/details/latentfactormode00gave; O&MN, Direct Funding; NA

The value of value of information: best informing research design and prioritization using current methods

Eckermann, S.; Karnon, J.; Willan, A.
Fonte: Adis International Ltd Publicador: Adis International Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.58%
Value of information (VOI) methods have been proposed as a systematic approach to inform optimal research design and prioritization. Four related questions arise that VOI methods could address. (i) Is further research for a health technology assessment (HTA) potentially worthwhile? (ii) Is the cost of a given research design less than its expected value? (iii) What is the optimal research design for an HTA? (iv) How can research funding be best prioritized across alternative HTAs? Following Occam's razor, we consider the usefulness of VOI methods in informing questions 1–4 relative to their simplicity of use. Expected value of perfect information (EVPI) with current information, while simple to calculate, is shown to provide neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition to address question 1, given that what EVPI needs to exceed varies with the cost of research design, which can vary from very large down to negligible. Hence, for any given HTA, EVPI does not discriminate, as it can be large and further research not worthwhile or small and further research worthwhile. In contrast, each of questions 1–4 are shown to be fully addressed (necessary and sufficient) where VOI methods are applied to maximize expected value of sample information (EVSI) minus expected costs across designs. In comparing complexity in use of VOI methods...

Analysis of the current Health Care Agreement and suggestions for the upcoming Health Care Agreement from 2008 to 2013

Lee, Victoria Hyo Jung
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.83%
The Australian Health Care Agreement (AHCA) is a formal five-year arrangement between the Commonwealth and the State and Territory Governments. It provides funding for public hospital services. The current A HCA provides funding of up to $42 billion for the period from 2003 to 2008. The A HCA sets out the respective responsibilities to the Commonwealth and the State and Territory Governments in areas such as raising health funds, the distribution of resources, regulation and the delivery of health service. The AHCA has several benefits. First, more funding is provided for public hospitals because both levels of government provide it. Second, as the Commonwealth oversees hospital care, the quality of health care services is broadly and generally comparable nationally. Third, all Australians receive the same health care anywhere in Australia. There are several problems: waste of resources and duplications caused by the administrative bureaucracy, cost-shifting, and the fact that different levels of government may argue and blame each other over questions of funding and responsibility. Chapter 2 compares Australian with British hospitals. Although Australia's health system performs well compared to those in other developed countries...

Analysis of the "Review of Funding for Schooling" (Gonski Report): Improving the Australia's Education System

Lee, Choi Yin Aleck
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.75%
In February 2012, the Australia Government released a report, "Review of Funding for Schooling", known as the Gonski Review. This review outlines the current challenges Australia is facing in its education system, including declining educational outcome, student performance inequality, inefficient funding system etc. More importantly, the panel of this review proposes a new funding model with an aim to promote excellent educational outcome. This research report summarises the main ideas in the Gonski Review, describing the characteristics in Australia's schooling system and the details on the new funding model. It also attempts to evaluate the new funding models and the recommendation made by the panel in the Review. It is suggested that the new funding model in the Gonski Review provides a solid framework to help the students with disadvantage backgrounds and may help to narrow down the uneven performance of students between public and private schools. However, the Gonski Review is not able to explain why spending more money in the educational system would necessarily lead to better educational outcome. Moreover, the Gonski Review fails to provide a clear picture of how the extra funding should be spent. By investigating the educational success in other three high performing countries...

Investigating Stakeholders’ Preferences for Coral Reef Research Funding in Florida

Harper, James
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.71%
Abstract: Heavily used and highly valuable, the Florida Reef is one of the world's most threatened ecosystems. Stakeholders from a densely urbanized coastal region in proximity to the reef system recognize its degradation, but their comprehension of climate change and commitment to pay for sustainable management and research funding have been opaque. With an emphasis on recreational anglers, residential stakeholders were surveyed online about their marine activities, perceptions of resources and threats, and willingness to pay (WTP) for dedicated coral reef research funding in Florida. The majority of stakeholders are wealthy, well educated, and politically independent. Supermajorities favored the two scenarios of taxation for a Florida Coral Reef Research Fund, and the scenario with matching federal funds earned higher support. In regression analyses, several factors emerged as significant contributors to stakeholders’ preferences, and the four recurring factors in extended models were prioritizing the environment over the economy, donating to environmental causes, concern about coral reefs, and concern about climate change, with the latter indicating a recent shift of opinion. Status in terms of income and education were found insignificant...

Romania - Functional Review : Research, Development and Innovation Sector

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.58%
A functional review by the World Bank of Romania's research, development and innovation (RD&I) sector has been commissioned by the Government of Romania and the European Commission as part of a broader assessment of the public administration contribution to the country's growth and continued convergence with the EU. The objective of the Review is to propose actions over the short to medium term to tangibly strengthen effectiveness and efficiency in the RD&I sector. This report is based on extensive literature research and data analysis, as well as three missions to Bucharest in January, March, and April 2011, during which the World Bank team met with representatives from a variety of public, private, and academic institutions and conducted a workshop with major stakeholders to review report findings. This final report -- prepared in collaboration with the World Bank Higher Education Review team and the EC's DG Research and Innovation -- presents observations and recommendations for consideration by the Government. The Review suggests that Romania's RD&I sector is in a silent crisis...

Breaking the grant cycle: on the rational allocation of public resources to scientific research projects

Avin, Shahar
Fonte: University of Cambridge; Department of History and Philosophy of Science Publicador: University of Cambridge; Department of History and Philosophy of Science
Tipo: Thesis; doctoral; PhD
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.81%
The thesis presents a reformative criticism of science funding by peer review. The criticism is based on epistemological scepticism, regarding the ability of scientific peers, or any other agent, to have access to sufficient information regarding the potential of proposed projects at the time of funding. The scepticism is based on the complexity of factors contributing to the merit of scientific projects, and the rate at which the parameters of this complex system change their values. By constructing models of different science funding mechanisms, a construction supported by historical evidence, computational simulations show that in a significant subset of cases it would be better to select research projects by a lottery mechanism than by selection based on peer review. This last result is used to create a template for an alternative funding mechanism that combines the merits of peer review with the benefits of random allocation, while noting that this alternative is not so far removed from current practice as may first appear.

Bibliometrics for research evaluation

Kronman, Ulf
Fonte: euroCRIS Publicador: euroCRIS
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.72%
24 slides.-- Presentation delivered at Session 4: "Evaluation and impact of research"; Includes appendix (9 slides) on "Nordic national models for funding based on bibliometrics"

Water institutions and governance models for the funding, financing and management of water infrastructure in South Africa

Ruiters,Cornelius; Matji,Maselaganye Petrus
Fonte: Water SA Publicador: Water SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.79%
The standard water institutions, governance and infrastructure reform and policy prescription package of the 1990s and early 2000s, i.e., restructuring, private-public partnerships (PPP), establishment of an independent regulator, have not yielded positive results for South Africa. These water institutions and governance challenges are resulting in inadequate investments, and millions in South Africa not having access to basic water and sanitation services. The framework for water sector infrastructure funding models was designed to meet the challenges presented by the current and growing imbalances that exist between the supply of and demand for water in South Africa. The research results identified 7 overarching governance models for the funding, financing and development of water infrastructure projects in South Africa, i.e. Model 1: direct fiscal (NRF) funding, Model 2: ring-fenced special purpose vehicle (SPV), Model 3: SPV housing dedicated water infrastructure cash-flows, Model 4: stand-alone water institution with strong balance sheet, Model 5: public-private partnership (PPP) with equity, Model 6: private concession, and Model 7: private development. Various institutional options for consideration for the future management and development of water infrastructure were investigated and considered. The emerging model is considered to be a hybrid model consolidating the national water resources and regional bulk infrastructure functions and capabilities...

Funding models for financing water infrastructure in South Africa: Framework and critical analysis of alternatives

Ruiters,Cornelius
Fonte: Water SA Publicador: Water SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.8%
The Government of South Africa has been the main provider of public infrastructure, particularly in the water sector. Government administration and institutional structures continue to shape and influence infrastructure investment. The South African constitutional system imposes unique complexities and constraints on infrastructure investment. The country experiences a serious backlog in water infrastructure investment for the development and management of water resources and water services. In 2011, this under-investment was estimated at more than R600 billion (600 x 10(9) ZAR: South African Rand). The national Government traditionally had a pivotal role in shaping water infrastructure investment. Government needs to find a solution to this backlog by putting in place new institutional structures and funding models for effective strategies leading to prompt water infrastructure provision. The research identified several funding models for financing water infrastructure development projects. The existing public provision model continues to characterise much of the publicly-provided water infrastructure in South Africa. These models see Government planning, installing and financing infrastructure with pricing at marginal costs or on a loss-making basis...