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O profissional-referência e o doente mental; The reference professional and the mental patients

Hetzel, Eliane
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/06/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.26%
A doença mental é de difícil definição, porque abrange um leque alargado de perturbações que afetam o funcionamento e o comportamento emocional, social e intelectual do indivíduo, mais por desadequação ou distorção do que por falta ou deficiência das suas capacidades anteriores à doença. As doenças mentais manifestam-se em determinado momento, ao longo da vida, antes do qual a pessoa não manifestava alterações ou perda de capacidades. Os objetivos deste estudo são: conhecer o trabalho do profissional-referência desenvolvido junto a pacientes crônicos psiquiátricos, em uma instituição hospitalar; conhecer como o paciente crônico psiquiátrico vê a atuação do profissional-referência, no seu preparo para viver fora do hospital. Pesquisa exploratória que focaliza a atividade do profissional-referência nos cuidados prestados a doentes mentais crônicos. Inicialmente, realizou-se um estudo bibliográfico sobre os temas: reabilitação psicossocial e o trabalho do profissional-referência. Os dados foram coletados em uma instituição apenas, o Hospital Santa Tereza de Ribeirão Preto, hospital psiquiátrico público, fundado no ano de 1944. Centrou-se os dados em um setor específico do hospital, denominado Núcleo de Convívio...

Melhoria do processo de desenvolvimento de produtos de uma empresa de produção de bens de consumo duráveis visando à implementação de um modelo de referência; Product development process improvement in a manufacturing company aiming a phase-gate reference model implementation

Zanatta, André
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/09/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.26%
A literatura acadêmica é rica em apresentar a importância do gerenciamento eficiente e eficaz do processo de desenvolvimento de produtos (PDP) para o sucesso das empresas. O PDP é visto hoje como um dos processos-chave em empresas que desenvolvem seus produtos e que almejam manter e/ou aumentar sua participação no mercado. A adoção de um modelo de referência estruturado tem se mostrado uma boa prática nesta área, disciplinando, padronizando, controlando e organizando todas as fases do processo de desenvolvimento de produtos, o que proporciona um melhor aproveitamento de recursos, menor tempo de desenvolvimento e satisfação do cliente. Entretanto, muitas empresas não obtêm os resultados esperados durante e/ou após a implementação do modelo de referência, uma vez que nem todas estão preparadas técnica e culturalmente para adotar um processo estruturado. Baseado nesse contexto, o objetivo principal deste trabalho é melhorar o PDP de uma empresa de produção de bens de consumo duráveis, visando à implementação de um modelo de referência (processo de desenvolvimento de produtos estruturado). A hipótese proposta é que a definição e implementação de ações de melhoria antes e paralelamente à introdução do modelo de referência na empresa contribuem para o sucesso de sua implementação. Adotou-se a metodologia da pesquisa-ação...

Uma descrição do processo de referenciação em narrativas contadas em língua de sinais brasileira (libras) ; A description of the reference process in a narrative retold in Brazilian Sign Language (Libras)

Barbosa, Thais Bolgueroni
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/02/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.31%
O objetivo desta dissertação é apresentar uma descrição do processo de referenciação em uma narrativa contada em língua de sinais brasileira (libras), partindo da análise de como o sinalizador introduz e retoma as personagens da narrativa. A descrição é feita com base em trabalhos realizados no âmbito da linguística cognitiva, principalmente na proposta de van Hoek (1997) para a descrição da referenciação, e na proposta de Liddell (2003) para a análise da estrutura dos discursos sinalizados. As línguas sinalizadas, de modo geral e especificamente a libras ainda estão em fase inicial de descrição. A questão da referenciação, que diz respeito ao que está por trás do uso de certas formas de codificação dos referentes em determinados pontos do discurso, já foi amplamente discutida em trabalhos sobre línguas orais. Grande parte das análises, entretanto, tem se baseado na linearidade dessas línguas e, assim, a escolha das formas de codificação é explicada pela distância entre menções do referente. Esse tipo de abordagem, no entanto, não parece ser adequado para a análise de línguas sinalizadas, que são línguas de modalidade visual-gestual. Os discursos, nessas línguas, são organizados espacialmente e a referenciação está fortemente associada à organização do espaço de sinalização pelo sinalizador. O modelo de van Hoek...

Subsídios para a representação de arquiteturas de referência de sistemas embarcados; Contributions to the representation of reference architectures of embedded systems

Guessi, Milena
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/02/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.28%
Arquiteturas de referência são construídas por combinarem as melhores praticas, padrões, plataformas e componentes para a construção e padronização de sistemas de software de um determinado domínio. De fato, diversas arquiteturas de referência podem ser encontradas para o domínio de sistemas embarcados, motivadas principalmente pela importância e complexidade crescentes que esses sistemas de software vêm apresentando. Dentre as atividades para elaboração de uma arquitetura de referência, a descrição apropriada dessa arquitetura é essencial para permitir que ela seja de fato utilizada. Contudo, não há na literatura um consenso sobre qual a melhor maneira de descrever arquiteturas de referência do domínio de sistemas embarcados, os tipos de informação que devem ser capturados ou ainda o conjunto de pontos de vista que pode ser construído. Visando sistematizar e padronizar a representação de arquiteturas de referência de sistemas embarcados, este trabalho propõe o método ProSA-Re. O método baseia-se nos resultados de uma revisão sistemática conduzida sobre o assunto e estabelece um conjunto de atividades e diretrizes para a construção da representação de arquiteturas de referência de sistemas embarcados. O método também esclarece o ciclo de vida de arquiteturas de referência...

Modelos de referência para o processo de desenvolvimento de produtos: novas possibilidades de representação; Product development process reference models: new possibilities for representation

Amigo, Carolina Román
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/06/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.26%
Há um consenso na literatura de que a aderência a um modelo de referência torna a gestão do processo de desenvolvimento de produtos (PDP) mais eficiente, pois estes auxiliam na sua representação, compreensão, elaboração, gestão e melhoria. Apesar de existirem diversos métodos de modelagem de PDP disponíveis, estes métodos são ainda pouco utilizados pela comunidade prática. Uma das possíveis causas deste problema é a dificuldade que as vistas elaboradas por estes métodos de modelagem oferecem para a visualização e compreensão do processo. Não há ainda estudos sobre a modelagem de PDP que considerem a perspectiva do usuário de forma satisfatória. Esta pesquisa tem por objetivo propor novas vistas para modelos de referencia de PDP que sejam mais eficazes, eficientes e satisfatórias no atendimento aos propósitos dos usuários de modelos de referência de PDP, em comparação com as vistas existentes. Para isso foram desenvolvidos dois protótipos de modelos de referência de PDP, um com novas vistas propostas, de caráter analógico, e um com vistas existentes, baseadas em fluxo de atividades com ligações lógicas. Esses protótipos foram submetidos a testes de usabilidade. Os resultados mostram que as vistas propostas foram mais eficazes...

Microarray-based uncovering reference genes for quantitative real time PCR in grapevine under abiotic stress

Coito, João L.; Rocheta, Margarida; Carvalho, Luísa; Amâncio, Sara
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Research Article; Background: Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction is becoming the primary tool for detecting mRNA and transcription data analysis as it shows to have advantages over other more commonly used techniques. Nevertheless, it also presents a few shortcomings, with the most import being the need for data normalisation, usually with a reference gene. Therefore the choice of the reference gene(s) is of great importance for correct data analysis. Microarray data, when available, can be of great assistance when choosing reference genes. Grapevine was submitted to water stress and heat stress as well as a combination of both to test the stability of the possible reference genes. Results: Using the analysis of microarray data available for grapevine, six possible reference genes were selected for RT-qPCR validation: PADCP, ubiq, TIF, TIF-GTP, VH1-IK, aladin-related. Two additional genes that are commonly used as reference genes were included: act and L2. The stability of those genes was tested in leaves of grapevine in both field plants and in greenhouse plants under water or heat stress or a combination of both. Gene stability was analyzed with the softwares GeNorm, NormFinder and the ΔCq method resulting in several combinations of reference genes suitable for data normalisation. In order to assess the best combination...

Pipelined analog-to-digital conversion using current-mode reference shifting

Silva, Alexandre Herculano Mendes
Fonte: Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia Publicador: Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.29%
Dissertação para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Engenharia Electrotécnica e de Computadores; Pipeline Analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) are the most popular architecture for high-speed medium-to-high resolution applications. A fundamental, but often unreferenced building block of pipeline ADCs are the reference voltage circuits. They are required to maintain a stable reference with low output impedance to drive large internal switched capacitor loads quickly. Achieving this usually leads to a scheme that consumes a large portion of the overall power and area. A review of the literature shows that the required stable reference can be achieved with either on-chip buffering or with large off-chip decoupling capacitors. On-chip buffering is ideal for system integration but requires a high speed buffer with high power dissipation. The use of a reference with off-chip decoupling results in significant power savings but increases the pads of chip, the count of external components and the overall system cost. Moreover the amount of ringing on the internal reference voltage caused by the series inductance of the package makes this solution not viable for high speed ADCs. To address this challenge, a pipeline ADC employing a multiplying digital-to-analog converter (MDAC) with current-mode reference shifting is presented. Consequently...

Envisioning Reference at MIT

Gass, Steven; Flanagan, Pat; Horowitz, Lisa
Fonte: Haworth Press Publicador: Haworth Press
Tipo: Pré-impressão
Relevância na Pesquisa
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. In the past few years, the MIT Libraries has been focused on how to turn declining reference statistics, new modes of technology, users’ increasing needs and expectations, and constrained staff resources into a robust and valued reference service. A 5-year strategic plan written in 1999 spurred staff to develop a new service based on chat technology, but once the service was established, it was unclear how it fit into the future of reference at MIT. This article describes how library staff worked together to envision a future of reference at MIT that would incorporate the values of reference, the needs of the users, and the infrastructure of the Libraries. The final product was the Reference Vision, which now guides all of our new reference services.

Analyse comparative de l’utilisation des ouvrages de référence chez des étudiants bilingues en traduction et en droit dans le domaine du droit pénal

Reid-Triantafyllos, Sophie
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
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L’objectif principal du présent mémoire est d’observer le processus de traduction d’un texte de nature juridique mis en oeuvre par deux groupes d’étudiants, cinq étudiants inscrits au baccalauréat en traduction et quatre inscrits au baccalauréat en droit. Tout d’abord, nous analyserons les différences qui existent entre les deux groupes dans leur utilisation des ouvrages de référence. Nous observerons entre autres la diversité générale des ouvrages consultés et la connaissance antérieure des ouvrages papier, la répartition par type d’ouvrages (dictionnaire bilingue, monolingue ou autres), la répartition par support d’ouvrages (électronique ou papier), l’utilisation des correcteurs, l’intensité des recherches effectuées et, finalement, le premier ouvrage consulté selon le type et le support. Ces données seront recueillies grâce à la méthode de verbalisation à voix haute et à l’enregistrement de l’écran d’ordinateur, au moyen du logiciel WebEx. Ensuite, nous évaluerons la qualité des traductions en faisant une distinction entre deux types d’erreurs, soit les erreurs de traduction et les erreurs de langue. Nous tenterons par la suite d’établir des liens entre l’utilisation des ouvrages de référence et la qualité des traductions. Nous observerons que les deux groupes utilisent les ouvrages de référence différemment et que les traducteurs ont semblé mieux outillés que les juristes pour remettre une traduction de qualité.; The main goal of this paper is to observe the translation process of a legal text translated by two groups of students: five undergraduate students in translation...

Pertinence de la référence en orthopédie pédiatrique des cas suspectés de scoliose idiopathique : association avec la morbidité perçue et les itinéraires de soins des patients

Beauséjour, Marie
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.28%
La scoliose idiopathique de l’adolescent (SIA) est le type de déformation musculosquelettique le plus fréquent dans la population pédiatrique, pour une prévalence d’environ 2,0%. Depuis l’arrêt des programmes scolaires de dépistage de la SIA dans les années 1980 au Canada, nous ne disposions d’aucune donnée sur l’utilisation des services de santé par les patients présentant une SIA suspectée. En l’absence de tels programmes, des changements dans les patrons d’utilisation des services spécialisés d’orthopédie pédiatrique sont anticipés. La thèse a donc pour but d’étudier la pertinence de la référence dans ces services des jeunes avec SIA suspectée. Elle est structurée autour de trois principaux objectifs. 1) Valider un instrument de mesure de la morbidité perçue (perception des symptômes) dans la clientèle d’orthopédie pédiatrique; 2) Étudier la relation entre la morbidité perçue par les profanes (le jeune et le parent) et la morbidité objectivée par les experts; 3) Caractériser les itinéraires de soins des patients avec SIA suspectée, de façon à en élaborer une taxonomie et à analyser les relations entre ceux-ci et la pertinence de la référence. En 2006-2007, une vaste enquête a été réalisée dans les cinq cliniques d’orthopédie pédiatrique du Sud-Ouest du Québec : 831 patients référés ont été recrutés. Ils furent classés selon des critères de pertinence de la référence (inappropriée...

Reference genes for normalising gene expression data in collagenase-induced rat intracerebral haemorrhage

Cook, N.; Kleinig, T.; Van Den Heuvel, C.; Vink, R.
Fonte: Biomedcentral Ltd Publicador: Biomedcentral Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.29%
Background: The mechanisms of brain injury following intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) are incompletely understood. Gene expression studies using quantitative real-time RT-PCR following ICH have increased our understanding of these mechanisms, however the inconsistent results observed may be related to inappropriate reference gene selection. Reference genes should be stably expressed across different experimental conditions, however, transcript levels of common reference genes have been shown to vary considerably. Reference gene panels have therefore been proposed to overcome this potential confounder. Results: The present study evaluated the stability of seven candidate reference genes in the striatum and overlying cortex of collagenase-induced ICH in rodents at survival times of 5 and 24 hours. Transcript levels of the candidate reference genes were quantified and ranked in order of stability using geNorm. When our gene of interest, transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2), was normalised against each reference gene individually, TRPM2 mRNA levels were highly variable. When normalised to the four most stable reference genes selected for accurate normalisation of data, we found no significant difference between ICH and vehicle rats. Conclusion: The panel of reference genes identified in the present study will enable more accurate normalisation of gene expression data in the acute phase of experimental ICH.; Naomi L Cook...

Reference spurs in an integer-N phase-locked loop : analysis, modelling and design.

Kamal, Noorfazila
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%
The Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) is commonly used for frequency synthesis in RF transceivers. It can be implemented in two architectures, namely, fractional-N and integer- N. In this thesis, the integer-N architecture is chosen due to its suitability for frequency planning. Here, a PLL with a low noise output is important to ensure signal purity. There are two dominant noise sources in a PLL, namely, phase noise and periodic noise. In the integer-N PLL, periodic noise is also referred to as a reference spur, where the noise gives rise to multiple reference frequency offsets at the PLL output. Of these two noise sources, this thesis is focused on the analysis and suppression of reference spurs. It is because less work has been carried in the literature regarding spurs, and phase noise is better studied. The main factors underlying reference spurs are discussed. These factors are mainly from the charge pump and phase/frequency detector (PFD) circuit non-idealities, namely, PFD delay, charge pump current leakage, charge pump current mismatch, and rise and fall times characteristic of the charge pump current. Reference spur magnitude can be predicted via a transient analysis. The simulation is time consuming, as the reference spur magnitude can only be captured after the PLL in its locked state. Therefore...

Determination of haematological and biochemical reference intervals for infants and children in Gabon; Bestimmung von hämatologischen und biochemischen Referenzwerten für Säuglinge und Kinder in Gabun

Humberg, Alexander
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.29%
Previously studies show ethnic differences in haematological reference values, but the reference intervals used in African countries often derive from Caucasian or Western populations. The main aim of this thesis was to establish haematological and biochemical reference intervals for children in Lambaréné, Gabon, aged 4 weeks to 9 weeks and 1 year to 6 years. The children found healthy by physical examination were seen at the Medical Research Unit at the Albert Schweitzer Hospital in Lambaréné, Gabon, from April 2006 to January 2008. The following parameters were measured: leukocytes (white blood cell count [WBC]), red blood cell count (RBC), haemoglobin (HGB), haematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), red cell distribution width (RDW), platelets (PLT), lymphocytes (LYM), monocytes (MON), neutrophils (NEU), eosinophils (EOS), basophils (BAS), the biochemical parameters glutamate-pyruvate-transaminase (GPT) and creatinine. For children aged 1 year to 6 years, total bilirubin was measured as well. On the basis on the guidelines of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) “How to Define and Determine Reference Intervals in the Clinical Laboratory” (NCCLS document C28-A2...

Software-based reference protection for component isolation.

Yarom, Yuval
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.26%
Reference protection mechanisms are commonly used to isolate and to provide protection for components that execute within a shared run-time environment. These mechanisms often incur an overhead due to maintaining the isolation or introduce inefficiencies in the communication between the components. Past research operated under the assumption that some performance loss is an acceptable price for the added security that comes with better isolation. This thesis sets out to demonstrate that good isolation does not imply performance loss. While numerous models for implementing reference protection have been suggested, there is a lack of a unified terminology that allows the comparison of systems from across the domain. This thesis presents a classification framework that captures the trade-offs present in the design of reference protection. It identifies four main models of reference protection: complete isolation, where components do not share references to objects; object sharing, where components can share data while still maintaining private, unshared data; partial isolation, where components have private, unshared data and an exposed interface that allows other component's indirect access to the private data; and initial isolation...

An Examination of Deferred Reference Counting and Cycle Detection

Quinane, Luke
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (Honours) Formato: 1059526 bytes; 2861489 bytes; 609 bytes; 355 bytes; application/pdf; application/postscript; application/octet-stream; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.3%
Object-oriented programing languages are becoming increasingly important as are managed runtime-systems. An area of importance in such systems is dynamic automatic memory management. A key function of dynamic automatic memory management is detecting and reclaiming discarded memory regions; this is also referred to as garbage collection. A significant proportion of research has been conducted in the field of memory management, and more specifically garbage collection techniques. In the past, adequate comparisons against a range of competing algorithms and implementations has often been overlooked. JMTk is a flexible memory management toolkit, written in Java, which attempts to provide a testbed for such comparisons. This thesis aims to examine the implementation of one algorithm currently available in JMTk: the deferred reference counter. Other research has shown that the reference counter in JMTk performs poorly both in throughput and responsiveness. Several aspects of the reference counter are tested, including the write barrier, allocation cost, increment and decrement processing and cycle-detection. The results of these examinations found the bump-pointer to be 8% faster than the free-list in raw allocation. The cost of the reference counting write barrier was determined to be 10% on the PPC architecture and 20% on the i686 architecture. Processing increments in the write barrier was found to be up to 13% faster than buffering them until collection time on a uni-processor platform. Cycle detection was identified as a key area of cost in reference counting. In order to improve the performance of the deferred reference counter and to contribute to the JMTk testbed...

Análise de estratégia para aplicação de sistema eletrônico na referência e contrarreferência nos serviços de saúde; Analysis strategy for implementation of the eletronic system in the reference and counter - reference in health services

Morato, Márcia Gasparini Canuto
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde (FM); Faculdade de Medicina - FM (RG) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde (FM); Faculdade de Medicina - FM (RG)
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%
Introduction: In recent times, the Brazilian Unified Health System has undergone several innovations in management, organizing, financing and services. In this context, looms as a major strengthening of the system of Primary Health Care, which has demonstrated the essence of the effectiveness of care, enabling a holistic approach to people. In this sense, it is necessary an efficient monitoring of the patient by means of the reference and counter reference. Objective: To analyze strategies to implement the Electronic System Reference and counter reference in the Family Health Unit (FHU) in the city of Anápolis, Goiás. Material and Methods: The study was a prospective, nonrandomized intervention, developed in two of the three FHU research. The experimental and control groups were chosen on the basis of convenience. Visits were made by the researcher to the health units, explanations about the research and requests for assistance to the professionals. The interventions were performed by means of encouragement and guidance to professionals and patients. It was used among the instruments: Sheets Guidelines and Flow and Letter Search. In one of FHU Intervention was made available the Electronic Reference and counter reference. We carried out the monitoring...

Hippuric acid in urine: reference values

Siqueira,Maria Elisa PB; Paiva,Maria José N
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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OBJECTIVE: To establish reference values for hippuric acid (HA) excreted in the urine, and to evaluate the impact of age, gender, alcohol, and tobacco, on these levels in a population nonexposed to toluene. METHODS: Reference values for hippuric acid in urine were determined in 115 toluene nonexposed healthy volunteers, from Alfenas city, Southeastern Brazil. A questionnaire was applied to each volunteer and data on occupational and personal habits were collected. Biochemical and hematological analyses were used to confirm the volunteers' good health condition. Reference values were expressed in g HA/g urine creatinine, as mean ± standard deviation (x ± SD), median, 95% confidence interval (95%CI), 95th percentile, and upper reference value (URV, mean +2 SD). RESULTS: Reference values of hippuric acid in urine were: mean ± standard deviation =0.18±0.10; median =0.15; 95% confidence interval =0.16±0.20; 95th percentile = 0.36 and upper reference value (URV, mean +2 SD) =0.38. Statistically significant differences in urinary HA (Wilcoxon - Mann/Whitney, p<0.05) were observed for different genders and age groups. Alcohol ingestion and smoking habit did not significantly affect the results. CONCLUSIONS: The reference values of hippuric acid in urine can be used in biomonitoring programs of workers occupationally exposed to toluene...

Reference Prices: The Spanish Way

Mestre-Ferrandiz, Jorge
Fonte: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas Publicador: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas
Tipo: Documento de trabajo
ENG
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The aim of this paper is to analyse the effects of recent regulatory reforms that Spanish Health Authorities have implemented in the pharmaceutical market: the introduction of a reference price system together with the promotion of generic drugs. The main objectives of these two reforms are to increase price competition and, ultimately, reduce pharmaceutical costs. Before the introduction of reference prices, consumers had to pay a fixed copayment of the price of whatever drug purchased. With the introduction of such system, the situation differs in the following way: if (s)he buys the more expensive branded drug, then (s)he pays a sum of two elements: the copayment associated to the reference price plus the difference between the price of this good and the reference price. However, if the consumer decides to buy the generic alternative, with price lower than the reference price, then (s)he has to pay the same copayment as before. We show that the introduction of a reference price system together with the promotion of generic drugs increase price competition and lower pharmaceutical costs only if the reference price is set in a certain interval. Also profits for the duopolists might be reduced. These results are due to the opposing effects that reference prices have on branded and generic producers respectively.

Ulterior Reference Counting: Fast Garbage Collection without a Long Wait

Blackburn, Stephen; McKinley, Kathryn
Fonte: Association for Computing Machinery Inc (ACM) Publicador: Association for Computing Machinery Inc (ACM)
Tipo: Conference paper
Relevância na Pesquisa
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General purpose garbage collectors have yet to combine short pause times with high throughput. For example, generational collectors can achieve high throughput. They have modest average pause times, but occasionally collect the whole heap and consequently incur long pauses. At the other extreme, concurrent collectors, including reference counting, attain short pause times but with significant performance penalties. This paper introduces a new hybrid collector that combines copying generational collection for the young objects and reference counting the old objects to achieve both goals. It restricts copying and reference counting to the object demographics for which they perform well. Key to our algorithm is a generalization of deferred reference counting we call Ulterior Reference Counting. Ulterior reference counting safely ignores mutations to select heap objects. We compare a generational reference counting hybrid with pure reference counting, pure mark-sweep, and hybrid generational mark-sweep collectors. This new collector combines excellent throughput, matching a high performance generational mark-sweep hybrid, with low maximum pause times.

Hippuric acid in urine: reference values

Siqueira,Maria Elisa PB; Paiva,Maria José N
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2002 EN
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OBJECTIVE: To establish reference values for hippuric acid (HA) excreted in the urine, and to evaluate the impact of age, gender, alcohol, and tobacco, on these levels in a population nonexposed to toluene. METHODS: Reference values for hippuric acid in urine were determined in 115 toluene nonexposed healthy volunteers, from Alfenas city, Southeastern Brazil. A questionnaire was applied to each volunteer and data on occupational and personal habits were collected. Biochemical and hematological analyses were used to confirm the volunteers' good health condition. Reference values were expressed in g HA/g urine creatinine, as mean ± standard deviation (x ± SD), median, 95% confidence interval (95%CI), 95th percentile, and upper reference value (URV, mean +2 SD). RESULTS: Reference values of hippuric acid in urine were: mean ± standard deviation =0.18±0.10; median =0.15; 95% confidence interval =0.16±0.20; 95th percentile = 0.36 and upper reference value (URV, mean +2 SD) =0.38. Statistically significant differences in urinary HA (Wilcoxon - Mann/Whitney, p<0.05) were observed for different genders and age groups. Alcohol ingestion and smoking habit did not significantly affect the results. CONCLUSIONS: The reference values of hippuric acid in urine can be used in biomonitoring programs of workers occupationally exposed to toluene...