Página 1 dos resultados de 223 itens digitais encontrados em 0.191 segundos

Mariner transposition and transformation of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

Coates, Craig J.; Jasinskiene, Nijole; Miyashiro, Linda; James, Anthony A.
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/03/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.59%
The mariner transposable element is capable of interplasmid transposition in the embryonic soma of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. To determine if this demonstrated mobility could be utilized to genetically transform the mosquito, a modified mariner element marked with a wild-type allele of the Drosophila melanogaster cinnabar gene was microinjected into embryos of a kynurenine hydroxylase-deficient, white-eyed recipient strain. Three of 69 fertile male founders resulting from the microinjected embryos produced families with colored-eyed progeny individuals, a transformation rate of 4%. The transgene-mediated complementation of eye color was observed to segregate in a Mendelian manner, although one insertion segregates with the recessive allele (female-determining) of the sex-determining locus, and a separate insertion is homozygous lethal. Molecular analysis of selected transformed families demonstrated that a single complete copy of the construct had integrated independently in each case and that it had done so in a transposase-mediated manner. The availability of a mariner transformation system greatly enhances our ability to study and manipulate this important vector species.

Elimination of the Yeast Rad6 Ubiquitin Conjugase Enhances Base-Pair Transitions and G.c -> T.a Transversions as Well as Transposition of the Ty Element: Implications for the Control of Spontaneous Mutation

Kang, X.; Yadao, F.; Gietz, R. D.; Kunz, B. A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1992 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.81%
The RAD6 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes an enzyme that conjugates ubiquitin to other proteins. Defects in RAD6 confer a mutator phenotype due, in part, to an increased rate of transposition of the yeast Ty element. To further delineate the role of protein ubiquitination in the control of spontaneous mutagenesis in yeast, we have characterized 202 mutations that arose spontaneously in the SUP4-o gene carried on a centromere vector in a RAD6 deletion strain. The resulting mutational spectrum was compared to that for 354 spontaneous SUP4-o mutations isolated in the isogenic wild-type parent. This comparison revealed that the rad6 mutator enhanced the rate of single base-pair substitution, as well as Ty insertion, but did not affect the rates of the other mutational classes detected. Relative to the wild-type parent, Ty inserted at considerably more SUP4-o positions in the rad6 strain with a significantly smaller fraction detected at a transposition hotspot. These findings suggest that, in addition to the rate of transposition, protein ubiquitination might influence the target site specificity of Ty insertion. The increase in the substitution rate accounted for approximately 90% of the rad6 mutator effect but only the two transitions and the G.C -> T.A transversion were enhanced. Analysis of the distribution of these events within SUP4-o suggested that the site specificity of the substitutions was influenced by DNA sequence context. Transformation of heteroduplex plasmid DNAs into the two strains demonstrated that the rad6 mutator did not reduce the efficiency of correcting mismatches that could give rise to the transitions or transversion nor did it bias restoration of the mismatches to the incorrect base-pairs. These results are discussed in relation to possible mechanisms that might link ubiquitination of proteins to spontaneous mutation rates.

Targeted Transposition at the Vestigial Locus of Drosophila Melanogaster

Heslip, T. R.; Hodgetts, R. B.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1994 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.79%
Targeted transposition is the replacement of one P element with another. We are exploiting this unique property of P elements to study the complex regulatory domain of the Dopa decarboxylase (Ddc) gene in Drosophila melanogaster. P element constructs targeted to the same site in the genome will be subjected to the same position effect. This allows the subtle effects typical of most mutations in the Ddc regulatory region to be measured in the absence of the variable influences of position effects which are associated with the current method of germline transformation. We have investigated some of the parameters affecting targeted transposition of a Ddc transposon, P[Ddc], into a P element allele at the vestigial locus. These events were detected by an increased mutant vg phenotype. The location of the donor transposon in cis or in trans to the target had little effect on the frequency of targeting. Likewise, the mobility of different donor elements, as measured by their rate of transposition to a different chromosome, varied nearly 20-fold, while the rate of targeted transposition was very similar between them. All targeted alleles were precise replacements of the target P element by P[Ddc], but in several cases the donor was inserted in the opposite orientation. The targeted alleles could be described as the result of a replicative...

Computer assisted echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular function before and after anatomical correction of transposition of the great arteries.

Arensman, F W; Radley-Smith, R; Grieve, L; Gibson, D G; Yacoub, M H
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1986 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.82%
Left ventricular function before and after anatomical correction of transposition of the great arteries was assessed by computer assisted analysis of 78 echocardiographs from 27 patients obtained one year before to five years after operation. Sixteen patients had simple transposition, and 11 had complex transposition with additional large ventricular septal defect. Immediately after correction mean shortening fraction fell from 46(9)% to 33(8)%. There was a corresponding drop in normalised peak shortening rate from 5.4(3.7) to 3.3(1.1) s-1 and normal septal motion was usually absent. Systolic shortening fraction increased with time after correction and left ventricular end diastolic diameter increased appropriately for age. The preoperative rate of free wall thickening was significantly higher in simple (5.6(2.8) s-1) and complex transposition (4.5(1.8) s-1) than in controls (2.9(0.8) s-1). After operation these values remained high in both the short and long term. Thus, computer assisted analysis of left ventricular dimensions and their rates of change before and after anatomical correction showed only slight postoperative changes which tended to become normal with time. Septal motion was commonly absent after operation. This was associated with an increase in the rate of posterior wall thickening that suggested normal ventricular function associated with an altered contraction pattern. Computer assisted echocardiographic analysis may be helpful in the long term assessment of ventricular function after operation for various heart abnormalities.

Characterization of Mos1-Mediated Mutagenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans: A Method for the Rapid Identification of Mutated Genes

Williams, Daniel C.; Boulin, Thomas; Ruaud, Anne-Françoise; Jorgensen, Erik M.; Bessereau, Jean-Louis
Fonte: Genetics Society of America Publicador: Genetics Society of America
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.73%
Insertional mutagenesis with a heterologous transposon provides a method to rapidly determine the molecular identity of mutated genes. The Drosophila transposon Mos1 can be mobilized to cause mutations in Caenorhabditis elegans (Bessereau et al. 2001); however, the mutagenic rate was initially too low for use in most forward genetic screens. To increase the effectiveness of Mos1-mediated mutagenesis we examined the conditions influencing Mos1 transposition. First, optimal transposition occurs 24 hr after expression of the transposase and is unlikely to occur in differentiated sperm or oocytes. Second, transposition is limited to germ-cell nuclei that contain donor elements, but the transposase enzyme can diffuse throughout the gonad syncytium. Third, silencing of transposition is caused by changes in the donor array that occur over time. Finally, multiple transposition events occur in individual germ cells. By using screening techniques based on these results, Mos1 mutagenicity was increased to within an order of magnitude of chemical mutagens.

Genomic Mutation in Lines of Arabidopsis thaliana Exposed to Ultraviolet-B Radiation

MacKenzie, Joanna L.; Saadé, Fabienne E.; Le, Quang Hien; Bureau, Thomas E.; Schoen, Daniel J.
Fonte: Copyright © 2005 by the Genetics Society of America Publicador: Copyright © 2005 by the Genetics Society of America
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.58%
Studies that have attempted to estimate the rate of deleterious mutation have typically been conducted under low levels of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation, a naturally occurring mutagen. We conducted experiments to test whether the inclusion of natural levels of UV-B radiation in mutation-accumulation (MA) experiments influences the rate and effects of mildly deleterious mutation in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Ten generations of MA proved insufficient to observe significant changes in means or among-line variances in experimental lines maintained either with or without supplemental UV-B radiation. Maximum-likelihood estimates of mutation rate for total flower number revealed a small but significant rate of mutation for MA lines propagated under supplemental UV-B exposure, but not for those in which supplemental UV-B was omitted. A fraction of the flower number mutations under UV-B (∼25–30%) are estimated to increase flower number. Results from the application of transposon display to plant materials obtained after MA, in both the presence and absence of supplemental UV-B, suggest that the average rate of transposition for the class I and II transposable elements (TEs) surveyed was no more than 10−4. Overall, the estimates of mutation parameters are qualitatively similar to what has been observed in other MA experiments with this species in which supplemental UV-B levels have not been used. As well...

Low Impact of Germline Transposition on the Rate of Mildly Deleterious Mutation in Caenorhabditis elegans

Bégin, Mattieu; Schoen, Daniel J.
Fonte: Copyright © 2006 by the Genetics Society of America Publicador: Copyright © 2006 by the Genetics Society of America
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.75%
Little is known about the role of transposable element (TE) insertion in the production of mutations with mild effects on fitness, the class of mutations thought to be central to the evolution of many basic features of natural populations. We propagated mutation-accumulation (MA) lines of two RNAi-deficient strains of Caenorhabditis elegans that exhibit germline transposition. We show here that the impact of TE activity was to raise the level of mildly deleterious mutation by 2- to 8.5-fold, as estimated from fecundity, longevity, and body length measurements, compared to that observed in a parallel MA experiment with a control strain characterized by a lack of germline transposition. Despite this increase, the rate of mildly deleterious mutation was between one and two orders of magnitude lower than the rate of TE accumulation, which was approximately two new insertions per genome per generation. This study suggests that high rates of TE activity do not necessarily translate into high rates of detectable nonlethal mutation.

A mariner-Based Transposition System for Listeria monocytogenes▿

Cao, Min; Bitar, Alan Pavinski; Marquis, Hélène
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.78%
In this study, we developed a new mariner-based transposition system for Listeria monocytogenes. The mariner-based system has a high rate of transposition and a low rate of plasmid retention, and transposition is very random, making it an ideal tool for high-throughput transposon mutagenesis in L. monocytogenes.

High rate of fistula placement in a cohort of dialysis patients in a single payer system

BLOSSER, Christopher D.; AYEHU, Gashu; WU, Sam; LOMAGRO, Ruth M.; MALONE, Ellen; BRUNELLI, Steven M.; ITKIN, Max; GOLDEN, Michael; MCCOMBS, Peter; LIPSCHUTZ, Joshua H.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.7%
Arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are considered superior to arteriovenous grafts and catheters. Never-theless, AVF prevalence in the United States remains under the established target. The complication rates and financial cost of vascular access continue to rise and disproportionately contribute to the burgeoning health care costs. The relationship between financial incentives for a type of vascular access and rate of access placement is unclear. All chronic hemodialysis patients (n=99) receiving care at Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center as of August 1, 2008 were participants. Demographic characteristics, vascular access type, and nonrelative value unit compensation were assessed as predictors, and the vascular access prevalence rate, operative times, and frequency of access interventions were analyzed. A 73.7% AVF rate was achieved in this cohort of patients with 51.5% diabetes mellitus. The number of access procedures per patient per year remained constant over time. The Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center, a single payer system, achieved superior AVF prevalence and exceeded the national AVF target. Financial incentives for arteriovenous graft placement currently exist in the United States, as there is similar Medicare reimbursement for arterio-venous graft and basilic vein transposition...

H-NS mediates the dissociation of a refractory protein–DNA complex during Tn10/IS10 transposition

Liu, Danxu; Haniford, David B.; Chalmers, Ronald M.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.66%
Tn10/IS10 transposition takes place in the context of a protein–DNA complex called a transpososome. During the reaction, the transpososome undergoes several conformational changes. The host proteins IHF and H-NS, which also are global regulators of gene expression, play important roles in directing these architectural changes. IHF binds tightly to only one of two transposon ends within the transpososome, folding this end into a DNA loop structure. Unfolding this DNA loop is necessary for excising the transposon from flanking donor DNA and preventing integration of the transposon into itself. We show here that efficient DNA loop unfolding relies on the continuity of the flanking donor DNA on the side of the transpososome opposite to the folded transposon end. We also show this same donor DNA is a preferred binding site for H-NS, which promotes opening of the IHF-loop, which is required for productive target interactions. This is counter to the usual mode of H-NS action, which is repressive due to its propensity to coat DNA. The interplay between IHF and H-NS likely serves to couple the rate of transposition to the host cell physiology as both of these proteins are integrated into cellular stress response pathways.

Evolutionary erosion of yeast sex chromosomes by mating-type switching accidents

Gordon, Jonathan L.; Armisén, David; Proux-Wéra, Estelle; ÓhÉigeartaigh, Seán S.; Byrne, Kevin P.; Wolfe, Kenneth H.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.67%
We investigate yeast sex chromosome evolution by comparing genome sequences from 16 species in the family Saccharomycetaceae, including data from genera Tetrapisispora, Kazachstania, Naumovozyma, and Torulaspora. We show that although most yeast species contain a mating-type (MAT) locus and silent HML and HMR loci structurally analogous to those of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, their detailed organization is highly variable and indicates that the MAT locus is a deletion hotspot. Over evolutionary time, chromosomal genes located immediately beside MAT have continually been deleted, truncated, or transposed to other places in the genome in a process that is gradually shortening the distance between MAT and HML. Each time a gene beside MAT is removed by deletion or transposition, the next gene on the chromosome is brought into proximity with MAT and is in turn put at risk for removal. This process has also continually replaced the triplicated sequence regions, called Z and X, that allow HML and HMR to be used as templates for DNA repair at MAT during mating-type switching. We propose that the deletion and transposition events are caused by evolutionary accidents during mating-type switching, combined with natural selection to keep MAT and HML on the same chromosome. The rate of deletion accelerated greatly after whole-genome duplication...

Rates of transposition in Escherichia coli

Sousa, Ana; Bourgard, Catarina; Wahl, Lindi M.; Gordo, Isabel
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/12/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
The evolutionary role of transposable elements (TEs) is still highly controversial. Two key parameters, the transposition rate (u and w, for replicative and non-replicative transposition) and the excision rate (e) are fundamental to understanding their evolution and maintenance in populations. We have estimated u, w and e for six families of TEs (including eight members: IS1, IS2, IS3, IS4, IS5, IS30, IS150 and IS186) in Escherichia coli, using a mutation accumulation (MA) experiment. In this experiment, mutations accumulate essentially at the rate at which they appear, during a period of 80 500 (1610 generations × 50 lines) generations, and spontaneous transposition events can be detected. This differs from other experiments in which insertions accumulated under strong selective pressure or over a limited genomic target. We therefore provide new estimates for the spontaneous rates of transposition and excision in E. coli. We observed 25 transposition and three excision events in 50 MA lines, leading to overall rate estimates of u ∼ 1.15 × 10–5, w ∼ 4 × 10−8 and e ∼ 1.08 × 10−6 (per element, per generation). Furthermore, extensive variation between elements was found, consistent with previous knowledge of the mechanisms and regulation of transposition for the different elements.

An Age-of-Allele Test of Neutrality for Transposable Element Insertions

Blumenstiel, Justin P.; Chen, Xi; He, Miaomiao; Bergman, Casey M.
Fonte: Genetics Society of America Publicador: Genetics Society of America
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.76%
How natural selection acts to limit the proliferation of transposable elements (TEs) in genomes has been of interest to evolutionary biologists for many years. To describe TE dynamics in populations, previous studies have used models of transposition–selection equilibrium that assume a constant rate of transposition. However, since TE invasions are known to happen in bursts through time, this assumption may not be reasonable. Here we propose a test of neutrality for TE insertions that does not rely on the assumption of a constant transposition rate. We consider the case of TE insertions that have been ascertained from a single haploid reference genome sequence. By conditioning on the age of an individual TE insertion allele (inferred by the number of unique substitutions that have occurred within the particular TE sequence since insertion), we determine the probability distribution of the insertion allele frequency in a population sample under neutrality. Taking models of varying population size into account, we then evaluate predictions of our model against allele frequency data from 190 retrotransposon insertions sampled from North American and African populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Using this nonequilibrium neutral model...

A Genome-Wide Survey of Genetic Instability by Transposition in Drosophila Hybrids

Vela, Doris; Fontdevila, Antonio; Vieira, Cristina; García Guerreiro, María Pilar
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/02/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.76%
Hybridization between species is a genomic instability factor involved in increasing mutation rate and new chromosomal rearrangements. Evidence of a relationship between interspecific hybridization and transposable element mobilization has been reported in different organisms, but most studies are usually performed with particular TEs and do not discuss the real effect of hybridization on the whole genome. We have therefore studied whole genome instability of Drosophila interspecific hybrids, looking for the presence of new AFLP markers in hybrids. A high percentage (27–90%) of the instability markers detected corresponds to TEs belonging to classes I and II. Moreover, three transposable elements (Osvaldo, Helena and Galileo) representative of different families, showed an overall increase of transposition rate in hybrids compared to parental species. This research confirms the hypothesis that hybridization induces genomic instability by transposition bursts and suggests that genomic stress by transposition could contribute to a relaxation of mechanisms controlling TEs in the Drosophila genome.

One to rule them all: A highly conserved motif in mariner transposase controls multiple steps of transposition

Bouuaert, Corentin Claeys; Tellier, Michael; Chalmers, Ronald
Fonte: Landes Bioscience Publicador: Landes Bioscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/04/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.72%
The development of transposon-based genome manipulation tools can benefit greatly from understanding transposons’ inherent regulatory mechanisms. The Tc1-mariner transposons, which are being widely used in biotechnological applications, are subject to a self-inhibitory mechanism whereby increasing transposase expression beyond a certain point decreases the rate of transposition. In a recent paper, Liu and Chalmers performed saturating mutagenesis on the highly conserved WVPHEL motif in the mariner-family transposase from the Hsmar1 element. Curiously, they found that the majority of all possible single mutations were hyperactive. Biochemical characterizations of the mutants revealed that the hyperactivity is due to a defect in communication between transposase subunits, which normally regulates transposition by reducing the rate of synapsis. This provides important clues for improving transposon-based tools. However, some WVPHEL mutants also showed features that would be undesirable for most biotechnological applications: they showed uncontrolled DNA cleavage activities and defects in the coordination of cleavage between the two transposon ends. The study illustrates how the knowledge of inhibitory mechanisms can help improve transposon tools but also highlights an important challenge...

Direct measurement of the transfer rate of chloroplast DNA into the nucleus

Huang, C.; Ayliffe, M.; Timmis, J.
Fonte: MacMillan Publishers Ltd Publicador: MacMillan Publishers Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.68%
Gene transfer from the chloroplast to the nucleus has occurred over evolutionary time. Functional gene establishment in the nucleus is rare, but DNA transfer without functionality is presumably more frequent. Here, we measured directly the transfer rate of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) into the nucleus of tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum). To visualize this process, a nucleus-specific neomycin phosphotransferase gene (neoSTLS2) was integrated into the chloroplast genome, and the transfer of cpDNA to the nucleus was detected by screening for kanamycin-resistant seedlings in progeny. A screen for kanamycin-resistant seedlings was conducted with about 250,000 progeny produced by fertilization of wild-type females with pollen from plants containing cp-neoSTLS2. Sixteen plants of independent origin were identified and their progenies showed stable inheritance of neoSTLS2, characteristic of nuclear genes. Thus, we provide a quantitative estimate of one transposition event in about 16,000 pollen grains for the frequency of transfer of cpDNA to the nucleus. In addition to its evident role in organellar evolution, transposition of cpDNA to the nucleus in tobacco occurs at a rate that must have significant consequences for existing nuclear genes.; Chun Y. Huang...

The Mu Transposable Elements of Maize: Evidence for Transposition and Copy Number Regulation during Development

Alleman, Mary; Freeling, Michael
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1986 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.73%
The Mu transposon of maize exists in a highly mutagenic strain called Robertson's Mutator. Plants of this strain contain 10–50 copies of the Mu element, whereas most maize strains and other plants have none. When Mutator plants are crossed to plants of the inbred line 1S2P, which does not have copies of Mu, the progeny plants have approximately the same number of Mu sequences as did their Mutator parent. Approximately one-half of these copies have segregated from their parent and one-half have arisen by transposition and are integrated into new positions in the genome. This maintenance of copy number can be accounted for by an extremely high rate of transposition of the Mu elements (10–15 transpositions per gamete per generation). When Mutator plants are self-pollinated, the progeny double their Mu copy number in the first generation, but maintain a constant number of Mu sequences with subsequent self-pollinations. Transposition of Mu and the events that lead to copy number maintenance occur very late in the development of the germ cells but before fertilization. A larger version of the Mu element transposes but is not necessary for transposition of the Mu sequences. The progeny of crosses with a Mutator plant occasionally lack Mutator activity; these strains retain copies of the Mu element...

Kinetic Pathway of Pyrophosphorolysis by a Retrotransposon Reverse Transcriptase

Pandey, Manjula; Patel, Smita S.; Gabriel, Abram
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/01/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.66%
DNA and RNA polymerases use a common phosphoryl transfer mechanism for base addition that requires two or three acidic amino acid residues at their active sites. We previously showed, for the reverse transcriptase (RT) encoded by the yeast retrotransposon Ty1, that one of the three conserved active site aspartates (D211) can be substituted by asparagine and still retain in vitro polymerase activity, although in vivo transposition is lost. Transposition is partially restored by second site suppressor mutations in the RNAse H domain. The novel properties of this amino acid substitution led us to express the WT and D211N mutant enzymes, and study their pre-steady state kinetic parameters. We found that the kpol was reduced by a factor of 223 in the mutant, although the Kd for nucleotide binding was unaltered. Further, the mutant enzyme had a marked preference for Mn2+ over Mg2+. To better understand the functions of this residue within the Ty1 RT active site, we have now examined the in vitro properties of WT and D211N mutant Ty1 RTs in carrying out pyrophosphorolysis, the reverse reaction to polymerization, where pyrophosphate is the substrate and dNTPs are the product. We find that pyrophosphorolysis is efficient only when the base-paired primer template region is >14 bases...

An age-of-allele test of neutrality for transposable element insertions

Blumenstiel, Justin P.; Chen, Xi; He, Miaomiao; Bergman, Casey M.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.76%
How natural selection acts to limit the proliferation of transposable elements (TEs) in genomes has been of interest to evolutionary biologists for many years. To describe TE dynamics in populations, many previous studies have used models of transposition-selection equilibrium that rely on the assumption of a constant rate of transposition. However, since TE invasions are known to happen in bursts through time, this assumption may not be reasonable in natural populations. Here we propose a test of neutrality for TE insertions that does not rely on the assumption of a constant transposition rate. We consider the case of TE insertions that have been ascertained from a single haploid reference genome sequence and have subsequently had their allele frequency estimated in a population sample. By conditioning on the age of an individual TE insertion (using information contained in the number of substitutions that have occurred within the TE sequence since insertion), we determine the probability distribution for the insertion allele frequency in a population sample under neutrality. Taking models of varying population size into account, we then evaluate predictions of our model against allele frequency data from 190 retrotransposon insertions sampled from North American and African populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Using this non-equilibrium model...

Rates of transposition in Escherichia coli

Sousa, A.; Bourgard, C.; Wahl, L. M.; Gordo, I.
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/12/2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.91%
The evolutionary role of transposable elements (TEs) is still highly controversial. Two key parameters, the transposition rate (u and w, for replicative and non-replicative transposition) and the excision rate (e) are fundamental to understanding their evolution and maintenance in populations. We have estimated u, w and e for six families of TEs (including eight members: IS1, IS2, IS3, IS4, IS5, IS30, IS150 and IS186) in Escherichia coli, using a mutation accumulation (MA) experiment. In this experiment, mutations accumulate essentially at the rate at which they appear, during a period of 80 500 (1610 generations × 50 lines) generations, and spontaneous transposition events can be detected. This differs from other experiments in which insertions accumulated under strong selective pressure or over a limited genomic target. We therefore provide new estimates for the spontaneous rates of transposition and excision in E. coli. We observed 25 transposition and three excision events in 50 MA lines, leading to overall rate estimates of u ∼ 1.15 × 10(-5), w ∼ 4 × 10(-8) and e ∼ 1.08 × 10(-6) (per element, per generation). Furthermore, extensive variation between elements was found, consistent with previous knowledge of the mechanisms and regulation of transposition for the different elements.; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada...