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Relações raça e gênero em jogo: a questão reprodutiva de mulheres negras e brancas ; Relations of race and gender in the game: the reproductive issue of the black and white women.

Souzas, Raquel
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/06/2004 PT
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Introdução: No âmbito das discussões de gênero e raça, as desigualdades que marcam a condição da mulher, nem sempre, são contempladas, ao contrário, há uma série de discursos que visam a naturalizar diferenças, forjadas historicamente. Nesse sentido, indagar sobre o significado dessas diferenças, no âmbito da saúde reprodutiva, apresenta-se como problema de investigação. Nesse campo, decisões e arranjos reprodutivos dos indivíduos partem ou resultam em processos de negociação, não só condicionados pela realidade partilhada entre os mesmos, como pelas ações que são modeladas, segundo valores e normas sociais. Estes se caracterizam por um certo dinamismo e possibilidade de transformação e resignificação. Hipótese e objetivo: Partindo da hipótese básica de que, ao lado da reconhecida transversalidade de gênero, amplamente divulgada na literatura especializada, raça/etnia apresenta-se, igualmente, como tal, nas questões reprodutivas, no presente trabalho propõe-se, como objetivo central, analisar a questão da transversalidade de gênero e de raça, buscando reter de que forma tais transversalidades se apresentam no tratamento de problemas inerentes à área da Saúde Reprodutiva como, por exemplo...

Raça e comportamento político em perspectiva comparada: evidências de Belo Horizonte e da Cidade do Cabo; Race and political behavior in comparative perspective: evidence from Belo Horizonte and Cape Town

Bueno, Natalia Salgado
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/09/2010 PT
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O objetivo deste trabalho é discutir a relação entre raça e comportamento político, em especial o papel da raça na participação política não eleitoral (organizações políticas e ativismo político). A partir da abordagem baseada em recursos, estabelecem-se os estatutos analíticos imputados à raça através, principalmente, dos trabalhos de Sidney Verba e seus colaboradores. Para além de identificar as contribuições (e as críticas a essas contribuições) sobre o papel da raça na participação política na abordagem dos recursos, foram identificadas as proposições das literaturas sobre Brasil e África do Sul, uma vez que foram analisados os casos de Belo Horizonte e da Cidade do Cabo. Para qualificar a análise empírica, lançou-se mão da literatura sobre categorização racial no Brasil e na África do Sul, com o intuito de qualificar as hipóteses e proposições da literatura sobre raça e comportamento político a partir dos significados de raça em cada país. Em síntese, encontrou-se que, na Cidade do Cabo, a probabilidade de participar politicamente aumenta substantivamente quando um indivíduo se identifica como African, enquanto ter mais recursos como escolaridade e renda não afeta a probabilidade de participar. Já em Belo Horizonte a posse de recursos como renda e escolaridade eleva substantivamente a probabilidade de participar ao passo que a identificação racial não distingue quem participa e quem não participa. Em ambas as cidades...

Persisting problems related to race and ethnicity in public health and epidemiology research

Moubarac,Jean-Claude
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2013 EN
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A recent and comprehensive review of the use of race and ethnicity in research that address health disparities in epidemiology and public health is provided. First it is described the theoretical basis upon which race and ethnicity differ drawing from previous work in anthropology, social science and public health. Second, it is presented a review of 280 articles published in high impacts factor journals in regards to public health and epidemiology from 2009-2011. An analytical grid enabled the examination of conceptual, theoretical and methodological questions related to the use of both concepts. The majority of articles reviewed were grounded in a theoretical framework and provided interpretations from various models. However, key problems identified include a) a failure from researchers to differentiate between the concepts of race and ethnicity; b) an inappropriate use of racial categories to ascribe ethnicity; c) a lack of transparency in the methods used to assess both concepts; and d) failure to address limits associated with the construction of racial or ethnic taxonomies and their use. In conclusion, future studies examining health disparities should clearly establish the distinction between race and ethnicity, develop theoretically driven research and address specific questions about the relationships between race...

Health domains and race in generic preference-based health-related quality of life instruments in the United States literature

Pereira,Claudia Cristina de Aguiar; Palta,Mari; Mullahy,John
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Estudos Populacionais Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Estudos Populacionais
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2010 EN
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Race differences in health have been extensively analyzed and documented in the literature, especially between African Americans or blacks and whites in the United States. Despite the vast literature in the area, the majority of studies that explore the relationship between race and health use outcomes such as self-rated health, mortality or morbidity, and disability, but very few use Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) measures and their domains or dimensions. This narrative review aims to provide a better understanding of the relationship between race and health domains that are commonly used in preference-based HRQoL measures. We investigated the literature on race, physical health, mental health, pain and discomfort, cognition, neurologic spectrum domains, dexterity, ambulation, vitality and social functioning domains. We conducted a literature search and review using the key words race and the health domain of interest, using medical and social sciences databases, such as MEDLINE/Pubmed, Web of Science, and the Google Scholar portal.The majority of the studies identified in the literature show that African Americans or blacks in the United States tend to have lower scores than whites throughout a variety of health domains found in preference-based HRQoL measures. This review also emphasizes the scarcity of studies that investigate some health domains...

The concept and measurement of race and their relationship to public health: a review focused on Brazil and the United States

Travassos,Claudia; Williams,David R.
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2004 EN
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Race has been widely used in studies on health and healthcare inequalities, especially in the United States. Validity and reliability problems with race measurement are of concern in public health. This article reviews the literature on the concept and measurement of race and compares how the findings apply to the United States and Brazil. We discuss in detail the data quality issues related to the measurement of race and the problems raised by measuring race in multiracial societies like Brazil. We discuss how these issues and problems apply to public health and make recommendations about the measurement of race in medical records and public health research.

A critical discourse analysis approach to news discourses and social practices on race in Brazil

Magalhães,Célia Maria
Fonte: Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo - PUC-SP Publicador: Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo - PUC-SP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2006 EN
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In this paper I set out from Brazilian social theories on race to analyse a contemporary corpus of news reports in a Brazilian broadsheet newspaper. The aim is investigating change in mediated discourses on race. Based on Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) and with the help of corpus linguistics methodological tools I focus on lexical items used to categorise race, the semantic relations created and their association with discourse representation in the newspaper. The combined analysis of semantic relations and interdiscursivity has allowed for the perception of tensions over the use of terms from different semantic fields to categorize race and of conflicting discourses of race classification in the paper. The analysis has also allowed for a cautious interpretation of dialogicality and of different orientations to racial difference, following the social research inventories in Fairclough (2003) in the reports.

Temperature Effects on Race Determination in Heterodera glycines

Palmateer, A. J.; Schmidt, M. E.; Stetina, S. R.; Russin, J. S.
Fonte: Society of Nematologists Publicador: Society of Nematologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2000 EN
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Currently there are 16 possible races for Heterodera glycines, and these are differentiated based on ability of a nematode population to develop on a set of four differential soybean genotypes. Because results are based on numbers of nematode females that develop to a specific stage rather than on the reproductive capability of these females, race determinations based on female indices may not represent results obtained after several reproductive cycles of H. glycines. Counting numbers of eggs and juveniles, and then developing corresponding indices, would allow reproduction to be considered in making race determinations. Our objectives were to compare the present race identification scheme for H. glycines based on female indices with those using egg and juvenile indices and to examine the effect of temperature on race designations using female, egg, and juvenile indices. Race designations for H. glycines populations from two locations in Illinois were determined at 20, 27, and 30 °C in a water bath. The numbers of females, eggs, and juveniles (at 19 days) were recorded, and an index based on each life stage was calculated. Race determinations based on female, egg, or juvenile indices were inconsistent when conducted at 20 °C, which demonstrates that this temperature is not suitable for identifying races of H. glycines. However race designations at 27 and 30 °C were consistent for all three indices. This indicates that counting females...

The Religious Pursuit of Race: Christianity, Modern Science, and the Perception of Human Difference

Keel, Terence
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
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This dissertation is a work in intellectual history that chronicles racial theories within Western science and medicine. Therein, I address two interrelated questions. Firstly, has Christianity shaped modern scientific perceptions of race? Secondly, is the search for the origin of human life, vis-à-vis theories of race, a purely scientific matter or, a more basic human existential concern? To answer these questions I undertook archival research within the history of European and American racial science, analyzing contemporary scientific work, archival data of primary scientific material, biblical commentaries, literary monthlies, and early maps of the major continents. I argue that Christian ideas about nature, humanity, and history have facilitated modern scientific perceptions of race since the time of the Enlightenment. This is true despite what is believed to be the “Death of Adam” within Western science following the emergence of Darwinian evolution. In defense of my thesis I trace the currency of three ideas derived from Christianity that have shaped the assumptions and reasoning styles of early modern and contemporary scientific theorists of race. These ideas are: common human descent (derived from the Biblical creation narrative)...

La France - la race - les colonies : une analyse historiographique en trois temps

Foucher, Maxime
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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Ce mémoire a pour objectif d’analyser et de répertorier les productions historiographiques sur la race et le racisme dans l’Atlantique français au XVIIIe siècle. À travers nos lectures, nous avons pu constater que l’historiographie sur les colonies françaises, de plus en plus abondante, et l’approche privilégiant l’espace atlantique ont pris beaucoup d’importance depuis les vingt dernières années et cela a grandement influencé notre choix de diviser les productions historiographiques en trois catégories qui seront les trois chapitres de ce mémoire. Dans un premier temps, nous traiterons des travaux portant plus spécifiquement sur la race et le racisme où nous présenterons le débat quant à l’origine temporelle du racisme. Par la suite, nous présenterons certains travaux en histoire de l’esclavage dans l’Atlantique français qui relient le développement de l’esclavage et celui de la pensée raciale. Finalement, nous aborderons la question du racisme dans la métropole française au XVIIIe siècle en analysant les études qui ont été faites sur les questions des minorités noires et juives en France ainsi que les études sur la question coloniale à l’heure de la Révolution française. Par ailleurs...

An Investigation of the Role of Attention in the Cross-Race Effect: An Ecological Approach

Semplonius, Thalia
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
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The current set of studies was conducted to examine the cross-race effect (CRE), a phenomenon commonly found in the face perception literature. The CRE is evident when participants display better own-race face recognition accuracy than other-race recognition accuracy (e.g. Ackerman et al., 2006). Typically the cross-race effect is attributed to perceptual expertise, (i.e., other-race faces are processed less holistically; Michel, Rossion, Han, Chung & Caldara, 2006), and the social cognitive model (i.e., other-race faces are processed at the categorical level by virtue of being an out-group member; Hugenberg, Young, Bernstein, & Sacco, 2010). These effects may be mediated by differential attention. I investigated whether other-race faces are disregarded and, consequently, not remembered as accurately as own-race (in-group) faces. In Experiment 1, I examined how the magnitude of the CRE differed when participants learned individual faces sequentially versus when they learned multiple faces simultaneously in arrays comprising faces and objects. I also examined how the CRE differed when participants recognized individual faces presented sequentially versus in arrays of eight faces. Participants’ recognition accuracy was better for own-race faces than other-race faces regardless of familiarization method. However...

Navigating Racial Boundaries: The One-Drop Rule and Mixed-Race Jamaicans in South Florida

Placide, Sharon E
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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Like many West Indians, mixed-race Jamaican immigrants enter the United States with fluid notions about race and racial identifications that reflect socio-political events in their home country and that conflict with the more rigid constructions of race they encounter in the U.S. This dissertation explores the experiences of racially mixed Jamaicans in South Florida and the impact of those experiences on their racial self-characterizations through the boundary-work theoretical framework. Specifically, the study examines the impact of participants’ exposure to the one-drop rule in the U.S., by which racial identification has been historically determined by the existence or non-existence of black forebears. Employing qualitative data collected through both focus group and face-to-face semi-structured interviews, the study analyzes mixed-race Jamaicans’ encounters in the U.S. with racial boundaries, and the boundary-work that reinforces them, as well their response to these encounters. Through their stories, the dissertation examines participants’ efforts to navigate racial boundaries through choices of various racial identifications. Further, it discusses the ways in which structural forces and individual agency have interacted in the formation of these identifications. The study finds that in spite of participants’ expressed preference for non-racialism...

The Dutch plural society : a comparative study in race relations

Bagley, Christopher
Fonte: Published for the Institute of Race Relations, by Oxford University Press; Published for the Institute of Race Relations, by Oxford University Press Publicador: Published for the Institute of Race Relations, by Oxford University Press; Published for the Institute of Race Relations, by Oxford University Press
Tipo: mixed material
Publicado em //1973
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(Issuing Body) Institute of Race Relations.; H.D. Carberry Collection of Caribbean Studies (University of Illinois at Chicago); (Bibliography) Includes bibliographical references (p. [277]-288) and index.; (Internal Comments) Selected images from this book have been digitized as part of the University of Illinois Chicago’s Carberry Collection of Caribbean Studies, with the images and annotated notes on the editions serving as a resource for those studying bibliographic history and Caribbean Literature. In most cases, these works are restricted by copyright and so the full volumes are not digitized. Carberry Collection of Caribbean Literature (University of Illinois at Chicago)

Trinidad electoral politics : the persistence of the race factor

Bahadoorsingh, Krishna, 1938-
Fonte: Institute of Race Relations; Institute of Race Relations Publicador: Institute of Race Relations; Institute of Race Relations
Tipo: mixed material
Publicado em //1968
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(Citation/Reference) Series: Institute of Race Relations. Special series; (Issuing Body) H.D. Carberry Collection of Caribbean Studies (University of Illinois at Chicago); (Bibliography) Bibliography: p. 97-98.; (Internal Comments) Selected images from this book have been digitized as part of the University of Illinois Chicago’s Carberry Collection of Caribbean Studies, with the images and annotated notes on the editions serving as a resource for those studying bibliographic history and Caribbean Literature. In most cases, these works are restricted by copyright and so the full volumes are not digitized. Carberry Collection of Caribbean Literature (University of Illinois at Chicago)

Race and the artistry of curating in Australia

Burness, Allison
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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The curator of Aboriginal art traverses the boundaries of Euro-Australian and Aboriginal cultures. The curator must navigate the relationship between Euro-Australian art institutions and Aboriginal artists and artistic communities. Yet the contemporary effects of Australia 's colonial history permeate this relationship. The influence of Australian racial politics in the curatorial practice of exhibiting Aboriginal art is not explicit but remains invisible and transparent. Unlike historic and biological definitions of race, the term is now based in culture, which is claimed as a marker of difference. This report attempts to raise awareness of the influence of racial politics in the activity of curating Aboriginal art, particularly in Australian state and national art institutions. Currently, there is a tendency in Australia to avoid and repress issues regarding race. The tragic consequences of a history that includes scientifically defined racial hierarchies, European colonialism and Australian assimilation policies are only now beginning to be fully realised. However, the Australian public is not provided with examples of productive and progressive methods for understanding and dealing with racial difference. The refusal of Prime Minister...

COUNTERMANDING IN RATS AS AN ANIMAL MODEL OF INHIBITION OF ACTION: VALIDATION OF THE RACE MODEL

BEUK, JONATHAN
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 712514 bytes; application/pdf
EN; EN
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Executive function, the cognitive processes that allow the voluntary control of goal-directed behaviour, can be studied through the examination of inhibition of action. The countermanding paradigm has been shown to be a powerful tool to examine a subject’s ability to withhold responses to a go stimulus when a stop signal is presented occasionally. Logan and Cowan (1984) developed a race model to account for countermanding performance in humans, proposing that independent go and stop process initiated by the go and stop signals respectively, race toward a finish line whereby the first process to cross its finish line determines the behavioural outcome. The model allows estimation of the stop signal response time, a variable that is not directly observable. The race model has yet to be validated for countermanding performance in rats. Using a new rodent countermanding task inspired directly from human studies, male Wistar rats were trained to respond to a visual stimulus (go signal) by pressing a lever below an illuminated light for food reward, but to countermand lever the press (25% of trials) subsequent to an auditory tone (stop signal) presented after a variable delay. The ability to cancel a response decreased as stop signal delay increased. The stop signal response time for rats was estimated to be 157 ms...

An Examination of the Own-Race Preference in Infancy

Ziv, Talee
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
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The goal of this dissertation was to better characterize the nature of infants’ visual preference for own-race faces, and to test two theories regarding its origin. Chapters I and II assessed whether the race bias in infancy could be attributed to an enhanced ability to discriminate familiar faces. Based on this account, infants' race preference should be more pronounced for female pairs of faces, and should only arise whenever different individuals are presented across trials. In Chapter I, White 3-month-old infants saw multiple male and female pairs differing in race. Looking times revealed a significant own-race preference only when male faces were presented. In Chapter II, participants viewed different photographs of the same two Black and White faces across 8 trials. Findings still revealed a robust own-race visual bias uniquely in male pairs. Collectively, these findings provide evidence against the notion that differences in face discriminability are responsible for babies’ racial preference. Moving to the question of origin, Chapter III tested the hypothesis that the male-specific own-race preference is rooted in an evolutionary threat response. Participants were presented with male and female pairs of own-and other-race faces displaying averted eye gaze...

Race, Social Context, and Consumption: How Race Structures the Consumption Preferences and Practices of Middle and Working-Class Blacks

Pittman, Cassi
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
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The contemporary experience of race in America demands that blacks become astute observers of their surroundings, required to read subtle social, interactional and environmental cues to determine how to appropriately engage others in order to gain respect and social acceptance. Consumption objects, whether physical or material goods or services and experiences, are symbolic tools that blacks mobilize in order to define and assert themselves wherever they may be. Market research reveals that divergent patterns of consumption exist along racial lines. Blacks outspend whites in three central categories: apparel, personal care, and electronics and technology. Sociological research on consumption, however, has inadequately addressed how race influences blacks' consumption. Claims that blacks are conspicuous consumers are pervasive in both popular and academic works, and research indicates that blacks' consumption is, at least partially explained by status considerations, yet no comprehensive, empirically grounded theory exists to account for the contextually determined, symbolic and strategic use of goods by middle and working-class blacks. In my dissertation entitled “Race, Social Context, and Consumption: How Race Structures the Consumption Preferences and Practices of Middle and Working-class Blacks...

Procedimiento de optimización de los oligonucleótidos y de las condiciones de amplificación mediante PCR para RACE (5' and 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends)

Frade López, José María
Fonte: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas Publicador: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas
Tipo: Patente Formato: 232637 bytes; application/pdf
SPA
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Referencia OEPM: P200301290.-- Fecha de solicitud: 30/05/2003.-- Titular: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC).; La presente invención describe un procedimiento para optimizar los oligonucleótidos y las condiciones de amplificación mediante PCR usadas para RACE, al clonar un gen de interés/fragmento de cDNA problema en una construcción genética que incluye las secuencias correspondientes a los oligonucleótidos 5'-RACE y 3'-RACE flanqueando el sitio de clonación del gen de interés/fragmento de cDNA problema. Este procedimiento permite comprobar así la compatibilidad de los oligonucleótidos necesarios para la amplificación del gen de interés/fragmento de cDNA problema con los oligonucleótidos 5'-RACE and 3'-RACE y las condiciones óptimas de la reacción de PCR; actuando de esta forma como un proceso de control previo al experimento RACE propiamente dicho.; Peer reviewed

Race and Conversion in Late Medieval England

Whitaker, Cord J.
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 1075708 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 EN_US
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Despite general consensus among scholars that race in the West is an early modern phenomenon that dates to the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, late medieval English texts of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries expend no small amount of effort depicting the differences between people—individuals and groups—and categorizing those people accordingly. The contexts for the English literary concern with human difference were the Crusades and associated economic expansion and travel into Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa. Scholars who have argued that race is present in medieval texts have generally claimed that race is subordinate to religion, the dominant cultural force in medieval Europe. In “Race and Conversion in Late Medieval England,” I argue that race is not necessarily subordinate to religion. Rather, racial and religious discourses compete with one another for ideological dominance. I examine three texts, juxtaposed in only one extant manuscript, London, British Library, MS Cotton Vespasian E.16; the Three Kings of Cologne, the Siege of Jerusalem, and the physiognomy portion of the Secretum Secretorum together narrate competition between race and religion as community–forming ideologies in England through their treatments of religious identity and physical characteristics. In addition...

Health Disparities and Prostate Cancer: Can Educational Status, Race and Geographical Distance to Care Facilities Impact Risk and Severity on Initial Biopsy?

Gaines, Alexis Ruth
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2013
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Introduction: Prostate Cancer (PC) screening has become a controversial topic both in the United States and abroad, stimulating debates surrounding who should and should not be screened. United States (USA) population-based studies have established a link between race and PC risk, but whether race predicts PC after adjusting for clinical characteristics is unclear. In Brazil, where cancer registries are limited, underprivileged men have limited access to both education and health care due to geographic barriers. Thus, we investigated the association between, educational status, geographic distance from screening site to follow-up care facility and non-compliance with having cancer, and, risk of low and high-grade PC in men undergoing initial prostate biopsy in equal access medical centers in the USA and Brazil.

Materials & Methods: In our first analysis, we conducted a retrospective record review of 887 men (49.1% black, 50.9% white) from the Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center (DVAMC) who underwent initial prostate biopsy between 2001 and 2009. Multivariable logistic regression analysis of race and biopsy outcome was conducted adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), number of cores taken, prostate specific antigen (PSA)...