Página 1 dos resultados de 1259 itens digitais encontrados em 0.010 segundos

## Advertising new product categories to new geographical markets

Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Dissertação
EN_US
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Em um ambiente global dinâmico e competitivo, muitas empresas notam que constante desenvolvimento e lançamento de novos produtos são atividades-chave para seu crescimento e sobrevivência. Hoje, um dos maiores desafios enfrentados por tais empresas envolve saber como agir em um mundo em que tanto o escopo como a estrutura do ambiente competitivo estão em constante mudança, e em que reestruturações e mudanças de portfólio são centrais para as companhias que visam capitalizar com o crescimento global. Tanto o rápido ritmo de inovação tecnológica quando a crescente afluência de economias emergentes apresentam riscos e oportunidades para as empresas, o que torna importante não apenas que estas estejam atentas ao lançamento de produtos de última geração para mercados desenvolvidos: faz-se também necessário que saibam como lançar produtos antigos para novos mercados. Usando o mercado brasileiro como um exemplo, esta dissertação procurou estudar como multinacionais têm utilizado anúncios publicitários no lançamento, para novos mercados, de categorias e subcategorias de produtos já vendidas em outros países. Após uma revisão da literatura disponível, do desenvolvimento de proposições, e da avaliação destas através de três estudos de caso...

## On the algebraic approximation of Lusternik-Schnirelmann category

Kahl, Thomas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Algebraic approximations have proved to be very useful in the investigation of Lusternik-Schnirelmann category. In this paper the L.-S. category and its approximations are studied from the point of view of abstract homotopy theory. We introduce three notions of L.-S. category for monoidal cofibration categories, i.e., cofibration categories with a suitably incorporated tensor product. We study the fundamental properties of the abstract invariants and discuss, in particular, their behaviour with respect to cone attachments and products. Besides the topological L.-S. category the abstract concepts cover classical algebraic approximations of the L.-S. category such as the Toomer invariant, rational category, and the A- and M-categories of Halperin and Lemaire. We also use the abstract theory to introduce a new algebraic approximation of L.-S. category. This invariant which we denote by $ell$ is the first algebraic approximation of the L.-S. category which is not necessarily $leq 1$ for spaces having the same Adams-Hilton model as a wedge of spheres. For a space $X$ the number $ell (X)$ can be determined from an Anick model of $X$. Thanks to the general theory one knows extit{a priori} that $ell$ is a lower bound of the L.-S. category which satisfies the usual product inequality and increases by at most 1 when a cone is attached to a space.

## Classification of FMCG Product Macro-Categories on the Utilitarian vs. Hedonic Dimensions

Vale, Rita Coelho do; Duarte, João
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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O presente estudo visa obter uma classificação de diversas categorias de produto do mercado do grande consumo nas dimensões utilitário-hedónico, para que possa servir de referência em estudos futuros na área do comportamento do consumidor. A classificação de categorias de produto ao longo destas dimensões é de enorme pertinência, na medida em que diferentes categorias começam a beneficiar, cada vez mais, de tratamento diferencial por parte dos retalhistas, tanto ao nível do layout e materiais utilizados, como de atividades promocionais de diferente natureza. Adicionalmente, também a análise das taxas de penetração das marcas da distribuição (marcas próprias dos retalhistas) leva a crer que o estudo da natureza das diferentes categorias é um fenómeno relevante, na medida em que se registam diferenças bastante significativas entre as mesmas (TNS Worldpanel, 2013). A realização de um estudo online (n=119) permitiu a classificação de 23 macro-categorias (TNS Worldpanel, 2010) ao longo das dimensões utilitária-hedónica, podendo servir de base para estudos futuros interessados neste tipo de classificação.; The present study aims to classify several fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) macro-categories as holding more utilitarian vs. hedonic characteristics...

## The Moderating Role of Prior Knowledge in Schema-Based Product Evaluation

Peracchio, Laura A.; Tybout, Alice M.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
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Recent evidence suggests that a new product is evaluated more favorably when its attributes are moderately incongruent with an activated product category schema than when its attributes are either congruent or extremely incongruent with the schema. We extend this finding by showing that it obtains when consumers have limited knowledge about the product category. When consumers possess elaborate knowledge about the category, their evaluations are unaffected by the level of congruity but rather are influenced by their schema-based associations to specific product attributes. These findings are discussed in terms of current theorizing related to schema congruity and schema-based inferencing.

## Goal-Derived Categories and the Antecedents of Across-Category Consideration

Ratneshwar, S.; Pechmann, Cornelia; Shocker, Allan D.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
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We employ the concept of goal-derived categories and examine when and why consideration sets might include alternatives from different nominal product categories. An experiment in stimulus-based choice was conducted wherein subjects were given a large, heterogeneous set of alternatives and asked to form consideration sets. A key finding was that across-category consideration was high when there was either goal conflict (i.e., a single product category could not deliver on all salient goals) or goal ambiguity (i.e., a lack of salient goals). However, goal-conflict and goal-ambiguity subjects engaged in across-category consideration for different reasons. Goal-conflict subjects potentially could have prioritized goals and eliminated entire categories prior to forming consideration sets. Instead, they formed mixed consideration sets in the service of salient goals and postponed conflict resolution to the final choice stage. Goal-ambiguity subjects, on the other hand, considered alternatives from different categories because they were influenced by extrinsic cues (e.g., leading brand names). Implications are discussed for consideration set formation and product-market structure.

## Guidance for Product Category Rule Development

ALLACKER KAREN JOSEE; PANT Rana; MANFREDI SIMONE; INGWERSEN Wesley; SUBRAMANIAN Vairavan; SCARINCI C.; MLSNA A.; KOFFLER Christoph; WONDIMAGEGNEHU Getachew Assefa; IMBEAULT-TETREAULT Hugues; MAHALLE Lal; SERTICH Maureen; COSTELLO Mindy; FIRTH Paul; FALLAH
Fonte: Product Category Rule, Guidance Development Initiative Publicador: Product Category Rule, Guidance Development Initiative
Tipo: Books Formato: Printed
ENG
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This guidance document is a response to an internationally recognized need for additional instruction on the development of rules specific to a category of products for making claims based on a life cycle assessment (LCA). The purpose is to supplement existing standards for LCA-based claims that require the development of product category rules (PCRs) or their equivalents. The aim is that PCRs can be developed in a consistent manner and used to support claims based on multiple standards. The scope of the Guidance is global. The Guidance embodies the efforts of individuals with expertise in LCA and LCA-based product claims from more over 40 organizations in 13 countries and regions under the name of The Product Category Rule Guidance Development Initiative. The Initiative received no financial support from any standard or other product claim program and this Guidance reflects no bias toward any particular standard or program. The Guidance is intended to be a living document and we hope that it will continue to improve as the application of product claims based on LCA expands and diversifies.; JRC.H.8-Sustainability Assessment

## Developing scientifically-sound Product Environmental Footprint Category Rules: development options, challenges and implications

SCHAU ERWIN; ALLACKER KAREN JOSEE; DE CAMILLIS CAMILLO; PANT Rana
Fonte: CPM – The Swedish Life Cycle Center, Chalmers University of Technology Publicador: CPM – The Swedish Life Cycle Center, Chalmers University of Technology
Tipo: Articles in periodicals and books Formato: Online
ENG
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The Environmental Footprint (EF), launched by the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre in close cooperation with Directorate-General for the Environment, gives specific guidance for comprehensive, scientifically-sound and consistent environmental assessment of products and organisations. The EF rules are reported in two guidance documents: one applicable to all goods and services, the Product Environmental Footprint (PEF) guide, and one to organisations, the Organisation Environmental Footprint (OEF) guide. The principal aim of the EF guides is to ensure science-based decision support for industry and policy. To make the general-level EF rules more relevant and applicable to specific product categories and sectors the EF guides provide requirements to develop so called PEF Category Rules (PEFCRs) and OEF Sectoral Rules (OEFSRs). PEFCRs and OEFSRs are seen as crucial especially for consistent and robust business-to-business (B2B) and business-to-consumer (B2C) communication intended to be used for comparisons. The focus of this paper is on the PEFCRs. It highlights the key challenges in the process to develop PEFCRs and takes into account amongst others recent developments led by the US EPA in this area. When developing PEFCRs...

## DETERMINANTS OF THE SUCCESS OF GLOBAL AND LOCAL BRANDS IN LATIN AMERICA

Farías,Pablo
Fonte: Fundação Getulio Vargas, Escola de Administração de Empresas de S.Paulo Publicador: Fundação Getulio Vargas, Escola de Administração de Empresas de S.Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
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ABSTRACTThe purpose of this paper is to address the issue of the implementation of global and local brands in Latin America by drawing on contingency theory to develop and test hypotheses relating to how product category characteristics affect the success of global and local brands in the region. Hypotheses are tested using data obtained from top brands rankings reported in five Latin American markets (Argentina, Brazil, the Caribbean and Central America, Chile and Mexico). The study design considers estimating a logistic regression on a binomial dependent variable measuring whether 475 top brands are global or local brands, with product category characteristics as independent variables. Results reveal that product categories related to subscriptions, local tastes, high-tech, and global citizenship do have an impact on the success of global and local brands in Latin America.

## The development of Product Environmental Footprint Category Rules

SCHAU ERWIN; ALLACKER KAREN JOSEE; DE CAMILLIS CAMILLO; PANT Rana
Fonte: SETAC Europe Office Publicador: SETAC Europe Office
Tipo: Articles in periodicals and books Formato: Printed
ENG
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The European Commission's “Roadmap to a Resource Efficient Europe” proposes ways to increase resource productivity and to decouple economic growth from both resource use and environmental impacts, taking a life-cycle perspective. One of its objectives is to: “Establish a common methodological approach to enable Member States and the private sector to assess, display and benchmark the environmental performance of products, services and companies based on a comprehensive assessment of environmental impacts over the life-cycle ('environmental footprint')”. The European Council invited the Commission to develop supporting methodologies. The Environmental Footprint (EF), launched by the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre in close cooperation with Directorate-General for the Environment, gives specific guidance for comprehensive, robust and consistent environmental assessment of products and organisations. This is an important step forward to ensure robust decision support for business and policy. However, for to be more relevant to the situation and problems of specific product categories more specific guidance on how to conduct the EF study is required. The guides on Product EF (PEF) and Organisation EF (OEF) provide more specific requirements that need to be defined in so called Product Environmental Footprint Category Rules (PEFCRs). These PEFCRs are seen as crucial for EF studies aiming at business-to-business (B2B) and business-to-consumer (B2C) communication intended to be used for comparisons and comparative assertions. The role of PEFCRs are to increase the reproducibility...

## An examination of the within -product category versus across -product category effects of partially comparative pricing

Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Partially comparative pricing involves a featured store providing price comparisons in reference to a competitor for some products (comparatively priced products) while omitting such comparisons and providing only its price for other products (non-comparatively priced products). Barone, Manning and Miniard (2004) found that while partially comparative pricing enhanced consumers' price perceptions of comparatively priced products at the featured retailer, it had the opposite effect for non-comparatively priced products (i.e., an inferiority effect). To the contrary, it is argued that a price comparison for one brand in a product category may enhance consumers' price perceptions of the remaining, non-comparatively priced brands within the same product category (i.e., a superiority effect). This research seeks to (a) examine the robustness of partially comparative pricing's effect in an across-product category context compared to a within-product category context and (b) extend the understanding of partially comparative pricing's within-product category effect on non-comparatively priced brands by examining potential moderators of this effect: brand diversity, brand typicality, and the relative expensiveness of the brand receiving the price comparison.^ The findings of four studies provide evidence to support the presence of a superiority effect in a within-product category context and suggests that the adverse effect of partially comparative pricing in an across-product category context may not be as robust as previously thought. Although the superiority effect was unaffected by brand diversity (i.e....

## a goal based view of product evaluation

XIAO, NA
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
EN; EN
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Understanding how consumers evaluate products is of great interest to market researchers. Different approaches focus on how consumers compare, combine or process attributes (Bettman, Luce and Payne 1998, 2008; Chen and Chaiken 1999; Cohen, Fishbein and Ahtola 1972). While attribute evaluation is clearly central to these approaches, what makes particular product attributes influential to consumers’ overall evaluation of the product is not entirely clear. One of the central goals of the current work is to examine why certain product attributes are appealing or unappealing, and to explore the implications of this for product evaluation research, including work on choice and persuasion, and more focused investigations on the role of trivial attributes. I structure this framework around two broad issues: First, I suggest that product evaluation is based on an attribute’s ability to fulfill a particular goal. Furthermore, I examine the specific processes by which activated goals influence the role of product features on the evaluation of the product itself. Specifically, I suggest that goals are more likely to influence the impact of product attributes on product evaluation when goals are activated and perceived to fit with the product. Second...

## Quantitative analysis of product categorization in soft drinks using bottle silhouettes

Arboleda, Ana M.; Arce-Lopera, Carlos
Fonte: Elsevier Ltd Publicador: Elsevier Ltd
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In our daily life, we use our senses to acquire information about the objects that surround us. However, the information processing that allows for the recognition and consecutive classification of those objects into categories remains unclear. Our purpose is to analyze the categorization mechanism taking into account: (a) package visual metrics and (b) consumer perceptions of this basic visual information. First of all, we quantitatively analyzed the physical characteristics of 52 bottle silhouettes of seven soft drink categories: sports drinks, water, flavored water, sodas, fruit juices, malt drinks and tea. We found that measures of the shape of the bottles can model the membership to a product category. Our first experiment tested how accurately consumers could recognize product category from real bottle silhouettes. We found that the visual characteristics that differentiate product category silhouettes are lid width and bottle shape (body kurtosis). Our second experiment tested the capacity of consumers to recognize artificially created bottle silhouettes. When basic information, such as the product shape is modified, consumers are not always capable of recognizing its corresponding category. We concluded that the physical attributes of bottles are related to the categorization process of the bottle content made by consumers. These findings may provide guidelines for new bottle designs that capitalize on existing categorization rules based on consumer perception.

## Identifying Demand Effects in a Large Network of Product Categories

Gelper, Sarah; Wilms, Ines; Croux, Christophe
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Planning marketing mix strategies requires retailers to understand within- as well as cross-category demand effects. Most retailers carry products in a large variety of categories, leading to a high number of such demand effects to be estimated. At the same time, we do not expect cross-category effects between all categories. This paper outlines a methodology to estimate a parsimonious product category network without prior constraints on its structure. To do so, sparse estimation of the Vector AutoRegressive Market Response Model is presented. We find that cross-category effects go beyond substitutes and complements, and that categories have asymmetric roles in the product category network. Destination categories are most influential for other product categories, while convenience and occasional categories are most responsive. Routine categories are moderately influential and moderately responsive.

## Cross Product Bialgebras - Part I

Bespalov, Yuri N.; Drabant, Bernhard
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The subject of this article are cross product bialgebras without co-cycles. We establish a theory characterizing cross product bialgebras universally in terms of projections and injections. Especially all known types of biproduct, double cross product and bicross product bialgebras can be described by this theory. Furthermore the theory provides new families of (co-cycle free) cross product bialgebras. Besides the universal characterization we find an equivalent (co-)modular description of certain types of cross product bialgebras in terms of so-called Hopf data. With the help of Hopf data construction we recover again all known cross product bialgebras as well as new and more general types of cross product bialgebras. We are working in the general setting of braided monoidal categories which allows us to apply our results in particular to the braided category of Hopf bimodules over a Hopf algebra. Majid's double biproduct is seen to be a twisting of a certain tensor product bialgebra in this category. This resembles the case of the Drinfel'd double which can be constructed as a twist of a specific cross product.; Comment: 33pages, t-angles.sty file needed (in xxx.lanl). Various Examples added, to be published in Journal of Algebra

## Tensor product for symmetric monoidal categories

Schmitt, Vincent
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We introduce a tensor product for symmetric monoidal categories with the following properties. Let SMC denote the 2-category with objects small symmetric monoidal categories, arrows symmetric monoidal functors and 2-cells monoidal natural transformations. Our tensor product together with a suitable unit is part of a structure on SMC that is a 2-categorical version of the symmetric monoidal closed categories. This structure is surprisingly simple. In particular the arrows involved in the associativity and symmetry laws for the tensor and in the unit cancellation laws are 2-natural and satisfy coherence axioms which are strictly commuting diagrams. We also show that the category quotient of SMC by the congruence generated by its 2-cells admits a symmetric monoidal closed structure.; Comment: Improved version, with better results and better proofs

## $C^*-$crossed product of groupoid actions on categories

Li, Han
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Suppose that $G$ is a groupoid acting on a small category $H$ in the sense of \cite[Definition 4]{NOT} and $H\times_\alpha G$ is the resulting semi-direct product category (as in \cite[Proposition 8]{NOT}). We show that there exists a subcategory $H_r \subseteq H$ satisfying some nice property called regularity'' such that $H_r \times_\alpha G = H\times_\alpha G$. Moreover, we show that there exists a so-called quasi action'' (see Definition \ref{quasi}) $\beta$ of $G$ on $C^*(H_r)$ (where $C^*(H_r)$ is the semigroupoid $C^*$-algebra as defined in \cite{EXE}) such that $C^*(H_r\times_\alpha G) = C^*(H_r)\times_\beta G$ (where the crossed product for $\beta$ is as defined in Definition \ref{cross}).; Comment: 14 pages

## On the category of props

Hackney, Philip; Robertson, Marcy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The category of (colored) props is an enhancement of the category of colored operads, and thus of the category of small categories. The titular category has nice formal properties: it is bicomplete and is a symmetric monoidal category, with monoidal product closely related to the Boardman-Vogt tensor product of operads. Tools developed in this article, which is the first part of a larger work, include a generalized version of multilinearity of functors, a free prop construction defined on certain "generalized graphs", and the relationship between the category of props and the categories of permutative categories and of operads.

## Multitensor lifting and strictly unital higher category theory

Batanin, Michael; Cisinski, Denis-Charles; Weber, Mark
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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In this article we extend the theory of lax monoidal structures, also known as multitensors, and the monads on categories of enriched graphs that they give rise to. Our first principal result -- the lifting theorem for multitensors -- enables us to see the Gray tensor product of 2-categories and the Crans tensor product of Gray categories as part of this framework. We define weak n-categories with strict units by means of a notion of reduced higher operad, using the theory of algebraic weak factorisation systems. Our second principal result is to establish a lax tensor product on the category of weak n-categories with strict units, so that enriched categories with respect to this tensor product are exactly weak (n+1)-categories with strict units.; Comment: 47 pages. Final version, to appear in Theory and Applications of Categories

## Skew category, Galois covering and smash product of a $k$-category

Cibils, Claude; Marcos, Eduardo N.