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Energy Production System Management – Renewable Energy Power Supply Integration with Building Automation System

Figueiredo, Joao; Martins, Joao
Fonte: Energy Conversion and Management, Elsevier Publicador: Energy Conversion and Management, Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.26%
Intelligent buildings, historically and technologically, refers to the integration of four distinctive systems: Building Automation Systems (BAS), Telecommunication Systems, Office Automation Systems and Computer Building Management Systems. The increasing sophisticated BAS has become the “heart and soul” of modern intelligent buildings. Integrating energy supply and demand elements – often known as Demand-Side Management (DSM) – has became an important energy efficiency policy concept. Nowadays, European countries have diversified their power supplies, reducing the dependence on OPEC, and developing a broader mix of energy sources maximizing the use of renewable energy domestic sources. In this way it makes sense to include a fifth system into the intelligent building group: Energy Production System Management (EPSM). This paper presents a Building Automation System where the Demand-Side Management is fully integrated with the building’s Energy Production System, which incorporates a complete set of renewable energy production and storage systems.

Application of sector and location specific models of the "worth" of renewable energy technologies

Tabors, Richard D
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Energy Laboratory Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Energy Laboratory
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 1194499 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.3%
Renewable energy sources such as solar and wind hold the potential for providing a significant portion of the U.S. energy requirements in the decades ahead. Unlike other energy sources their availability is determined by nonrandom events beyond the control of the consumer. In addition, macro-, meso-, and microclimatic conditions play a major role in determining the worth of such renewable energy sources to their owners. The worth of these new technologies will be a function of owner, location, and application as well as the traditional capital and operating cost, i.e., their worth to an owner in the southwest will be different form that to an owner in the northeast or the southeast. Dealing with energy sources, with geographic and sectorally specific energy values and with energy technologies with which we have little or no experience in the marketplace has created a set of challenges in analysis and modeling of these new technologies in competition with traditional energy technologies and with other emerging technologies. This paper will look at one simulation methodology for estimating the worth of renewable energy systems providing electricity, such as wind or solar photovoltaic power systems, and will discuss the interaction between such systems and traditional electric utilities with which they may or may not be integrated...

Unleashing the Potential of Renewable Energy in India

Sargsyan, Gevorg; Bhatia, Mikul; Banerjee, Sudeshna Ghosh; Raghunathan, Krishnan; Soni, Ruchi
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.5%
India has 150 GW of renewable energy potential, about half in the form of small hydropower, biomass, and wind and half in solar, cogeneration, and waste-to-energy. Developing renewable energy can help India increase its energy security, reduce the adverse impacts on the local environment, lower its carbon intensity, contribute to more balanced regional development, and realize its aspirations for leadership in high-technology industries. This diagnostic note draws on a detailed analysis conducted by a PricewaterhouseCoopers India consulting team in 2008-09 for the World Bank. The data are based on information on about 180 wind, biomass, and small hydropower projects in 20 states, as well as information from and norms of the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) and the Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC). The study is intended to provoke discussions of the feasibility of renewable energy development in India. Why is renewable energy development relevant? How much development is economically feasible? What needs to be done to realize the potential? Each of these topics is addressed in a separate chapter...

Transmitting Renewable Energy to the Grid

Madrigal, Marcelino; Jordan, Rhonda Lenai
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.46%
Many countries are scaling up their investments in renewable energy. In 2010, electricity production from renewable sources - wind, solar, biomass, biofuels, geothermal, hydropower, and ocean energy accounted for 18 percent of global electricity supply. By early 2011, renewables made up a quarter of all installed power capacity. One of the main obstacles to the scale-up of renewable energy is connecting generating sites to the grid in an efficient manner. Renewable energy places greater demands on the transmission network than do conventional energy sources. First, the richest sites for solar and wind energy is often spread across multiple locations far from consumption centers or existing transmission networks. Second, generation is subject to variability in climate conditions (such as wind speed and solar radiation). This note focuses on the transmission implications of the dispersion of renewable energy sources, rather than on the implications of variability. In some sub regions of the United States and countries in Europe that are pursuing renewable energy options, the requirements for investment in transmission already approved by regulators (or forecasted by transmission companies) are double or quadruple recent investment trends. In Brazil the investment needs for renewable energy in some regions surpass the asset value of the distribution utilities closest to the renewable sites.

Renewable Energy Toolkit Needs Assessment

Cabraal, R. Anil; Wang, Xiaodong; Heffner, Grayson; Zhang, Yabei
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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66.49%
There is now a strong foundation of good practice emerging from past and ongoing renewable energy (RE) projects, whether supported by the WBG or others, making it possible to develop and implement future projects faster, at lower costs, and with greater confidence in their overall sustainability. To further this process, the World Bank plans to develop an "Operational Guide to Design and Implement Renewable Energy," which will provide the necessary tools to assist Bank staff and member country personnel in improving the design and implementation of RE projects. This operational guide will help to significantly reduce project preparation cost and preparation time and increase project success. Developing the RE toolkit consists of two phases: phase I, a scoping study and need assessments, and phase II, developing the RE toolkit. This report summarizes the findings from phase I. It consists of the following four sections, which are the major activities undertaken under phase I : a) need assessment with the World Bank Group task managers; b) need assessment with RE industries and financial institutions; c) inventory research of previous work on toolkits related to rural energy and renewable energy; and d) development of a conceptual framework and a proposal for phase II.

Proceedings of the International Grid-Connected Renewable Energy Policy Forum

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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66.47%
This document presents the highlights of speaker presentations, breakout groups, ensuing discussions, conclusions, and next steps as presented at the International Grid- Connected Renewable Energy (RE) Policy Forum. The conferences purpose was to facilitate increased use of grid-connected RE in the developing world. In the course of the three-day meetings, speakers and participants addressed the challenge of scaling up the use of RE for grid power supply. The interactive forum was designed to focus on four core topics: 1) incorporation of RE in power sector frameworks; 2) economic valuation of RE; 3) RE policy instruments; and 4) private sector investment in RE. The forum also presented issues and offered solutions, lessons learned, best practices, and country-specific case studies

Economics of Transiting to Renewable Energy in Morocco : A General Equilibrium Analysis

Timilsina, Govinda R.; Landis, Florian
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.47%
Morocco has set an ambitious target of supplying 42 percent of electricity through renewable sources, 14 percent each through hydro, wind, and solar, by 2020. To analyze the economic and environmental implications of implementing this target, this study uses a dynamic computable general equilibrium model with foresight that includes explicit representation of various electricity generation technologies. Two types of policy instruments, a production subsidy financed through fossil fuel taxation and a renewable energy mandate financed through increased electricity prices, have been considered to attract investment in renewable energy. The study shows that meeting the renewable target would achieve up to 15 percent reduction of national greenhouse gas emissions in 2020 compared with a situation in the absence of the target, or the baseline. However, meeting the target would decrease household consumption of goods and services, thereby worsening household welfare. The study also shows that the renewable production subsidy financed through fossil fuel taxation is superior to the mandate policy to meet the renewable energy target in Morocco...

The Economics of Renewable Energy Expansion in Rural Sub-Saharan Africa

Deichmann, Uwe; Meisner, Craig; Murray, Siobhan; Wheeler, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.46%
Accelerating development in Sub-Saharan Africa will require massive expansion of access to electricity -- currently reaching only about one-third of households. This paper explores how essential economic development might be reconciled with the need to keep carbon emissions in check. The authors develop a geographically explicit framework and use spatial modeling and cost estimates from recent engineering studies to determine where stand-alone renewable energy generation is a cost effective alternative to centralized grid supply. The results suggest that decentralized renewable energy will likely play an important role in expanding rural energy access. But it will be the lowest cost option for a minority of households in Africa, even when likely cost reductions over the next 20 years are considered. Decentralized renewables are competitive mostly in remote and rural areas, while grid connected supply dominates denser areas where the majority of households reside. These findings underscore the need to de-carbonize the fuel mix for centralized power generation as it expands in Africa.

Promoting Renewable Energy through Auctions : The Case of China

Wang, Xiaodong; Barroso, Luiz; Elizondo, Gabriela
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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66.47%
This knowledge note singles out auctions as an important mechanism that has been implemented in a growing number of countries in recent decades. It features a case study of auctions designed to promote the generation of electricity from renewable sources in China. Although feed-in tariffs are now the cornerstone of China's renewable energy policy, auctions have played and continue to play a role in identifying market prices for renewable energy in the country. Experience with the auctioning of wind and solar concessions enabled the Chinese authorities to modify auctions over time to yield accurate information about the costs of generation from renewable sources, allowing them to set feed-in tariffs at efficient levels. This case study is interesting, because China has set aggressive renewable energy targets and introduced policy incentives for rapid market development. Initial renewable energy prices showed significant variation, and the government s targets were not achieved prior to 2005. The most important milestone in the development of renewable energy in China was the 2005 Renewable Energy Law. China has applied successive adjustments to concessions auctions to improve their usefulness in setting appropriate feed-in tariffs. The key lesson from China's experience with auctioning of concessions is that winning bid prices that are lower than actual costs wind up deterring the development of renewable energy.

Renewable Energy Desalination : An Emerging Solution to Close the Water Gap in the Middle East and North Africa

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.49%
The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is one of the most water-stressed parts of the world. In just over 25 years, between 1975 and 2001. Looking to the future, MENA's freshwater outlook is expected to worsen because of continued population growth and projected climate change impacts. The region's population is on the way to doubling to 700 million by 2050. Projections of climate change and variability impacts on the region's water availability are highly uncertain, but they are expected to be largely negative. To offer just one more example, rainfall and freshwater availability could decrease by up to 40 percent for some MENA countries by the end of this century. The urgent challenge is how to adapt to the future as illustrated by these numbers and how to turn the region's economy onto a sustainable path. This volume suggests new ways of thinking about the complex changes and planning needed to achieve this. New thinking will mean making better use of desert land, sun, and salt water the abundant riches of the region which can be harnessed to underpin sustainable growth. More mundane...

Mexico : Technical Assistance for Long-term Program of Renewable Energy Development

Antonius, Andrés; Awerburch, Shimon; Berger, Martin; Hertzmark, Donald; Huacuz V., Jorge M.; Merino, Gustavo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.49%
The four studies in this technical paper series deal with complementary themes and propose solutions to the same problems that all of them perceive in the Mexican electricity sector - yet each paper looks at the problem from a different angle, and proposes different actions that must be taken in order to bring about a significant increase in Mexico's adoption of on-grid renewable energy. These papers take us from the general overview of the policy and institutional context, down to the specific case of a hypothetical wind farm. They review the current situation, identify concrete policy and institutional changes that are badly needed to stimulate the sector, look at how new paradigms for valuation can help us to better account for the value of renewable energy capacity, and finally perform a thorough economic impact analysis of the hypothetical addition of a large wind farm to Mexico's grid.

Initiating the Bank's Peri-Urban/Rural and Renewable Energy Activities in Nigeria

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.48%
The workshop entitled, Initiating the Bank's Peri Urban / Rural and Renewable Energy Activities in Nigeria was divided in two parts. Part 1, Energizing rural energy transformation by : scaling up electricity access and renewable energy market development; and part 2, Creating demand and removing barriers to renewable energy market development. The workshop organizers placed great emphasis on promoting participation and dialog across Nigeria's energy sector. Delegates were major stakeholders in the rural electrification arena. This document lists the proceedings, and includes the presentations by participants of the overall workshop. The workshop concluded by identifying the following areas for action : accelerate the process of formulating Nigeria's overall vision for scaling up electricity access from renewable energy sources in underserved areas in a rapid and sustainable manner; identify key principles for framing the policy platform and institutional framework required for mounting a large-scale clean energy program; formulate a strategy for developing renewable and clean energy resources in a cost effective manner...

Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Financing and Policy Network : Options Study and Proceedings of the International Forum

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.47%
This report documents the proceedings of a scoping study conducted by the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) and the World Bank on the needs and options for a Financing and Policy Network for Scaling-Up Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency in Developing Countries. At the Bonn International Conference on Renewable Energies in June 2004, global leaders from governments, industry, financial institutions, non-governmental organizations, and multilateral organizations paved the way for a new energy future that will transform the energy structures of today and increase the global use of renewable energy. To build upon the success of the Bonn Conference, the idea of a "global policy network" was proposed - the Renewable Energy Network for the 21st Century (REN21), The network would bring together a range of stakeholders to address the scaling-up of renewable energy and energy efficiency by focusing on such key issues as policies, capacity building, technology transfer, research and development...

Transmission Expansion for Renewable Energy Scale-Up : Emerging Lessons and Recommendations

Madrigal, Marcelino; Stoft, Steven
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.5%
Scaling up renewable energy, such as wind and solar, goes hand-in-hand with the expansion of transmission infrastructure. The richest solar and wind renewable energy sites are often located far away from consumption centers or existing transmission networks. Unlike fossil fuel-based power sources, renewable energy sources are greatly site-constrained and, for this reason, transmission networks need to be expanded to reach the renewable energy sites. Delivering transmission is a challenge, given the dispersion and granularity of renewable sources. Tapping a few hundred megawatts of renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar power, will likely require delivering transmission to several sites. Furthermore, transmission is also required to smooth out the variability of new renewable sources in a large geographical area. For these reasons, countries' renewable energy scale-up efforts are being challenged by the need for timely and efficient delivery of transmission networks. The objective of this report is to present emerging lessons and recommendations on approaches to efficiently and effectively expand transmission networks for renewable energy scale-up. The report focuses on the planning and regulatory aspects of transmission expansion that are relevant to transmission utilities and electricity regulators.

Performance of Renewable Energy Auctions : Experience in Brazil, China and India

Elizondo Azuela, Gabriela; Barroso, Luiz; Khanna, Ashish; Wang, Xiaodong; Wu, Yun; Cunha, Gabriel
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.48%
This paper considers the design and performance of auction mechanisms used to deploy renewable energy in three emerging economies: Brazil, China, and India. The analysis focuses on the countries' experience in various dimensions, including price reductions, bidding dynamics, coordination with transmission planning, risk allocation strategies, and the issue of domestic content. Several countries have turned to public competitive bidding as a mechanism for developing the renewable generation sector in recent years, with the number of countries implementing some sort of auction procedure rising from nine in 2009 to 36 by the end of 2011 and about 43 in 2013. In general, the use of auctions makes sense when the contracting authority expects a large volume of potentially suitable bids, so that the gains from competition can offset the costs of implementation. A study of the successes and failures of the particular auction design schemes described in this paper can be instrumental in informing future policy making.

Renewable energy investment in Nigeria: A review of the Renewable Energy Master Plan

Akuru,Udochukwu B; Okoro,Ogbonnaya I
Fonte: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Publicador: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2014 EN
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76.37%
Data for investment into renewable energy resources in Nigeria is mainly unavailable due to over reliance on conventional resources for energy generation. However, recent developments in the energy sector have portrayed gradual attention to investments in renewable energy resources. This paper reviews the Renewable Energy Master Plan (REMP) which identifies this improvement and presents a draft on how an increase in investment in renewable energy resources, which will in the long run balance the national energy equation, ensure energy security and promote sustainable development.

Renewable energy choices and their water requirements in South Africa

Sparks,Debbie; Madhlopa,Amos; Keen,Samantha; Moorlach,Mascha; Dane,Anthony; Krog,Pieter; Dlamini,Thuli
Fonte: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Publicador: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2014 EN
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76.34%
South Africa is an arid country, where water supply is often obtained from a distant source. There is increasing pressure on the limited water resources due to economic and population growth, with a concomitant increase in the energy requirement for water production. This problem will be exacerbated by the onset of climate change. Recently, there have been concerns about negative impacts arising from the exploitation of energy resources. In particular, the burning of fossil fuels is significantly contributing to climate change through the emission of carbon dioxide, a major greenhouse gas. In addition, fossil fuels are being depleted, and contributing to decreased energy security. As a result of this, the international community has initiated various interventions, including the transformation of policy and regulatory instruments, to promote sustainable energy. With this in mind, South Africa is making policy and regulatory shifts in line with international developments. Renewable energy is being promoted as one way of achieving sustainable energy provision in the country. However, some issues require scrutiny in order to understand the water footprint of renewable energy production. Due to the large gap that exists between water supply and demand...

Challenges for local community development in private sector-led renewable energy projects in South Africa: An evolving approach

Wlokas,Holle Linnea; Boyd,Anya; Andolfi,Marco
Fonte: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Publicador: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 EN
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76.31%
The Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme in South Africa is intended to support the uptake of renewable energy, help address the current energy supply crisis and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Notably, it also requires project developers to engage with socio-economic development at the local level. The distributed nature of renewable energy generation may induce a more geographically dispersed pattern of development, and renewable energy sites can be highly suited to rural locations with otherwise poor potential to attract local inward investment. Socio-economic development and enterprise development are two of seven economic development elements in the programme. In order to prepare a bid submission, project developers have to assess local socio-economic needs around their project site and develop strategies on how to address these. This paper investigates the challenges for local community development. The research is based on case studies and presents findings from the perspective of a research team working alongside project developers. Early findings indicate that there are potential community benefits from commercial wind projects, providing an appropriate community engagement process that is aligned with the project cycle determined by the tender process and engineering requirements. The Passive Community Needs Assessment approach is introduced as a possible solution.

Impact of renewable energy deployment on climate change in Nigeria

Akuru,Udochukwu B; Okoro,Ogbonnaya I; Chikuni,Edward
Fonte: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Publicador: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2015 EN
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76.19%
It is well known fact that the rate of industrial growth of any country is a function of the amount of energy available in that country and the extent to which this energy is utilized. The burning of fossil fuels to generate energy is a dirty process. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions result when fossil fuels are produced and consumed and these emissions contribute to climate change. Nigeria as a country is highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change because its economy is mainly dependent on income generated from the production, processing, export and/or consumption of fossil fuels and its associated energy-intensive products. Hence, it is on this premise that this paper is researched to review the energy sources being used in Nigeria and investigate its impact to climate change. Findings reveal Nigeria's over-dependence on fossil-generated energy with associated adverse environmental effects, among other things. Recommendations for the integration of renewable energy into Nigeria's energy mix, beyond other measures, have been offered, especially with reference to the salient environmental benefits that accrue to it.

South African renewable energy investment barriers: An investor perspective

de Jongh,Derick; Ghoorah,Dhirendra; Makina,Anesu
Fonte: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Publicador: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2014 EN
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76.31%
As recently as the year 2010, renewable energy contributed less than 1% of all the energy sources in South Africa. Possible reasons include the lack of private sector investment in Renewable Energy technologies. By way of a structured interview methodology, this paper explores the reasons why private investors are reluctant to invest in renewables. The responses point to political, economic, social and technological barriers limiting private investment in renewable energy. Other barriers that were identified include poverty, low levels of education, limited technological readiness and access to the electricity grid. Some of these barriers are specific to the South African context. The paper concludes that a closer relationship between government and the private sector is required to stimulate innovation in the renewable energy sector.