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NPY in rat retina is present in neurons, in endothelial cells and also in microglial and Müller cells

Álvaro, Ana Rita; Rosmaninho-Salgado, Joana; Santiago, Ana Raquel; Martins, João; Aveleira, Célia; Santos, Paulo F.; Pereira, Tiago; Gouveia, Denisa; Carvalho, Ana Luísa; Grouzmann, Eric; Ambrósio, António Francisco; Cavadas, Cláudia
Fonte: Universidade de Coimbra Publicador: Universidade de Coimbra
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: aplication/PDF
ENG
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36.17%
NPY is present in the retina of different species but its role is not elucidated yet. In this work, using different rat retina in vitro models (whole retina, retinal cells in culture, microglial cell cultures, rat Müller cell line and retina endothelial cell line), we demonstrated that NPY staining is present in the retina in different cell types: neurons, macroglial, microglial and endothelial cells. Retinal cells in culture express NPY Y1, Y2, Y4 and Y5 receptors. Retina endothelial cells express all NPY receptors except NPY Y5 receptor. Moreover, NPY is released from retinal cells in culture upon depolarization. In this study we showed for the first time that NPY is present in rat retina microglial cells and also in rat Müller cells. These in vitro models may open new perspectives to study the physiology and the potential pathophysiological role of NPY in the retina.; http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T0B-4N0X5HW-3/1/e20d17a164f9188cfb71c43dcde59534

Immunolocalization of nitric oxide synthase isoforms in human archival and rat tissues, and cultured cells

MARTINS, Antonio R.; ZANELLA, Cesar A. B.; ZUCCHI, Fabiola C. R.; DOMBROSKI, Thais C. D.; COSTA, Edmar T.; GUETHE, Liliane M.; OLIVEIRA, Alina O.; DONATTI, Ana L. F.; NEDER, Luciano; CHIMELLI, Leila; NUCCI, Gilberto De; LEE-HO, Paulo; MURAD, Ferid
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.17%
Nitric oxide (NO) exerts important physiological and pathological roles in humans. The study of NO requires the immunolocalization of its synthesizing enzymes, neuronal, endothelial and inducible NO synthases (NOS). NOS are labile to formalin-fixation and paraffin-embedding, which are used to prepare human archival tissues. This lability has made NOS immunohistochemical studies difficult, and a detailed protocol is not yet available. We describe here a protocol for the immunolocalization of NOS isoforms in human archival cerebellum and non-nervous tissues, and in rat tissues and cultured cells. Neuronal NOS antigenicity in human archival and rat nervous tissue sections was microwave-retrieved in 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 9.5, for 20 min at 900W. Neuronal NOS was expressed in stellate, basket, Purkinje and granule cells in human and rat cerebellum. Archival and frozen human cerebellar sections showed the same neuronal NOS staining pattern. Archival cerebellar sections not subjected to antigen retrieval stained weakly. Antigenicity of inducible NOS in human lung was best retrieved in 10 mM sodium citrate buffer, pH 6.0, for 15 min at 900W. Inflammatory cells in a human lung tuberculoma were strongly stained by anti-inducible NOS antibody. Anti-endothelial NOS strongly stained kidney glomeruli. Cultured PC12 cells were strongly stained by anti-neuronal NOS without antigen retrieving. The present immunohistochemistry protocol is easy to perform...

C-Phycocyanin protects SH-SY5Y cells from oxidative injury, rat retina from transient ischemia and rat brain mitochondria from Ca2+/phosphate-induced impairment

Marin-Prida, Javier; Penton-Rol, Giselle; Rodrigues, Fernando Postalli; Alberici, Luciane Carla; Stringhetta, Karina; Leopoldino, Andreia Machado; Naal, Zeki; Morseli Polizello, Ana Cristina; Llopiz-Arzuaga, Alexey; Rosa, Marcela Nunes; Liberato, Jose Lui
Fonte: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD; OXFORD Publicador: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD; OXFORD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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36.2%
Oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment are essential in the ischemic stroke cascade and eventually lead to tissue injury. C-Phycocyanin (C-PC) has previously been shown to have strong antioxidant and neuroprotective actions. In the present study, we assessed the effects of C-PC on oxidative injury induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BOOH) in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells, on transient ischemia in rat retinas, and in the calcium/phosphate-induced impairment of isolated rat brain mitochondria (RBM). In SH-SY5Y cells, t-BOOH induced a significant reduction of cell viability as assessed by an MTT assay, and the reduction was effectively prevented by treatment with C-PC in the low micromolar concentration range. Transient ischemia in rat retinas was induced by increasing the intraocular pressure to 120 mmHg for 45 min, which was followed by 15 min of reperfusion. This event resulted in a cell density reduction to lower than 50% in the inner nuclear layer (INL), which was significantly prevented by the intraocular pre-treatment with C-PC for 15 min. In the RBM exposed to 3 mM phosphate and/or 100 mu M Ca2+, C-PC prevented in the low micromolar concentration range, the mitochondrial permeability transition as assessed by mitochondrial swelling...

Caracterização bioquímica, funcional e molecular da elastase-2 formadora de angiotensina II do leito arterial mesentérico de rato.; Biochemical, functional and molecular characterization of the rat mesenteric arterial bed elastase-2, an angiotensin II-forming enzyme.

Santos, Carlos Ferreira dos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/03/2002 PT
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36.33%
Uma elastase-2 foi recentemente descrita como a principal enzima formadora de angiotensina (Ang) II no perfusato do leito arterial mesentérico (LAM) isolado de rato. Investigamos a interação dessa elastase-2 do perfusato do LAM isolado de rato (E-2LAMR) com alguns substratos e inibidores de elastases-2 e de quimases formadoras de Ang II. Os precursores de Ang II, [Pro11-D-Ala12]-Ang I e substrato tetradecapeptídeo de renina (TDP), foram convertidos em Ang II pela E-2LAMR com eficiências catalíticas de 8,6 min-1mM-1 e 5,1 min-1mM-1, respectivamente, enquanto os substratos cromogênicos N-succinil-Ala-Ala-Pro-Leu-p-nitroanilida e N-succinil-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilida foram hidrolisados pela enzima com eficiências catalíticas de 10,6 min-1mM-1 e 7,6 min-1mM-1, respectivamente. O inibidor peptídico CH 5450 inibiu as atividades da E-2LAMR sobre os substratos Ang I (IC50=49 mM) e N-succinil-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilida (IC50=4,8 mM), enquanto Acetil-Ala-Ala-Pro-Leu-clorometilcetona (Ac-AAPL-CK), um efetivo inibidor de elastases-2 pancreáticas, bloqueou eficientemente a atividade formadora de Ang II da E-2LAMR (IC50=4,5 mM). Em conjunto, esses dados confirmaram e estenderam as similaridades enzimológicas entre elastases-2 pancreáticas e a E-2LAMR. Além disso...

Increased corticosterone levels in mice subjected to the rat exposure test

Santana Amaral, Vanessa Cristiane; Gomes, Karina Santos; Nunes-de-Souza, Ricardo Luiz
Fonte: Academic Press Inc. Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Academic Press Inc. Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 128-133
ENG
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36.2%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Processo FAPESP: 02/03705-0; In recent years, there has been a notable interest in studying prey-predator relationships to develop rodent-based models for the neurobehavioral aspects of stress and emotion. However, despite the growing use of transgenic mice and results showing important differences in the behavioral responses of rats and mice, little research has been conducted regarding the responses of mice to predators. The rat exposure test (RET), a recently developed and behaviorally validated prey-predator (mouse-rat)-based model, has proven to be a useful tool in evaluating the defensive responses of mice facing rats. To further validate the RET, we investigated the endocrine and behavioral responses of mice exposed to this apparatus. We first constructed a plasma corticosterone secretion curve in mice exposed to a rat or to an empty cage (control). Rat-exposed mice showed a pronounced rise in corticosterone levels that peaked 15 min from the beginning of the predator exposure. The corticosterone levels and behavioral responses of mice exposed to a rat or to a toy in the RET apparatus were then measured. We observed high plasma corticosterone levels along with clear avoidance behaviors represented by decreases in tunnel and surface area exploration and increases in risk assessment behaviors and freezing. This strongly suggests that the test elicits a repertoire of behavioral responses compatible with an aversion state and indicates that it is a promising model for the evaluation of prey-predator interactions. However...

Cloning and expression of the cDNA encoding rat granulocyte colony-stimulating factor

Han, Sang Won; Ramesh, N.; Osborne, William R.A.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 101-104
ENG
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36.22%
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) acts on precursor hematopoietic cells to control the production and maintenance of neutrophils. Recombinant G-CSF (re-G-CSF)is used clinically to treat patients with neutropenia and has greatly reduced the infection risk associated with bone marrow transplantation. Cyclic hematopoiesis, a stem cell defect characterized by severe recurrent neutropenia, occurs in man and grey collie dogs, and can be treated by administration of re-G-CSF. Availability of the rat G-CSF cDNA would benefit the use of rats as models of gene therapy for the treatment of cyclic hematopoiesis. In preliminary rat experiments, retroviral-mediated expression of canine G-CSF caused neutralizing antibody formation which precluded long-term increases in neutrophil counts. To overcome this problem we cloned the rat G-CSF cDNA from RNA isolated from skin fibroblasts. The rat G-CSF sequence shared a high degree of identity in both the coding and non-coding regions with both the murine G-CSF (85%) and human G-CSF (74%). The signal peptides of murine and human G-CSF both contained 30 amino acids (aa), whereas the deduced signal sequence for rat G-CSF possessed 21 aa. A retrovirus encoding the rat G-CSF cDNA synthesized bioactive G-CSF from transduced vascular smooth muscle cells.

Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) location in the ventral, lateral, dorsal and anterior lobes of rat prostate by immunohistochemistry

Delella, Flávia K.; Justulin Jr., Luis A.; Felisbino, Sérgio L.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 229-234
ENG
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Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) play a major role in extracellular matrix component degradation in several normal and abnormal tissue situations; they are also found in human seminal plasma. MMPs have been found in rat prostate secretions and are nearly lobe specific in expression pattern. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether TIMP-2, like other semen components, is expressed differently from different rat prostatic lobes. Immunohistochemical staining was performed in both young and adult rat ventral (VP), lateral (LP), dorsal (DP), and anterior (AP) prostatic lobes and confirmed by western blotting. TIMP-2 expression was found in the epithelial cells in the following sequence: LP > AP > DP > VP, in both young and adult rats. In this study, 100% of adult LP presented histological signs of prostatitis, where TIMP-2 immunostaining was positive in normal epithelium even with intraluminal neutrophils, but was reduced or absent in the epithelium with intraepithelial leukocytes or with periductal stroma disorganization associated with mononuclear cell infiltration. However, TIMP-2 expression in LP was not induced by prostatitis, since younger rat LPs were also strongly TIMP-2 positive. The distal and intermediate VP regions were TIMP-2 negative...

The possible involvement of hyperpolarizing mechanisms in histamine-induced relaxation of the rat portal vein

Rossignoli, Patrícia de S.; Rodrigues, Andréa D.; Tinti, Thaís; Pereira, Oduvaldo C. M.; Ellinger, Fred; Chies, Agnaldo B.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 129-141
ENG
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The present study evaluated the effects of histamine 10 -2 M on longitudinal preparations of rat portal vein. It was observed that histamine 10 -2 M induced relaxation of rat portal vein preparations pre-contracted with phenylephrine 10 -4 M. On the other hand, no pharmacological effects were observed in preparations not pre-contracted. The observed histamine-induced relaxing effect was absent in preparations pre-contracted with KCl (120 mM) or in the presence of depolarizing nutritive solution. However, the histamine-induced relaxation was still present in the endothelium-removed preparations. The histamine-induced relaxation also was not prevented by astemizole (10 -6 M, 10 -5 M and 10 -4 M), cimetidine (10 -5 M, 10 -4 M and 10 -3 M) or thioperamide (10 -6 M, 10 -5 M and 10 -4 M), selective antagonists H 1, H 2 and H 3, respectively. The presence of L-NAME 10 -4 M or L-NAME 10 -4 M plus indomethacin 10 -5 M also did not prevent the histamine-induced relaxation observed in rat portal vein. Thus, the histamine-induced relaxation observed in rat portal vein appears to involve a non-endothelial hyperpolarizing mechanism independent of H 1, H 2 and H 3 receptors.

Immunolocalization of nitric oxide synthase isoforms in human archival and rat tissues, and cultured cells

MARTINS, Antonio R.; ZANELLA, Cesar A. B.; ZUCCHI, Fabiola C. R.; DOMBROSKI, Thais C. D.; COSTA, Edmar T.; GUETHE, Liliane M.; OLIVEIRA, Alina O.; DONATTI, Ana L. F.; NEDER, Luciano; CHIMELLI, Leila; NUCCI, Gilberto De; LEE-HO, Paulo; MURAD, Ferid
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.17%
Nitric oxide (NO) exerts important physiological and pathological roles in humans. The study of NO requires the immunolocalization of its synthesizing enzymes, neuronal, endothelial and inducible NO synthases (NOS). NOS are labile to formalin-fixation and paraffin-embedding, which are used to prepare human archival tissues. This lability has made NOS immunohistochemical studies difficult, and a detailed protocol is not yet available. We describe here a protocol for the immunolocalization of NOS isoforms in human archival cerebellum and non-nervous tissues, and in rat tissues and cultured cells. Neuronal NOS antigenicity in human archival and rat nervous tissue sections was microwave-retrieved in 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 9.5, for 20 min at 900W. Neuronal NOS was expressed in stellate, basket, Purkinje and granule cells in human and rat cerebellum. Archival and frozen human cerebellar sections showed the same neuronal NOS staining pattern. Archival cerebellar sections not subjected to antigen retrieval stained weakly. Antigenicity of inducible NOS in human lung was best retrieved in 10 mM sodium citrate buffer, pH 6.0, for 15 min at 900W. Inflammatory cells in a human lung tuberculoma were strongly stained by anti-inducible NOS antibody. Anti-endothelial NOS strongly stained kidney glomeruli. Cultured PC12 cells were strongly stained by anti-neuronal NOS without antigen retrieving. The present immunohistochemistry protocol is easy to perform...

NADH oxidase activity of rat and human liver xanthine oxidoreductase: potential role in superoxide production

Maia, Luisa; Duarte, Rui O.; Ponces-Freire, Ana; Moura, José J. G.; Mira, Lurdes
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 OTHER
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J Biol Inorg Chem (2007) 12:777–787 DOI 10.1007/s00775-007-0229-7; To characterise the NADH oxidase activity of both xanthine dehydrogenase (XD) and xanthine oxidase (XO) forms of rat liver xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) and to evaluate the potential role of this mammalian enzyme as an O2*- source, kinetics and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic studies were performed. A steady-state kinetics study of XD showed that it catalyses NADH oxidation, leading to the formation of one O2*- molecule and half a H(2)O(2) molecule per NADH molecule, at rates 3 times those observed for XO (29.2 +/- 1.6 and 9.38 +/- 0.31 min(-1), respectively). EPR spectra of NADH-reduced XD and XO were qualitatively similar, but they were quantitatively quite different. While NADH efficiently reduced XD, only a great excess of NADH reduced XO. In agreement with reductive titration data, the XD specificity constant for NADH (8.73 +/- 1.36 microM(-1) min(-1)) was found to be higher than that of the XO specificity constant (1.07 +/- 0.09 microM(-1) min(-1)). It was confirmed that, for the reducing substrate xanthine, rat liver XD is also a better O2*- source than XO. These data show that the dehydrogenase form of liver XOR is, thus, intrinsically more efficient at generating O2*- than the oxidase form...

Reactivity of the isolated perfused rat tail vascular bed

Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/1997 EN
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36.2%
Isolated segments of the perfused rat tail artery display a high basal tone when compared to other isolated arteries such as the mesenteric and are suitable for the assay of vasopressor agents. However, the perfusion of this artery in the entire tail has not yet been used for functional studies. The main purpose of the present study was to identify some aspects of the vascular reactivity of the rat tail vascular bed and validate this method to measure vascular reactivity. The tail severed from the body was perfused with Krebs solution containing different Ca2+ concentrations at different flow rates. Rats were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital (65 mg/kg) and heparinized (500 U). The tail artery was dissected near the tail insertion, cannulated and perfused with Krebs solution plus 30 µM EDTA at 36oC and 2.5 ml/min and the procedures were started after equilibration of the perfusion pressure. In the first group a dose-response curve to phenylephrine (PE) (0.5, 1, 2 and 5 µg, bolus injection) was obtained at different flow rates (1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 ml/min). The mean perfusion pressure increased with flow as well as PE vasopressor responses. In a second group the flow was changed (1.5, 2, 2.5, 3 and 3.5 ml/min) at different Ca2+ concentrations (0.62...

Gap junctions in isolated rat aorta: evidence for contractile responses that exhibit a differential dependence on intercellular communication

Christ,G.J.; Brink,P.R.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2000 EN
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36.17%
Connexin43 (Cx43) is a major gap junction protein present in the Fischer-344 rat aorta. Previous studies have identified conditions under which selective disruption of intercellular communication with heptanol caused a significant, readily reversible and time-dependent diminution in the magnitude of a1-adrenergic contractions in isolated rat aorta. These observations have indentified a significant role for gap junctions in modulating vascular smooth muscle tone. The goal of these steady-state studies was to utilize isolated rat aortic rings to further evaluate the contribution of intercellular junctions to contractions elicited by cellular activation in response to several other vascular spasmogens. The effects of heptanol were examined (0.2-2.0 mM) on equivalent submaximal (»75% of the phenylephrine maximum) aortic contractions elicited by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; 1-2 µM), prostaglandin F2a (PGF2a; 1 µM) and endothelin-1 (ET-1; 20 nM). Statistical analysis revealed that 200 µM and 500 µM heptanol diminished the maximal amplitude of the steady-state contractile responses for 5-HT from a control response of 75 ± 6% (N = 26 rings) to 57 ± 7% (N = 26 rings) and 34.9 ± 6% (N = 13 rings)...

Pharmacological characterization of the relaxant effect induced by adrenomedullin in rat cavernosal smooth muscle

Leite,L.N.; Gonzaga,N.A.; Tirapelli,D.P.C.; Tirapelli,L.F.; Tirapelli,C.R.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2014 EN
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36.2%
The aim of the present study was to determine the mechanisms underlying the relaxant effect of adrenomedullin (AM) in rat cavernosal smooth muscle (CSM) and the expression of AM system components in this tissue. Functional assays using standard muscle bath procedures were performed in CSM isolated from male Wistar rats. Protein and mRNA levels of pre-pro-AM, calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR), and Subtypes 1, 2 and 3 of the receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP) family were assessed by Western immunoblotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Nitrate and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α; a stable product of prostacyclin) levels were determined using commercially available kits. Protein and mRNA of AM, CRLR, and RAMP 1, -2, and -3 were detected in rat CSM. Immunohistochemical assays demonstrated that AM and CRLR were expressed in rat CSM. AM relaxed CSM strips in a concentration-dependent manner. AM22-52, a selective antagonist for AM receptors, reduced the relaxation induced by AM. Conversely, CGRP8-37, a selective antagonist for calcitonin gene-related peptide receptors, did not affect AM-induced relaxation. Preincubation of CSM strips with NG-nitro-L-arginine-methyl-ester (L-NAME...

Effet de l’insuffisance rénale chronique sur les enzymes du cytochrome P450 dans le cerveau de rat

Harding, Jessica
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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36.24%
Introduction: Nous avons déjà montré que l’insuffisance rénale chronique (IRC) entraîne une régulation négative du cytochrome P450 (CYP450) dans le foie et l’intestin de rat. La présente étude cherche à déterminer l’effet de l’IRC sur l’expression des enzymes du CYP450 dans le cerveau de rat. L’expression génique, protéique ainsi que l’activité des isoenzymes du CYP450 ont été analysées dans différentes régions du cerveau (hippocampe, cervelet, cortex et parenchyme cérébral) afin de déterminer l’effet de l’insuffisance rénale chronique sur le métabolisme cérébral des médicaments par le CYP450. Méthodes: Le cerveau entier de rats atteints d’IRC (induite par une néphrectomie sub-totale 5/6) et de rats témoins (laparotomie blanche) a été disséqué en 4 parties (cortex, cervelet, hippocampe et parenchyme cérébral). L’expression protéique et celle de l’ARNm des isoformes 1A, 2C11, 2D, 3A et 4A du cytochrome P450 a été étudiée respectivement par immunobuvardage de type Western et PCR en Temps Réel. L’activité du CYP3A a été mesurée par le métabolisme du DFB en DFH sur des préparations de microsomes de cerveau. Une technique de culture cellulaire d’astrocytes a été mise au point et a permis d’évaluer l’expression des enzymes dans ces cellules suite à l’incubation des astrocytes avec le sérum de rats atteints d’insuffisance rénale chronique. Résultats: Chez les rats atteints d’IRC...

Développement physiologique des voies visuelles chez le rat normal et chez celui ayant subi des convulsions hyperthermiques

Prévost, François
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.25%
Les neurones des couches superficielles du collicule supérieur et du cortex visuel primaire du rat adulte sont sensibles à de basses fréquences spatiales de haut contraste défilant à des vitesses élevées. Entre les jours post-nataux 27-30 et l’âge adulte, les fréquences temporelles optimales des neurones du cortex visuel primaire augmentent, tandis que leurs seuils de contraste diminuent. Cependant, les fréquences spatiales optimales, les valeurs de résolution spatiale et les bandes passantes spatiales de ces neurones sont, dès l’ouverture des paupières, similaires à celles observées chez le rat adulte. Ces profils de réponse neuronale suggèrent que les projections rétino-colliculaires et rétino-géniculo-corticales sont essentiellement issues de neurones ganglionnaires rétinofuges magnocellulaires et koniocellulaires. Les neurones du cortex visuel primaire du rat ayant subi des convulsions hyperthermiques présentent, dès l’ouverture des paupières, de basses fréquences spatiales optimales, de larges bandes passantes directionnelles et temporelles ainsi que des seuils de contraste élevés par rapport aux neurones du rat normal. À l’âge adulte, de basses fréquences temporelles optimales et de larges bandes passantes spatiales sont également observées chez le rat ayant subi des convulsions hyperthermiques. L’altération des profils de réponse des neurones du cortex visuel primaire du rat ayant subi de convulsions hyperthermiques suggère un déséquilibre entre les mécanismes neuronaux excitateurs et inhibiteurs de cette aire corticale. Ces résultats suggèrent également qu’un épisode unique de convulsions fébriles infantiles suffit à altérer le développement des propriétés spatio-temporelles des champs récepteurs des neurones du cortex visuel primaire.; Neurons in superficial layers of the rat superior colliculus and primary visual cortex are sensitive to highly contrasted low spatial frequencies drifting at fast speeds. Between post-natal days 27-30 and adulthood...

Histomorphologischer Vergleich der Leberpforte bei Extrahepatischer Gallengangsatresie und der Entwicklung des Gallengangsystems bei Rattenembryonen in den Carnegiestadien 20- 23 als Beitrag zur Pathogenese der Extrahepatischen Gallengangsatresie; A histomorphological comparison of the porta hepatis of EHGA and the development of the bile tract system of rat embryos in the Carnegie stages 20 to 23 as a contribution to the pathogenesis of EHGA

Bachmann, Cornelia
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
DE_DE
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36.25%
Ätiologie und Pathogenese der Extrahepatischen Gallengangsatresie sind bisher ungeklärt. Diskutiert werden virale, immunologische, ischämische, morphogenetische und genetische Ursachen. Unter dem morphogenetischen Aspekt wird vermutet, dass es in der embryologischen Phase der Gallengangsentwicklung zu einem Entwicklungsstop kommt, so dass die Gallengänge sich nicht vollständig entwickeln und auf einer fetalen Entwicklungsstufe stehen bleiben. Dieser Aspekt wurde bezüglich Pathogenese der EHGA untersucht. Verglichen wurde die Histologie der Leberpforte von Patienten mit EHGA sowie von Ratten- embryonen der Carnegiestadien 20-23. Untersucht wurde neben Morphologie und Anzahl auch die Gesamtfläche der Gallengänge in der Leberpforte bei EHGA und Rattenembryonen. Zur Beurteilung des klinischen Verlaufs wurde der postoperative Gallefluss der Patienten in Korrelation mit der Histologie der Leberpforte sowie Anzahl und Gesamtfläche der Gallengänge betrachtet. Ziel war es herauszufinden, ob die Veränderungen der Gallengänge und des Leberparenchyms Folge einer primär persistierenden Erkrankung, des biliären Staus oder Folge der gestörten mesenchymalen Proliferation sind. Das würde bedeuten, dass die EHGA ein embryonales Stadium präsentiert und somit bei der EHGA eine embryonale Entwicklungs- und Differenzierungsstörung vorliegt oder Folge einer gestörten mesenchymalen Proliferation ist...

IN SITU AND IN VITRO IMMUNOLOCALIZATION OF OVIDUCTIN BINDING SITES ON HAMSTER UTERINE EPITHELIAL CELLS AND DETECTION OF A HAMSTER OVIDUCTIN HOMOLOGUE IN THE FEMALE RAT REPRODUCTIVE TRACT

Zheng, Ying
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 17611603 bytes; application/pdf
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.24%
Oviductin is an oviduct-specific and high-molecular-weight glycoprotein that has been suggested to play important roles in the early events of reproduction. The present study was undertaken to localize the oviductin binding sites in the uterine epithelial cells of the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) both in situ and in vitro, and to detect a hamster oviductin homologue in the female rat reproductive tract. Immunohistochemical localization of oviductin in the hamster uterus revealed certain uterine epithelial cells reactive to the monoclonal anti-hamster oviductin antibody. In order to study the interaction between hamster oviductin and the endometrium in vitro, a method for culturing primary hamster uterine epithelial cells has been established and optimized. Study with confocal microscopy of the cell culture system showed a labeling pattern similar to what was observed using immunohistochemistry. Pre-embedding immunolabeling of cultured uterine epithelial cells also showed gold particles associated with the plasma membrane and microvilli. These results demonstrated that hamster oviductin can bind to the plasma membrane of certain hamster uterine epithelial cells, suggesting the presence of a putative oviductin receptor on the uterine epithelial cell surface. In the second part of the present study...

Propriétés anesthésiques et analgésiques de l’eugénol chez la grenouille (Xenopus laevis), le poisson (Oncorhynchus mykiss) et le rat (Rattus norvegicus)

Guénette, Sarah A.
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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36.24%
L'eugénol (2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl) phénol), produit dérivé du clou de girofle (Eugenia aromatica), fut tout d’abord utilisé en application topique à des fins d’analgésie dentaire. Il produit également une anesthésie chirurgicale lorsque administré en immersion chez les poissons. L’eugénol agit sur les récepteurs vanilloïdes, sensibles à la chaleur, aux protons et à certaines molécules lipidiques. Ces récepteurs jouent un rôle important dans le mécanisme de l’inflammation et de l’hyperalgésie. L’eugénol pourrait également produire ses effets par antagonisme des récepteurs glutamaergiques (NMDA) et par son activation des récepteurs GABAergiques. Considérant que l’eugénol produit des effets analgésiques et anesthésiques, des études de pharmacocinétique et de pharmacodynamie furent réalisées chez la grenouille (Xenopus laevis), le poisson (Oncorhynchus mykiss) et le rat (Rattus norvegicus). Les résultats démontrent que l’eugénol administré par immersion à une dose efficace permet d’atteindre une anesthésie chirurgicale chez les grenouilles (350 mg/L) et les poissons (75 mg/L). Suite à des analyses plasmatiques par LC/MS/MS, la pharmacocinétique des grenouilles, des poissons et des rats montre que la drogue est éliminée et qu’il pourrait y avoir une recirculation entérohépathique plus importante chez la grenouille et le rat. La longue demi-vie chez le rat suggère aussi une accumulation dans les tissus après des administrations répétées. Suite à l’administration intraveineuse d’une dose de 20 mg/kg chez le rat...

La transplantation d’hépatocytes chez le rat Long Evans Cinnamon, modèle animal de la maladie de Wilson

Vo, Kim
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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36.24%
La maladie de Wilson est une maladie héréditaire due à un déficit du transporteur du cuivre, l’ATP7B. Cette maladie se présente sous forme d’insuffisance hépatique aiguë ou chronique, pour lesquels le traitement médical actuel consiste en l’administration d’agents chélateurs, ce qui ne résulte cependant pas en une guérison complète de la maladie. La transplantation orthotopique du foie est le seul traitement définitif actuellement, avec tous les désavantages qu’elle comporte. Un traitement alternatif à cette option est donc souhaitable. Cette étude porte sur la faisabilité de la transplantation d’hépatocytes chez le modèle animal de la maladie de Wilson, le rat Long Evans Cinnamon (LEC), avec pour buts d’en déterminer la sécurité et l’efficacité tant sur le plan clinique (amélioration de la survie, prévention de l’hépatite) que pathologique. Douze rats LEC ont reçu une injection intrasplénique de 2,6 x 105 – 3,6 x 107 hépatocytes prélevés chez des rats donneurs de souche LE. Ils ont été suivis durant 6 mois puis sacrifiés. Ils ont ensuite été comparés à un groupe contrôle de douze autres rats LEC. Aucune différence significative n’a été notée au niveau du poids, du bilan hépatique et des concentrations de cuivre biliaire et hépatique. Cependant...

In utero meconium exposure increases spinal cord necrosis in a rat model of myelomeningocele

Correia-Pinto, J.; Reis, J.; Hutchins, G.; Baptista, M.; Estevão-Costa, J.; Flake, A.; Leite-Moreira, A.
Fonte: Saunders Publicador: Saunders
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2002 ENG
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36.22%
Abstract BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The rationale for in utero repair of myelomeningocele has been supported experimentally by the observation of preserved neural function after prenatal closure of surgically created defects compared with nonrepaired controls. The mechanism of injury to the exposed neural elements is unknown. Postulated mechanisms include trauma to the herniated neural elements or progressive injury from amniotic fluid exposure as gestation proceeds. A component of amniotic fluid that may contribute to neural injury is meconium. In the current study the effect of human meconium on the exposed spinal cord in a fetal rat model of myelomeningocele was examined. METHODS: Twenty time-dated pregnant rats underwent laparotomy at 181/2 days of gestation. The exposed uterus was bathed in ritrodrine for tocolysis. The amniotic cavity was opened over the dorsal midline of the fetal rat, and, under a dissecting microscope (x25), a 2- to 3-level laminectomy was performed. Under magnification (x40), the translucent dura was opened using a 25-gauge needle as a knife. Two fetuses per dam were operated on. In the control group, the amniotic fluid was restored with saline solution, whereas in the experimental group a solution of Human meconium diluted (10%) in saline was used to restore the amniotic fluid. Fetuses were harvested by cesarean section at 211/2 days' gestational age. The liveborn pups were then killed and fixed in 10% formaline. Sections 10 micrometer thick were stained with H&E and studied by light microscopy for evidence of spinal cord injury. RESULTS: Seven of 20 (35%) experimental rat pups and 6 of 20 (30%) control rat pups were liveborn. All liveborn pups had severe paralysis of the hindlimbs and tail...