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Monitoring the productivity change of retailing stores

Vaz, Clara B.; Camanho, Ana S.
Fonte: European Workshop on Efficiency and Productivity Analysis Publicador: European Workshop on Efficiency and Productivity Analysis
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.61%
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the productivity change of stores from an European retailing organisation. The Malmquist index, complemented with bootstrapping, is used to measure the changes in store productivity between the years 2002 and 2004. It also investigates the differences between two distinct store formats (supermarkets and hypermarkets), and the impact of scale size on productivity change. This paper describes a case study of the application of the Malmquist index and bootstrapping to retailing stores. From a methodological point of view, it describes an enhanced approach to explore the relative position of frontiers from two di erent time periods, which enables determining if the frontier of one period dominates the other, or if the frontiers are crossed. The analysis of performance changes over time should take into account two e ects: the variation of technical e ciency of each store and the change in the position of the best-practice frontier. The Malmquist index correctly captures these two e ects. The variation in technical e ciency measures changes in the ability of each store to approach the best performance levels observed in the reference units. The changes in the frontier re ect technological developments in the practices of the best shops. The results of the case study showed that hypermarkets had a more favorable performance than supermarkets between 2002 and 2004. The stores improved overall productivity levels...

Variabilidade climática e sua influência na produtividade da cultura da cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp) na região norte e noroeste do Paraná; Climatic variability and its influence on the productivity of the sugarcane culture (Saccharum spp) in the north and northwest region of Paraná State (Brazil).

Domingues, Ivonete de Almeida Souza
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/08/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.71%
A atividade agrícola é essencialmente importante para o estado do Paraná, onde a região deste estudo é a porção Norte e Noroeste, representadas pelos municípios de Cambé e Mirador. Regiões estas localizadas sob solos distintos, argilosos e arenosos, respectivamente. Nessas se destacam o cultivo da cana-de-açúcar, objeto deste estudo, por apresentar condições climáticas mais favoráveis ao seu ciclo vegetativo, que tem duração que varia de 12 a 18 meses. Sendo a variabilidade dos controles do clima um fator influenciador principalmente da sua produtividade. Essa cultura exige duas estações meteorológicas bem definidas, uma quente e úmida no estádio de desenvolvimento vegetativo e outra seca ou fria no estádio de maturação. As necessidades térmicas e hídricas são em torno de 20º a 30º C e em torno de 1000 milímetros. Assim, esta tese teve por objetivo determinar a relação entre a variabilidade térmica, hídrica e produtividade do cultivo da cana-de-açúcar para o período de 1981/82 a 2005/06. Os procedimentos metodológicos destinaram-se a evolução espaço-temporal da cana-de-açúcar; à dinâmica climática dos controles chuva e temperatura; à contabilização do Balanço Hídrico (BH Normal, Sequencial e de Cultura) para EXC...

Productivity of agile teams: an empirical evaluation of factors and monitoring processes; Produtividade de times ágeis: uma avaliação experimental de fatores e processos de monitoramento.

Melo, Claudia de Oliveira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/05/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.7%
Lower cost and shorter time-to-market expectations are the major drivers of software productivity improvements. To manage productivity effectively, it is important to identify the most relevant difficulties and develop strategies to cope with them. Agile methods, including Extreme Programming and Scrum, have evolved as approaches to simplify software development process, potentially leading to better productivity. They aim to shorten development time and handle the inevitable changes resulting from market dynamics. Although the industry has extensively adopted agile methods, little research has empirically examined the software development agility construct regarding its dimensions, determinants, and effects on software development performance. Understanding this construct could help determine where to concentrate management efforts (and related financial resources) from a practical standpoint and where to focus research efforts from an academic perspective. Considerable research has been directed at identifying factors that have a significant impact on software development productivity. In general, the studied productivity factors were related to product, personnel, project, process, or organizational issues. Continuously evaluating productivity factors is important...

Creative Destruction and Policy Reforms : Changing Productivity Effects of Firm Turnoverin Moroccan Manufacturing

Hallward-Driemeier, Mary; Thompson, Fraser
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.75%
How important is firm turnover to national productivity growth? The literature points to the contribution of creative destruction being strongest in more developed countries or where market institutions are strongest. This paper looks at the case of Morocco, spanning 16 years, during which reform initiatives aiming to strengthen market forces were introduced. The paper argues that it is important to take into account i) the timing of how decompositions are structured (capturing the effects of high growth among young firms as part of the benefit of increased entry) and ii) the additional indirect impacts of firm dynamics on agglomeration externalities and competition. The paper shows there are striking differences in the productivity paths of entering and exiting firms compared with incumbents, and that restricting the time horizon of productivity decompositions to the actual year of entry or exit underestimates the productivity effects of turnover. Although it has been hypothesized that conducting decompositions over longer horizons would increase the positive contribution of net turnover...

Mind the Neighbors : The Impact of Productivity and Location on Firm Turnover

Hallward-Driemeier, Mary; Thompson, Fraser
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.71%
This paper examines the impact of firm productivity and local industrial structure on firm entry and exit in Morocco between 1985 and 2001. There is strong evidence of productivity exerting a market-cleansing role. Less productive firms are found to be more likely to exit - and locations with more productive firms attract higher rates of new firm entry. The effect of productivity operates not only in an absolute sense; a firm s relative productivity or distance to the local sector frontier matters too. First, large productivity gaps are associated with higher rates of exit, while new firms are attracted to locations with small productivity gaps. Second, local competition increases the probability of exit, although it does not encourage entry. Third, there is evidence of scale or agglomeration effects that increase firm turnover. Fourth, measures of sector diversity are not associated with lower turnover. Fifth, the geographic level at which agglomeration and competition effects are defined matters differently for exit than entry. For exit...

Exports and Productivity – Comparable Evidence for 14 Countries

The International Study Group on Exports and Productivity
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.68%
The authors use comparable micro level panel data for 14 countries and a set of identically specified empirical models to investigate the relationship between exports and productivity. The overall results are in line with the big picture that is by now familiar from the literature: Exporters are more productive than non-exporters when observed and unobserved heterogeneity are controlled for, and these exporter productivity premia tend to increase with the share of exports in total sales; there is strong evidence in favour of self-selection of more productive firms into export markets, but nearly no evidence in favour of the learning-by-exporting hypothesis. The authors document that the exporter premia differ considerably across countries in identically specified empirical models. In a meta-analysis of their results the authors find that countries that are more open and have more effective government report higher productivity premia. However, the level of development per se does not appear to be an explanation for the observed cross-country differences.

Productivity Matters for Trade Policy : Theory and Evidence

Karacaovali, Baybars
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.7%
There is a growing literature that investigates the effect of trade liberalization on productivity. Nearly all such studies assume that trade policy is determined independently of productivity, hence it is exogenous. The author shows that this assumption is not valid in general, both theoretically and empirically, and that researchers may be underestimating the positive effect of liberalization on productivity when they do not account for the endogeneity bias. On the theory side, he demonstrates that under a standard political economy model of trade protection, productivity directly influences tariffs. Moreover, this productivity-tariff relationship partly determines the extent of liberalization across sectors even in the presence of a large exogenous unilateral liberalization shock that affects all sectors. The link between productivity and tariffs is maintained after the author includes in his political economy model a learning-by-doing motive of protection, which also serves as the source of liberalization. On the empirical side, he examines total factor productivity (TFP) estimates obtained at the firm level for Colombia between 1983 and 1998, and finds that more productive sectors receive more protection within this period. In estimating the effect of productivity on tariffs...

Assessing the Impact of the Investment Climate on Productivity Using Firm-Level Data : Methodology and the Cases of Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua

Escribano, Alvaro; Guasch, J. Luis
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.7%
Developing countries are increasingly concerned about improving country competitiveness and productivity as they face the increasing pressures of globalization and attempt to improve economic growth and reduce poverty. Among such countries, investment climate assessments (ICA) have become a standard instrument for identifying key obstacles to country competitiveness and imputing their impact on productivity, in order to prioritize policy reforms for enhancing competitiveness. Given the survey objectives and the nature and limitations of the data collected, the authors discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using different productivity measures based on data at the firm level. Their main objective is to develop a methodology to appropriately estimate, in a robust manner, the productivity impact of the investment climate variables. To illustrate the use of this methodology, the authors apply it to the data collected for ICAs in three countries-Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. Observations in logarithms (logs) of the variables, and not in rates of growth, are pooled from all three countries. The econometric analysis is done with variables in logs to reduce the impact of measurement errors and allow inclusion of as many observations as possible since the "panel" data set is very unbalanced. The authors address the endogeneity of the production function inputs and of the investment climate variables by using a variant of the control function approach based on individual firm information...

The Export-Productivity Link in Brazilian Manufacturing Firms

Cirera, X.; Lederman, D.; Máñez, J.A.; Rochina, M.E.; Sanchis, J.A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.7%
This paper explores the link between exports and total factor productivity in Brazilian manufacturing firms over the period 2000–08. The Brazilian experience is instructive, as it is a case of an economy that expanded aggregate exports significantly, but with stagnant aggregate growth in total factor productivity. The paper first estimates firm-level total factor productivity under alternative assumptions (exogenous and endogenous law of motion for productivity) following a GMM procedure. In turn, the analysis uses stochastic dominance techniques to assess whether the ex ante most productive firms are those that start exporting (self-selection hypothesis). Finally, the paper tests whether exporting boosts firms’ total factor productivity growth (learning-by-exporting hypothesis) using matching techniques to control for the possibility that selection into exports may not be a random process. The results confirm the self-selection hypothesis and show that starting to export yields additional growth in total factor productivity that emerges since the firm’s first year of exporting but lasts only one year. Further...

Spatial and temporal variation in primary and secondary productivity in the Eastern Great Australian Bight.

van Ruth, Paul David
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2009
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.76%
The Great Australian Bight (GAB) was for many years thought to be an area of limited biological productivity due to a perceived lack of nutrient enrichment processes. These conclusions, however, were based on data from few studies in the western GAB which were assumed to reflect conditions throughout the entire GAB. More recent studies have reported the occurrence of coastal upwelling in the eastern GAB (EGAB) during summer/autumn (November-April), characterized by low sea surface temperatures and elevated concentrations of chlorophyll α, which suggests that certain areas of the GAB may be highly productive during certain times of the year. The eastern Great Australian Bight (EGAB) forms part of the Southern and Indian Oceans and is an area of high ecological and economic importance. Although it supports the largest fishery in Australia (the South Australian Sardine fishery, annual catches since 2004 ~ 25,000 to 42,500 t), quantitative estimates of the primary productivity underlying this industry are open to debate. Estimates range from < 100 mg C m⁻² day⁻¹ to > 500 mg C m⁻² day⁻¹. Part of this variation may be due to the unique upwelling circulation of shelf waters in summer/autumn (November-April), which shares some similarities with highly productive eastern boundary current upwelling systems...

Stylized Facts on Productivity Growth : Evidence from Firm-level Data in Croatia

Iootty, Mariana; Correa, Paulo; Radas, Sonja; Skrinjaric, Bruno
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.7%
Drawing on a representative sample of firms, this paper presents some microeconomic evidence on the productivity growth process in Croatia since the onset of recession (2008-12). Four types of results are highlighted. First, there is a persistent (and increasing) heterogeneity in the performance of Croatian firms along outcome measures. Second, Croatia lags behind regional peers in entrepreneurship measures, which suggests a comparatively lower economic dynamism. Third, the lack of dynamism displayed by the Croatian economy is confirmed when looking at the firm entry and exit process: the analytical results point to reduced firm dynamism compared with Croatia's peers in Europe and Central Asia. Fourth, the contribution of net entry to overall productivity growth in Croatia is surprisingly negative. This is contrary to what would be expected based on the literature and suggests that the process of "destructive creation" in Croatia has not been efficient, as the market might be eliminating firms that are potentially productive. Policies that foster market contestability should be pursued...

Mexico : Human Capital Effects on Wages and Productivity

López-Acevedo, Gladys; Tinajero, Monica; Rubio, Marcela
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.71%
The authors follow the Hellerstein, Neumark, and Troske (1999) framework to estimate marginal productivity differentials and compare them with estimated relative wages. The analysis provides evidence on productivity and nonproductivity-based determinations of wages. Special emphasis is given to the effects of human capital variables, such as education, experience, and training on wages and productivity differentials. Higher education yields higher productivity. However, highly educated workers earn less than their productivity differentials would predict. On average, highly educated workers are unable to fully appropriate their productivity gains of education through wages. On the other hand, workers with more experience are more productive in the same proportion that they earn more in medium and large firms, meaning they are fully compensated for their higher productivity. Finally, workers in micro and small firms are paid more than what their productivity would merit. Training benefits firms and employees since it significantly increases workers' productivity and their earnings.

Markups, Returns to Scale, and Productivity: A Case Study of Singapore's Manufacturing Sector

Kee, Hiau Looi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.7%
The results of this paper challenge the conventional wisdom in the literature that productivity plays no role in the economic development of Singapore. Properly accounting for market power and returns to scale technology, the estimated average productivity growth is twice as large as the conventional total factor productivity (TFP) measures. Using a standard growth accounting (production function) technique, Young (1992, 1995) found no sign of TFP growth in the aggregate economy and the manufacturing sector of Singapore. Based on Young's results, Krugman (1994) claimed that there was no East Asia miracle as all the economic growth in Singapore could be attributed to its capital accumulation in the past three decades. Citing evidence on nondiminishing market rates of return to capital investment in Singapore during the period of fast growth as an indication of high productivity growth, Hsieh (1999) challenged Young's findings using the dual approach. But all of these papers maintained the assumptions of perfect competition and constant returns to scale and used only aggregate macro-level data. Kee uses industry level data and focuses on Singapore's manufacturing sector. She develops an empirical methodology to estimate industry productivity growth in the presence of market power and nonconstant returns to scale. The estimation of industry markups and returns to scale in this paper combines both the production function (primal) and the cost function (dual) approaches while controlling for input endogeneity and selection bias. The results of a fixed effect panel regression show that all industries in the manufacturing sector violate at least one of the two assumptions. Relaxing the assumptions leads to an estimated productivity growth that is on average twice as large as the conventional TFP calculation. Kee concludes that productivity growth plays a nontrivial role in the manufacturing sector.

Productivity Growth and Resource Degradation in Pakistan's Punjab : A Decomposition Analysis

Ali, Mubarik; Byerlee, Derek
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.69%
The introduction of green revolution technologies in wheat, and rice production in Asia, in the mid 1960s reversed the food crisis, and stimulated rapid agricultural, and economic growth. But the sustainability of this intensification strategy is being questioned, in light of the heavy use of external inputs, and growing evidence of a slowdown in productivity growth, and degradation of the resource base. The authors address the critical issue of long-term productivity, and the sustainability of Pakistan's irrigated agriculture. To estimate changes in total factor productivity in four production systems of Punjab province, they assemble district-level data on 33 crops, 8 livestock products, and 17 input categories. They find that average annual growth in total factor productivity was moderately high (1.26 percent) for both crops, and livestock for the period 1966-94, but observe wide variation in productivity growth by cropping system. A second, disaggregated data set on soil, and water quality reveals significant resource degradation. The authors use the two data sets to decompose the effects of technical change...

Unleashing Prosperity : Productivity Growth in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union

Alam, Asad; Anós Casero, Paloma; Khan, Faruk; Udomsaph, Charles
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.73%
The analysis presented in this report assembles, for the first time, evidence from a variety of sources in the countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union to show that policy and institutional reforms are important in achieving higher productivity growth. However, significant challenges remain in sustaining that growth. Many countries that started the reform process early, such as the new member states of the European Union, have come to resemble advanced market economies and face challenges in competing successfully in the global economy that are similar to the challenges faced by other European countries. For these new European Union members, the report argues, policies that facilitate innovation and firm expansion will be a key. But for other countries that started the reform process later, such as the countries of Southeastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, there is still a need to address the legacy of transition. For these countries, policies that accelerate restructuring and ease the entry and exit of firms will continue to be essential. This report - part of a series of regional studies of the World Bank's Europe and Central Asia region that has already covered poverty and inequality...

Productivity, Innovation and Growth in Sri Lanka : An Empirical Investigation

Dutz, Mark A.; O'Connell, Stephen D.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.69%
This study investigates the impact of key business environment indicators on productivity, innovation, and growth in Sri Lanka through a cluster-level productivity analysis, a firm-level total factor productivity analysis, and a firm-level innovation analysis. For the cluster-level productivity analysis (as measured by output and value added per worker), it combines two established data sources in a novel way by importing average 'industry-size-location' cluster-level business environment variables from the World Bank Enterprise Survey to the comprehensive Sri Lanka Census of Industry productivity data available for similar clusters of enterprises. For the firm-level total factor productivity analysis, it compares data from the 2011 World Bank Enterprise Survey with those from 2004. For the firm-level innovation analysis, it compares findings from the 2011 World Bank Enterprise Survey with a representative sample of enterprises collected as part of the Sri Lanka Longitudinal Survey of Enterprises. The empirical findings highlight the importance -- for cluster-level productivity...

Decompositions of profitability change using cost functions: a comment

Grifell i Tatjé, Emili; Lovell, C. A. Knox
Fonte: Australia: Centre for Efficiency and Productivity Analysis, School of Economics University of Queensland, Publicador: Australia: Centre for Efficiency and Productivity Analysis, School of Economics University of Queensland,
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em //2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.47%
Recently Diewert (2014) decomposed cost change into the product of four drivers. He then combined three of these drivers with a novel measure of returns to scale to decompose profitability change. We use an implicit Konüs input quantity index to show that his expression for profitability change is the product of a price recovery index and an implicit productivity index, and we extend his analysis by exploiting new relationships between theoretical Konüs and empirical Fisher price indexes to obtain two new decompositions of profitability change. One pairs a Konüs price recovery index with a Fisher implicit productivity index, the other has pure Fisher structure, and we note the advantages of each.

Productivity, price recovery, capacity constraints and their financial consequences

Grifell i Tatjé, Emili; Lovell, C. A. Knox
Fonte: Australia: Centre for Efficiency and Productivity Analysis, School of Economics University of Queensland, Publicador: Australia: Centre for Efficiency and Productivity Analysis, School of Economics University of Queensland,
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em //2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.56%
Mining and fishing are both extractive industries, although one resource is renewable and the other is not. Miners and fishers pursue financial objectives, although their objectives may differ. In both industries financial performance is influenced by productivity and prices. Finally, in both industries capacity constraints influence financial performance, perhaps but not necessarily through their impact on productivity, and both industries encounter external as well as internal capacity constraints. In this study we develop an analytical framework that links all four phenomena. We use return on assets to measure financial performance, and our analytical framework is provided by the duPont triangle. We measure productivity change in two ways, with a theoretical technology-based index and with empirical price-based indexes. We measure price change with empirical quantity-based indexes. We measure internal capacity utilization by relating a pair of output quantity vectors representing actual output and full capacity output, and we develop physical and economic measures of internal capacity utilization. We also show how external capacity constraints can restrict the ability to reach full capacity output. The analytical framework has productivity change...

Regional Productivity Convergence in Peru

Iacovone, Leonardo; Sanchez-Bayardo, Luis F.; Sharma, Siddharth
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.76%
This paper examines whether labor productivity converged across Peru’s regions (“departments”) during 2002-12. Given the large differences in labor productivity across the regions of Peru, such convergence has the potential to raise aggregate productivity and incomes, and also reduce regional inequalities. The paper finds that labor productivity in the secondary sector (especially manufacturing) and the mining sector has converged across Peruvian departments. The paper does not find robust evidence for labor productivity convergence in agriculture and services. These patterns are consistent with recent cross-country evidence and with the hypothesis that productivity convergence is more likely in sectors with greater scope for market integration, because of the effects of competition and knowledge flows. The convergence in labor productivity within manufacturing and mining has been sufficient to lead to convergence in aggregate labor productivity across departments. But because services and agriculture continue to employ the majority of workers in Peru...

Structural Transformation and Productivity Growth in Africa; Uganda in the 2000s

Ahmed, Sabin; Mengistae, Taye; Yoshino, Yutaka; Zeufack, Albert G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.7%
Uganda’s economy underwent significant structural change in the 2000s whereby the share of non-tradable services in aggregate employment rose by about 7 percentage points at the expense of the production of tradable goods. The process also involved a 12-percentage-point shift in employment away from small and medium enterprises and larger firms in manufacturing and commercial agriculture mainly to microenterprises in retail trade. In addition, the sectoral reallocation of labor on these two dimensions coincided with significant growth in aggregate labor productivity. However, in and of itself, the same reallocation could only have held back, rather than aid, the observed productivity gains. This was because labor was more productive throughout the period in the tradable goods sector than in the non-tradable sector. Moreover, the effect on aggregate labor productivity of the reallocation of employment between the two sectors could only have been reinforced by the impacts on the same of the rise in the employment share of microenterprises. The effect was also strengthened by a parallel employment shift across the age distribution of enterprises that raised sharply the employment share of established firms at the expense of younger ones and startups. Not only was labor consistently less productive in microenterprises than in small and medium enterprises and larger enterprises across all industries throughout the period...