Página 1 dos resultados de 159248 itens digitais encontrados em 0.068 segundos

Auto-redução e fusão redução de pelotas auto-redutoras de cromita.; Self-reduction and fusion reduction of chromite self-reducing pellets

Pillihuaman Zambrano, Adolfo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/10/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.18%
Neste trabalho estudou-se a evolução da redução da pelota auto-redutora de cromita contendo coque de petróleo, ferro-silício, cal hidratada, sílica e cimento Portland ARI (alta Resistência Inicial), para a obtenção da liga ferro-cromo alto carbono (FeCrAC). As principais variáveis estudadas foram: influência das adições de Fe-75%Si em sinergismo com coque de petróleo, adição de fluxantes, temperatura e tempo de redução. Além disso, foram realizadas experiências para confirmação dos resultados de auto-redução num forno rotativo de laboratório. Inicialmente os materiais (cromita, ferro-silício, coque de petróleo, cal dolomitica, sílica e cimento Portland ARI), foram caracterizados por análise química e análise granulométrica. Após a caracterização, os materiais, foram aglomerados na forma de pelotas (P1, P2, P3, P4 e P5), com adições de 0, 1, 2 e 4% Fe-75%Si, e adições de 2% Fe-75%Si e de fluxantes (3,83% cal dolomitica e 2,88% sílica), respectivamente. A redução das pelotas foi feita num forno de indução podendo atingir temperaturas de até 1973K (1700oC). Os ensaios experimentais foram realizados nas temperaturas de 1773K (1500°C), 1823K (1550oC) e 1873K (1600oC), utilizando-se cadinhos de grafite. Após os ensaios de redução os produtos obtidos (escória e metal) foram analisados por microscopia ótica...

A redução do capital social (em companhias abertas e fechadas); The reduction of capital stock (on private and publicity held companies)

Garcia, Alexandre Hildebrand
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/05/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.11%
A presente dissertação faz uma abordagem do tema da redução do capital de companhias abertas e fechadas no Brasil, apresentando-o em duas partes. Na primeira parte, composta pelos Capítulos 1 e 2, são tratados aspectos gerais e, na segunda parte, composta pelos Capítulos 3 e 4, são tratados aspectos específicos das reduções do capital social. No Capítulo 1, é apresentado um breve histórico do capital social, em que se procura estalecer a sua origem e relação com a função de produtividade das primeiras companhias, afastando-se do pensamento tradicional de que o capital social tenha tido a sua origem relacionada com a função de proteção de credores. Além disso, é apresentada uma noção geral de capital social, suas classificações, princípios mais relevantes e funções, sempre com o foco de preparar a discussão para a sua redução. No Capítulo 2, é apresentada uma noção geral da redução do capital e a visão do autor dos dois principais princípios que a informam: o da igualdade e o da proteção aos credores. A análise prossegue, para apresentar uma classificação das reduções do capital de acordo com as suas causas ou de acordo com os efeitos que produzem no patrimônio das companhias. Por fim...

The electrochemical reduction of the purines guanine and adenine at platinum electrodes in several room temperature ionic liquids

Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin; Rogers, Emma I.; Hardacre, Christopher; Compton, Richard G.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 115-121
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.11%
The reduction of guanine was studied by microelectrode voltammetry in the room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) N-hexyltriethylammonium bis (trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide [N6,2,2,2][N(Tf)2], 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorosphosphate [C4mim][PF6], N-butyl-N-methyl-pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide [C4mpyrr][N(Tf)2], 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide [C4mim][N(Tf)2], N-butyl-N-methyl-pyrrolidinium dicyanamide [C4mpyrr][N(NC)2] and tris(P-hexyl)-tetradecylphosphonium trifluorotris(pentafluoroethyl)phosphate [P14,6,6,6][FAP] on a platinum microelectrode. In [N6,2,2,2][NTf2] and [P14,6,6,6][FAP], but not in the other ionic liquids studied, guanine reduction involves a one-electron, diffusion-controlled process at very negative potential to produce an unstable radical anion, which is thought to undergo a dimerization reaction, probably after proton abstraction from the cation of the ionic liquid. The rate of this subsequent reaction depends on the nature of the ionic liquid, and it is faster in the ionic liquid [P14,6,6,6][FAP], in which the formation of the resulting dimer can be voltammetrically monitored at less negative potentials than required for the reduction of the parent molecule. Adenine showed similar behaviour to guanine but the pyrimidines thymine and cytosine did not; thymine was not reduced at potentials less negative than required for solvent (RTIL) decomposition while only a poorly defined wave was seen for cytosine. The possibility for proton abstraction from the cation in [N6...

Characterizing the Distribution and Rates of Microbial Sulfate Reduction at Middle Valley Hydrothermal Vents

Frank, Kiana Laieikawai; Rogers, Daniel R.; Olins, Heather Craig; Vidoudez, Charles; Girguis, Peter R.
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.11%
Few studies have directly measured sulfate reduction at hydrothermal vents, and relatively little is known about how environmental or ecological factors influence rates of sulfate reduction in vent environments. A better understanding of microbially mediated sulfate reduction in hydrothermal vent ecosystems may be achieved by integrating ecological and geochemical data with metabolic rate measurements. Here we present rates of microbially mediated sulfate reduction from three distinct hydrothermal vents in the Middle Valley vent field along the Juan de Fuca Ridge, as well as assessments of bacterial and archaeal diversity, estimates of total biomass and the abundance of functional genes related to sulfate reduction, and in situ geochemistry. Maximum rates of sulfate reduction occurred at (90^{circ}C) in all three deposits. Pyrosequencing and functional gene abundance data reveal differences in both biomass and community composition among sites, including differences in the abundance of known sulfate reducing bacteria. The abundance of sequences for Thermodesulfovibro-like organisms and higher sulfate reduction rates at elevated temperatures, suggests that Thermodesulfovibro-like organisms may play a role in sulfate reduction in warmer environments. The rates of sulfate reduction presented here suggest that - within anaerobic niches of hydrothermal deposits - heterotrophic sulfate reduction may be quite common and can contribute to secondary productivity...

Characterizing the distribution and rates of microbial sulfate reduction at Middle Valley hydrothermal vents

Frank, Kiana L; Rogers, Daniel R; Olins, Heather C; Vidoudez, Charles; Girguis, Peter R
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.11%
Few studies have directly measured sulfate reduction at hydrothermal vents, and relatively little is known about how environmental or ecological factors influence rates of sulfate reduction in vent environments. A better understanding of microbially mediated sulfate reduction in hydrothermal vent ecosystems may be achieved by integrating ecological and geochemical data with metabolic rate measurements. Here we present rates of microbially mediated sulfate reduction from three distinct hydrothermal vents in the Middle Valley vent field along the Juan de Fuca Ridge, as well as assessments of bacterial and archaeal diversity, estimates of total biomass and the abundance of functional genes related to sulfate reduction, and in situ geochemistry. Maximum rates of sulfate reduction occurred at 90 °C in all three deposits. Pyrosequencing and functional gene abundance data revealed differences in both biomass and community composition among sites, including differences in the abundance of known sulfate-reducing bacteria. The abundance of sequences for Thermodesulfovibro-like organisms and higher sulfate reduction rates at elevated temperatures suggests that Thermodesulfovibro-like organisms may have a role in sulfate reduction in warmer environments. The rates of sulfate reduction presented here suggest that—within anaerobic niches of hydrothermal deposits—heterotrophic sulfate reduction may be quite common and might contribute substantially to secondary productivity...

Growth and Poverty Reduction : Case Studies from West Africa

Wodon, Quentin
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.12%
The objective of this volume is to assess the relationships between growth and poverty reduction on the basis of a number of case studies, all but one of which are based on recent household survey data. The first part of the volume presents data on Ghana and Senegal, two countries that have benefited from high levels of growth over the last dozen years. The analysis suggests that growth led to substantial reductions in the share of the population in poverty. Yet growth could not be said to be "pro-poor" because the gains in consumption for better off households were proportionately larger than the gains for poorer households. In the second part of the volume, case studies for Burkina Faso and Cape Verde are presented to solve the paradox of high growth without poverty reduction. It was initially believed in both countries that there had been no poverty reduction despite high growth during the 1990s. Yet a closer examination of the data suggests that this paradox was actually due to measurement errors: more careful work confirmed that poverty reduction was substantial. The third and last part of the volume presents case studies for Guinea-Bissau and Nigeria on the impediments to growth...

Investment in Agricultural Water for Poverty Reduction and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa : Synthesis Report

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.11%
The report analyses the contribution to date of agricultural water management to poverty reduction and growth in the in sub-Saharan Africa region, the reasons for its slow expansion and apparently poor track record, as well as the ways in which increased investment in agricultural water management could make a sustainable contribution to further poverty reduction and growth. The first chapter places agricultural water management in the context of the millennium development goals and paths to poverty reduction through agricultural growth. The second to fifth chapters contain a regional diagnostic that looks at the role of agricultural water management in sub-Saharan Africa, examines the contribution that investment projects have made, reviews the changing institutional context, and assesses the potential for further development. The sixth and the final chapter then summarizes the lessons and recommendations for increasing the contribution of agricultural water management to poverty reduction and growth in the region.

Implementation Guidelines for Poverty and Environment Work in Southwest China : Guidelines for Poverty Reduction Staff Including Checklists for Managers and Staff

WWF China
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.13%
These guidelines have three sections. Section one provides food for thought, regarding poverty and environment, and how the two are linked. Section two provides practical tools to incorporate the environment into a village-level action plan for the environment. Section three provides ideas for innovative activities relating to the environment in poverty reduction programs. Finally two practical checklists are provided: one for poverty reduction managers who wish to monitor progress in incorporating environment into staff work; and one for poverty reduction staff involved into village poverty reduction plans. The guidelines focus on Southwest China where poor areas are mostly mountainous areas. In other parts of China where poor areas are also arid areas, poverty reduction staff may use these guidelines as a reference but will need to adjust specific contents in section 2 to the different environmental issues of the region they work in.

OED Review of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Process : Mauritania Case Study

Operations Evaluation Department
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.11%
This report analyzes the experience of Mauritania with the Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS) process. The focus of the report is on evaluating the performance of the World Bank in supporting the PRSP initiative, not on appraising the authorities policies. The report covers the formulation and implementation of the PRSP and encompasses the two PRSP progress reports which have been completed since the initiative was launched in Mauritania. The report is structured as follows: section B describes the country context including, political and economic background, the poverty profile, and key constraints for development. Section C addresses the PRS Process including preparation of the document and the consistency of the process with the underlying principles of the initiative. Section D assesses the World Bank s support to the process. Finally, section E summarizes the main points of the assessment and attempts to draw lessons of more general applicability.

The United Republic of Tanzania : Evaluation of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Process and Arrangements under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility

IMF Independent Evaluation Office; Operations Evaluation Department
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.11%
This evaluation of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) and Poverty Reduction Growth Facility (PRGF) processes in Tanzania was jointly undertaken by the Operations Evaluation Department (OED) of the World Bank and the Independent Evaluation Office (IEO) of the IMF. The goal of the evaluation, as emphasized in the joint terms of reference, is to inform the policies and internal processes of the World Bank and the IMF, but not to evaluate the performance of the government. The report is laid out as follows: section two provides a background to the poverty situation in Tanzania as well as the economic and political context. The section also looks at the national strategies and processes for policy formulation that preceded the introduction of the PRSP and the PRGF. Section three discusses the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper process in Tanzania, starting with a look at the relevance of the process to the key development challenges facing the country and then turns to the issue of how the underlying principles of the PRSP have been applied. It concludes with an analysis of the preliminary results.

The pressure effect on the kinetics of ilmenite reduction in hydrogen

De Vries, Malisja Louella
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD)
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.13%
A new process for ilmenite upgrading in the pigment industry has been proposed. The process involves reduction of ilmenite in hydrogen under pressure. Past research in this field of ilmenite reduction under pressure reveals a lack of understanding of the rates and mechanisms involved. A twin reactor, symmetrical-beam pressurised thermogravimetric microbalance was designed and commissioned by the author. The system enabled the kinetics of hydrogen reduction of ilmenite to be studied at high gas flow rates, where gas transport resistances were minimised. The application of the micro-balance to mass loss determinations, coupled with microscopic examinations of quenched reduction products, were used to determine the mechanisms of oxygen removal from ilmenite between temperatures of 823 and 1173 K up to pressures of 10 atm and 13 atm at the lower temperatures. Natural ilmenite was initially investigated in a packed bed arrangement but changes in experimental strategies led to in-situ gravimetric examinations of synthetic ilmenite discs. Polishing the discs prior to reduction eliminated the problem reported in an earlier study (Brigss and Sacco, 1991) of nucleation and growth of iron metal over the surface of the discs to form a barrier to the gas. The reaction in a hydrogen atmosphere in the experimental conditions used had a significant contribution from crystallographic control with parallel bands of polycrystalline iron metal forming within the ilmenite grains of varying orientation. The bands were parallel to the (0 0 0 1) basal plane of the parent ilmenite. Conversion of ilmenite to rutile...

Ethiopian Poverty Reduction and Transport Strategy Review

World Bank
Fonte: Addis Ababa Publicador: Addis Ababa
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.11%
The strategic objective of Sub-Saharan Africa Transport Policy Program (SSATP) long term development plan is to anchor transport policies and strategies in national strategies for poverty reduction, so as to enable the transport sector contribute fully to pro-poor growth and poverty reduction. To this end, many SSA countries have conducted the Poverty Reduction and Transport Strategy Review (PRTSR) workshops to assess and review the coherence and link between their poverty reduction strategies and transport strategies and policies. This report presents the processes and the outcomes of the three workshops held between July and September 2007 that reviewed Ethiopia's road sector policy/programs and PASDEP. The first workshop was conducted from 26 - 28th July 2007. In this workshop, stakeholders extracted relevant information from the A Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty (PASDEP) regarding goals, objectives and targets as well as the difficulties on access and mobility. They also identified the interventions concerning transport infrastructure and services in the priority economic and social sectors...

China - From Poor Areas to Poor People : China’s Evolving Poverty Reduction Agenda - An Assessment of Poverty and Inequality in China

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.11%
China's progress in poverty reduction over the last 25 years is enviable. One cannot fail to be impressed by what this vast nation of 1.3 billion people has achieved in so little time. In terms of a wide range of indicators, the progress has been remarkable. Poverty in terms of income and consumption has been dramatically reduced. Progress has also been substantial in terms of human development indicators. Most of the millennium development goals have either already been achieved or the country is well on the way to achieving them. As a result of this progress, the country is now at a very different stage of development than it was at the dawn of the economic reforms at the beginning of the 1980s. China's poverty reduction performance has been even more striking. Between 1981 and 2004, the fraction of the population consuming below this poverty line fell from 65 percent to 10 percent, and the absolute number of poor fell from 652 million to 135 million, a decline of over half a billion people. The most rapid declines in poverty...

China - From Poor Areas to Poor People : China’s Evolving Poverty Reduction Agenda - An Assessment of Poverty and Inequality in China

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.11%
China's progress in poverty reduction over the last 25 years is enviable. One cannot fail to be impressed by what this vast nation of 1.3 billion people has achieved in so little time. In terms of a wide range of indicators, the progress has been remarkable. Poverty in terms of income and consumption has been dramatically reduced. Progress has also been substantial in terms of human development indicators. Most of the millennium development goals have either already been achieved or the country is well on the way to achieving them. As a result of this progress, the country is now at a very different stage of development than it was at the dawn of the economic reforms at the beginning of the 1980s. China's poverty reduction performance has been even more striking. Between 1981 and 2004, the fraction of the population consuming below this poverty line fell from 65 percent to 10 percent, and the absolute number of poor fell from 652 million to 135 million, a decline of over half a billion people. The most rapid declines in poverty...

China - From Poor Areas to Poor People : China's Evolving Poverty Reduction Agenda - An Assessment of Poverty and Inequality in China : Executive Summary

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.11%
China's progress in poverty reduction over the last 25 years is enviable. One cannot fail to be impressed by what this vast nation of 1.3 billion people has achieved in so little time. In terms of a wide range of indicators, the progress has been remarkable. Poverty in terms of income and consumption has been dramatically reduced. Progress has also been substantial in terms of human development indicators. Most of the millennium development goals have either already been achieved or the country is well on the way to achieving them. As a result of this progress, the country is now at a very different stage of development than it was at the dawn of the economic reforms at the beginning of the 1980s. China's poverty reduction performance has been even more striking. Between 1981 and 2004, the fraction of the population consuming below this poverty line fell from 65 percent to 10 percent, and the absolute number of poor fell from 652 million to 135 million, a decline of over half a billion people. The most rapid declines in poverty...

The Poverty Reduction Strategy Initiative : Findings from 10 Country Case Studies of World Bank and IMF Support; L'initiative de la strategie de reduction de la pauvrete : conclusions de dix etudes de cas de pays ayant beneficie du soutien de la Banque mondiale et du FMI

World Bank Operations Evaluation Department; IMF Independent Evaluation Office
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.13%
This book provides an independent assessment of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Initiative for the World Bank as well as the broader development community. It offers a in-depth review of the progress thus far, with particular focus on the role and effectiveness of the Bank's support, drawing from extensive discussions with national stakeholders in Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRSP) countries, research and analytical work, and country case study reports on ten PRSP countries: Albania, Cambodia, Ethiopia, Guinea, Mauritania, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Tajikistan, Tanzania, and Vietnam. The author of The Poverty Reduction Strategy Initiative concludes that the Initiative has led to improvements in national strategies and processes in some low-income countries, such as an increased poverty focus, a higher profile for monitoring results, and better donor-government dialogue. However, the contribution to broad poverty reduction, especially in more difficult country environments, is largely in jeopardy without significant changes. The author argues that the Initiative should be reoriented toward improving domestic processes and less on completion of documents...

An Evaluation of World Bank Assistance to China for Poverty Reduction in the 1990s

Khan, A.R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.15%
This paper attempts an evaluation of World Bank s assistance to China for poverty reduction during the 1990s. It begins with a summary of China's performance in poverty reduction during the decade as a backdrop to the subject in section two. Section three, presents an analysis of the causes why China's performance in poverty reduction was not faster during this decade of extraordinarily rapid growth. Section four briefly considers the evolution of China's strategy for poverty reduction. Section five, the central section of the paper, discusses the role of the Bank's main instruments - economic and sector work; and lending operations in helping China alleviate poverty. Section six considers future priorities for Bank strategy in China to help accelerate the reduction of remaining poverty in the country.

2004 Annual Review of Development Effectiveness : The World Bank's Contributions to Poverty Reduction

Operations Evaluation Department
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.12%
This 2004 Annual Review of Development Effectiveness (ARDE): The World Bank's Contributions to Poverty Reduction, looks at the growth and poverty reduction experience of client countries. It assesses the extent to which Bank interventions have contributed to growth and poverty reduction and the effectiveness of different types of interventions. The review uses the key elements of the Bank's 2001 poverty reduction strategy to examine the extent to which these elements respond to the needs of the poor, are actually being carried out, and are having an impact. Like previous ARDEs, this review draws primarily on OED's recent evaluation studies, synthesizing and highlighting the findings of these studies around a common theme-in this case, poverty reduction.

A Social and Ecological Evaluation of Marine Mammal Take Reduction Teams

McDonald, Sara L.
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.16%

There have been few efforts to evaluate the actual and perceived effectiveness of environmental management programs created by consensus-based, multi-stakeholder negotiation or negotiated rulemaking. Previous evaluations have used perceived success among participants as a proxy for actual effectiveness, but seldom have investigated the ecological outcomes of these negotiations. Fewer still, if any, have compared the actual and perceived outcomes. Here I evaluate and compare the social and ecological outcomes of the negotiated rulemaking process of marine mammal take reduction planning. Take reduction planning is mandated by the U.S. Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) to reduce the fisheries-related serious injuries and mortalities of marine mammals (bycatch) in U.S. waters to below statutory thresholds. Teams of fishermen, environmentalists, researchers, state and federal managers, and members of Regional Fisheries Management Councils and Commissions create consensus-based rules to mitigate bycatch, called Take Reduction Plans. There are six active Take Reduction Plans, one Take Reduction Strategy consisting of voluntary measures, and one plan that was never implemented. It has been 20 years since marine mammal take reduction planning was incorporated into the MMPA. Early evaluations were promising...

Correlated Polarity Noise Reduction: Development, Analysis, and Application of a Novel Noise Reduction Paradigm

Wells, Jered R
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.14%

Image noise is a pervasive problem in medical imaging. It is a property endemic to all imaging modalities and one especially familiar in those modalities that employ ionizing radiation. Statistical uncertainty is a major limiting factor in the reduction of ionizing radiation dose; patient exposure must be minimized but high image quality must also be achieved to retain the clinical utility of medical images. One way to achieve the goal of radiation dose reduction is through the use of image post processing with noise reduction algorithms. By acquiring images at lower than normal exposure followed by algorithmic noise reduction, it is possible to restore image noise to near normal levels. However, many denoising algorithms degrade the integrity of other image quality components in the process.

In this dissertation, a new noise reduction algorithm is investigated: Correlated Polarity Noise Reduction (CPNR). CPNR is a novel noise reduction technique that uses a statistical approach to reduce noise variance while maintaining excellent resolution and a "normal" noise appearance. In this work, the algorithm is developed in detail with the introduction of several methods for improving polarity estimation accuracy and maintaining the normality of the residual noise intensity distribution. Several image quality characteristics are assessed in the production of this new algorithm including its effects on residual noise texture...