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Dengue in the Americas: challenges for prevention and control

Gómez-Dantés,Héctor; Willoquet,Janine Ramsey
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.58%
Dengue is the most important vector-borne disease in the Americas and threatens the lifes of millions of people in developing countries. Imprecise morbidity and mortality statistics underestimate the magnitude of dengue as a regional health problem. As a result, it is considered a low priority by the health sector with no timely steps for effective control. Dengue is perceived as a problem of "others" (individually, collectively and institutionally), therefore responsibility for its control is passed on to others (neighbors, the community, municipality, health institutions, or other governmental agencies). With no precise risk indicators available there is little opportunity for timely diagnoses, treatment, health interventions or vector control (poor surveillance). Solutions only targeting the vector reduce the impact of interventions and there is no sustainable control. Without political commitment there are insufficient resources to face the problem. This paper discusses the challenges for prevention and control in the Americas.

An Innovative Approach to Enhancing the Surveillance Capacity of State-based Diabetes Prevention and Control Programs: The Diabetes Indicators and Data Sources Internet Tool (DIDIT)

Mukhtar, Qaiser; Brody, Erica R; Mehta, Prachi; Camponeschi, Jenny; Clark, Cynthia K; Desai, Jay; Friedrichs, Michael; Kemple, Angela M; Krapfl, Heidi R; Ralls, Brenda; Sekhobo, Jackson P
Fonte: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Publicador: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/06/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.54%
The Diabetes Indicators and Data Sources Internet Tool (DIDIT) is an interactive Web-based resource with information on 38 diabetes indicators (e.g., diabetes-associated complications, care, lifestyle) and 12 associated data sources frequently used by state diabetes prevention and control programs. This tool is designed to strengthen the ability of states to conduct diabetes surveillance and to promote consistency in defining and tracking indicators across states. In this way, the DIDIT supports one of the 10 essential public health services: the timely and accurate assessment of public health.

Innovative and Community-Driven Communication Practices of the South Carolina Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network

Friedman, Daniela B.; Brandt, Heather M.; Freedman, Darcy A.; Adams, Swann Arp; Young, Vicki M.; Ureda, John R.; McCracken, James Lyndon; Hébert, James R.
Fonte: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Publicador: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/07/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.61%
The South Carolina Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network (SC-CPCRN) is 1 of 10 networks funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) that works to reduce cancer-related health disparities. In partnership with federally qualified health centers and community stakeholders, the SC-CPCRN uses evidence-based approaches (eg, NCI Research-tested Intervention Programs) to disseminate and implement cancer prevention and control messages, programs, and interventions. We describe the innovative stakeholder- and community-driven communication efforts conducted by the SC-CPCRN to improve overall health and reduce cancer-related health disparities among high-risk and disparate populations in South Carolina. We describe how our communication efforts are aligned with 5 core values recommended for dissemination and implementation science: 1) rigor and relevance, 2) efficiency and speed, 3) collaboration, 4) improved capacity, and 5) cumulative knowledge.

People, Pathogens and Our Planet : The Economics of One Health

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.66%
This study aims to build on the findings from the previously mentioned studies, and seeks to provide more detailed information on the costs of the various functions and categories of expenditure involved in the establishment and operation of system for the prevention and control of emerging zoonotic diseases at country and global level. It will also seek to provide information on efficiency and effectiveness gains that will result from the introduction of a One Health approach. With these aims, the study has two target audiences: (a) project planners, who will benefit from the information of the costs of setting up surveillance and control systems to be used as benchmarks when planning preparedness and control operations; and (b) policy planners at the decision-making level, who would use the information on the efficiency and effectiveness gains to guide them in the decision-making process regarding the eventual introduction of One Health. This report disaggregates costs by task, making explicit those activities that are critical for effectiveness and identifying scope for efficiencies. The analysis draws on a range of data sources and earlier work...

Methadone treatment of injecting opioid users for prevention of HIV infection

Gowing, L.; Farrell, M.; Bornemann, R.; Sullivan, L.; Ali, R.
Fonte: Springer New York LLC Publicador: Springer New York LLC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.51%
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of oral substitution treatment for opioid-dependent injecting drug users on HIV risk behaviors and infections. DATA SOURCES: Multiple electronic databases were searched. Reference lists of retrieved articles were checked. METHODS: Because of varying methodologies of available studies, this systematic review was limited to a descriptive summary, looking at consistency of outcomes across studies. RESULTS: Twenty-eight studies involving methadone treatment were included in the review. Methadone maintenance treatment is associated with statistically significant reductions in injecting use and sharing of injecting equipment. It is also associated with reductions in numbers of injecting drug users reporting multiple sex partners or exchanges of sex for drugs or money, but has little effect on condom use. It appears that the reductions in risk behaviors do translate into fewer cases of HIV infection. CONCLUSIONS: Methadone maintenance treatment for injecting drug users significantly reduces the risk of transmission of HIV and should be provided as a component of a strategic approach to the prevention and control of HIV infection. There is insufficient evidence to determine whether other forms of oral substitution treatment also reduce the risk of HIV transmission.; Linda R Gowing...

Occupational exposure to noise: evaluation, prevention and control

Fonte: World Health Organisation; Geneva Publicador: World Health Organisation; Geneva
Tipo: Book (edited)
Publicado em //2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.61%
This book with CD-ROM is intended for occupational hygienists and other occupational health and safety personnel as an introduction to the subject and as a handbook as well. It provides an overview of the evaluation, prevention and control of exposure to noise at the workplace, with a view to preventing noise-induced hearing loss. It starts with the fundamentals of acoustics, including the quantities to be measured and their relation to the psychology of hearing. Further details are given in the following chapters on the physiology and pathophysiology of the ear and hearing. The discussion of the occupational causes of hearing loss and the impossibility to recover from severe damages of the inner ear leads to the important issue of exposure criteria. Since there is agreement that noise reduction at source is the first choice for preventing hearing loss, basic information on noise sources is given in the next chapter. The next two chapters deal with the evaluation of exposure to noise, covering strategy for noise surveys and details on the required instruments, including their use and calibration. In spite of all efforts to reduce noise at the workplace, it is necessary to monitor the indidual‘s hearing by repeated audiometry; this is covered in an extensive chapter...

Infección nosocomial de herida quirúrgica : medidas de prevención; Surgical wound nosocomial infection : prevention´s measures

González Díez, Marta
Fonte: Universidade de Cantabria Publicador: Universidade de Cantabria
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.57%
RESUMEN:Las IN son un problema de salud con una alta prevalencia y con unas consecuencias de morbimortalidad y económicas muy importantes. Existen varios tipos, aunque en este caso, la monografía se centra en la infección nosocomial de herida quirúrgica, la segunda más prevalente en España. La IHQ es un problema de salud en el que influyen numerosos factores de riesgo relacionados con el paciente y que por lo tanto no son modificables. No obstante, existen otros factores que dependen única y exclusivamente del trabajo de los profesionales de la salud, concretamente de las buenas prácticas de enfermería, pues es el personal que más contacto tiene con el paciente. Por lo tanto, la IHQ es un problema de salud prevenible y las medidas llevadas a cabo para su prevención y control constituyen un eje prioritario de atención y en las que la enfermería tiene una función principal. Con el fin de facilitar el control de riesgo de IHQ, existen guías clínicas, listas de verificación quirúrgica, protocolos estandarizados sobre preparación quirúrgica, esterilización de material entre otras medidas preventivas, que además de implantarse, es conveniente monitorizar su uso con el objetivo de confirmar su adecuación así como la detección de áreas de mejora.; ABSTRACT: Nosocomial infections are a high prevalence health problem and their morbility...

I-Move towards monitoring seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccine effectiveness: lessons learnt from a pilot multi-centric case-control study in europe, 2008-9

Kissling, E.; Valenciano, M.; Falcao, J.; Larrauri, A.; Widgren, K.; Pitigoi, D.; Oroszi, B.; Nunes, Baltazar; Savulescu, C.; Mazick, A.; Lupulescu, E.; Ciancio, B.; Moren, A.
Fonte: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control Publicador: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.51%
Within I-MOVE (European programme to monitor seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE)) five countries conducted IVE pilot case-control studies in 2008-9. One hundred and sixty sentinel general practitioners (GP) swabbed all elderly consulting for influenza-like illness (ILI). Influenza confirmed cases were compared to influenza negative controls. We conducted a pooled analysis to obtain a summary IVE in the age group of >or=65 years. We measured IVE in each study and assessed heterogeneity between studies qualitatively and using the I2 index. We used a one-stage pooled model with study as a fixed effect. We adjusted estimates for age-group, sex, chronic diseases, smoking, functional status, previous influenza vaccinations and previous hospitalisations. The pooled analysis included 138 cases and 189 test-negative controls. There was no statistical heterogeneity (I2=0) between studies but ILI case definition, previous hospitalisations and functional status were slightly different. The adjusted IVE was 59.1% (95% CI: 15.3-80.3%). IVE was 65.4% (95% CI: 15.6-85.8%) in the 65-74, 59.6% (95% CI: -72.6 -90.6%) in the age group of >or=75 and 56.4% (95% CI: -0.2-81.3%) for A(H3). Pooled analysis is feasible among European studies. The variables definitions need further standardisation. Larger sample sizes are needed to achieve greater precision for subgroup analysis. For 2009-10...

Impact of community-based interventions for the prevention and control of malaria on intervention coverage and health outcomes for the prevention and control of malaria

Salam, R.A.; Das, J.K.; Lassi, Z.S.; Bhutta, Z.A.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.62%
In this paper, we aim to evaluate the effectiveness of community-based interventions (CBIs) for the prevention and management of malaria. We conducted a systematic review and identified 42 studies for inclusion. Twenty-five of the included studies evaluated the impact of the community-based distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), indoor residual spraying (IRS), or impregnated bed sheets; 14 studies evaluated intermittent preventive therapy (IPT) delivered in community settings; two studies focused on community-based education for malaria prevention; and one study evaluated environmental management through drain cleaning. Our analysis suggests that, overall, the community-based delivery of interventions to prevent and control malaria resulted in a significant increase in ITNs ownership (RR: 2.16, 95% CI: 1.86, 2.52) and usage (RR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.48, 2.11). However, usage of ITNs was limited to two-thirds of the population who owned them. Community-based strategies also led to a significant decrease in parasitemia (RR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.42, 0.74), malaria prevalence (RR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.73), malaria incidence (RR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.90), and anemia prevalence (RR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.97). We found a non-significant impact on splenomegaly...

The conceptual framework and assessment methodology for the systematic reviews of community-based interventions for the prevention and control of infectious diseases of poverty

Lassi, Z.S.; Salam, R.A.; Das, J.K.; Bhutta, Z.A.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.58%
This paper describes the conceptual framework and the methodology used to guide the systematic reviews of community-based interventions (CBIs) for the prevention and control of infectious diseases of poverty (IDoP). We adapted the conceptual framework from the 3ie work on the 'Community-Based Intervention Packages for Preventing Maternal Morbidity and Mortality and Improving Neonatal Outcomes' to aid in the analyzing of the existing CBIs for IDoP. The conceptual framework revolves around objectives, inputs, processes, outputs, outcomes, and impacts showing the theoretical linkages between the delivery of the interventions targeting these diseases through various community delivery platforms and the consequent health impacts. We also describe the methodology undertaken to conduct the systematic reviews and the meta-analyses.; Zohra S Lassi, Rehana A Salam, Jai K Das and Zulfiqar A Bhutta; This article is part of the series Community-Based Interventions for the Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases of Poverty.

Prevention and Control of Selected Chronic NCDs in Sri Lanka : Policy Options and Action

Engelgau, Michael; Okamoto, Kyoko; Navaratne, Kumari Vinodhani; Gopalan, Sundararajan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.63%
Strategic decisions to reorient population-based prevention and clinic- and hospital-based care policies toward non-communicable diseases (NCDs) will enable healthier aging and reduce loss of productivity among the working-age population in Sri Lanka. This report aims to stimulate policy dialogue for NCDs and to provide an evidence base to facilitate decisions. Its focus is mainly on chronic NCDs-that is, cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, and asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and to a lesser extent cancer-and their major modifiable risk factors (tobacco use, unhealthy diet, lack of exercise, and harmful alcohol use). This is not to detract, though, from the importance of injuries and mental health since both are major issues that carry a huge burden, as supported by evidence in this report. Several major areas for policies and actions emerged from the analysis of Sri Lanka's health sector organization and capacity as well as its NCD orientation. Some areas are not specific to NCDs but...

Estudo da adesão às estratégias de prevenção e controle do linfedema em mastectomizadas; Adherence to lymphedema prevention and control strategies in mastectomized women; Estudio de adhesión a las estrategias de prevención y control del linfedema en mastectomizadas

PANOBIANCO, Marislei Sanches; PARRA, Mariana Vendrami; ALMEIDA, Ana Maria de; PRADO, Maria Antonieta Spinoso; MAGALHÃES, Paola Alexandria Pinto de
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.65%
Estudo transversal, descritivo e quantitativo, com o objetivo de identificar a adesão às estratégias para prevenção e tratamento de linfedema e relacioná-la à ocorrência do edema do membro superior homolateral à cirurgia, em mulheres mastectomizadas. O estudo foi realizado no Núcleo de Ensino Pesquisa e Assistência na Reabilitação de Mastectomizadas (REMA), da Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto/USP, entre 5 de fevereiro e 29 de junho de 2007. Participaram 65 mulheres, que responderam questionário elaborado de acordo com a literatura pertinente à prevenção e controle do linfedema pós-mastectomia. Os resultados mostraram que as mulheres têm conhecimento sobre as estratégias de prevenção e controle do linfedema pós-cirurgia para o câncer de mama, porém, grande parte delas não têm consciência da necessidade e importância da aplicabilidade de tais estratégias. Conclui-se que são necessários esclarecimentos convincentes dessa necessidade de adesão às estratégias de prevenção e controle, diante da gravidade das complicações devidas ao linfedema.; This cross-sectional, descriptive and quantitative study aimed to identify adherence to lymphedema prevention and treatment strategies and relate it with the occurrence of upper limb edema on the same side of the surgery among mastectomized women. The study was carried out in the Teaching...

The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network

Harris, Jeffrey R; Brown, Pamela K; Steven, Coughlin; Wilson, Katherine; Fernandez, Maria E; Hebert, James R; Kerner, Jon; Prout, Marianne; Schwartz, Randy; Simoes, Eduardo J; White, Carol
Fonte: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Publicador: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/12/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.68%
The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network is a national network recently established to focus on developing new interventions and disseminating and translating proven interventions into practice to reduce cancer burden and disparities, especially among minority and medically underserved populations. Jointly funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute, the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network consists of sites administered through Prevention Research Centers funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The five sites are located in Kentucky, Massachusetts, South Carolina, Texas, Washington State, and West Virginia. The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network's intervention areas include primary prevention of cancer through healthy eating, physical activity, sun avoidance, tobacco control, and early detection of cancer through screening. The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network uses the methods of community-based participatory research and seeks to build on the cancer-relevant systematic reviews of the Guide to Community Preventive Services. Initial foci for the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network's research work groups include projects to increase screening for breast...

Medidas de prevenção e controle de infecções urinarias hospitalares em hospitais da cidade de São Paulo; Methods of prevention and control of Hospital Urinaty tract acquired infection in hospitals of the city of São Paulo

Penteado, Maridalva Souza
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Enfermagem Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Enfermagem
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/04/1997 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.63%
Trata-se de parte de estudo onde avalia-se o conhecimento e a prática de enfermeiros e ocupacionais de enfermagem em relação a medidas de prevenção e controle de infecções hospitalares em vinte e nove hospitais gerais, da cidade de São Paulo. Objetiva, além de avaliar o conhecimento e a prática acerca das medidas de prevenção e controle das infecções, investigar se existem diferenças entre os níveis de conhecimento e de atuação prática dos enfermeiros e ocupacionais de enfermagem, quando lotados em diferentes grupos de hospitais: hospitais públicos com serviço de prevenção e controle de infecções hospitalares; hospitais públicos sem serviço de prevenção e controle de infecções hospitalares; hospitais privados com serviço e privados sem o referido serviço. Constata-se que existem lacunas no que se refere ao conhecimento e a prática acerca das medidas de prevenção e controle das infecções estudadas e que embora se detectem diferenças significativas para o conhecimento e a prática dos profissionais e ocupacionais de enfermagem, quando lotados em diferentes grupos de hospitais, a análise de perguntas isoladas nem sempre distingue, com significância, os mesmos grupos.; Theorectical knowledge and practical ability of nurses and nursing auxiliaries regarding methods of prevention and control of hospital acquired urinary tract aquired infection are studied in 29 hospitals of São Paulo. For this it was filled a form with questions constructed with questions for the correct form of prevention and control of urinary tract acquired infection...

Hospital infection at school hospitals: an analysis of its control; Infección hospitalaria en los hospitales de enseñanza: análisis crítico sobre su control; Infecção hospitalar nos hospitais escola: uma análise sobre seu controle

Pereira, Milca Severino; Moriya, Tokico Murakawa; Gir, Elucir
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/1996 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.61%
The purpose of this study is to identify methodologies of vigilance and-hospital infection control, to analyze nurse's actuation in the context of hospital infection control and to associate nurse's actuation on the control of hospital infection and the execution of nursing process. It is an analytic-descriptive study developed at 81 Commissions of Hospital infection Control (CCIH) at School Hospitals from 21 Brazilian states through a questionnaire, The variables studied were: characteristics and functioning of CCIH; criteria to diagnose hospital infection; methods of data collection; types of epidemiological vigilance, prevention and control measures and nurse's participation. The analysis of data was qualitative and quantitative. The results showed that in the collection of data prevailed general vigilance (66, 6%) and the association of passive and active methods (48, 4%); 67 CCIH mentioned measures of prevention and control, related to urinary tract (54 CCIH) and to respiratory tract (21 CCIH). The antimicrobian control distinguishing the lack of resonance between the CCIH and the units personnel brings to the conclusion that the problems of hospital infection control are, in their essence, of philosophical, educational or administrative character. Authors evidenced the importance of the implementation of methodologies to facilitate the control of hospital infection...

An intersectoral strategy for dengue control in Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais), Brazil; Estratégia intersetorial para o controle da dengue em Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais), Brasil

Freitas, Rosiene Maria de; Rodrigues, Celeste de Souza; Almeida, Maria Cristina de Mattos
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2011 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.53%
Os altos índices larvários e a complexidade dos fatores ambientais relacionados à proliferação e sobrevivência do Aedes aegypti levaram a Prefeitura de Belo Horizonte a adotar políticas integradas e agregar parceiros para a definição de ações que possibilitem resultados mais efetivos no controle da dengue, instituindo o Grupo Executivo para o Controle da Dengue - GECD. Esse artigo traz um estudo descritivo que analisa os documentos do GECD - atas, relatórios, avaliações - e descreve as intervenções, em 2007 e 2008, resultantes em: mutirões de limpeza; mobilização da sociedade civil; intensificação de ações de fiscalização; atividades em escolas; comunicação; articulação com empresas privadas, órgãos estaduais e federais; assistência. A experiência de Belo Horizonte, com o fortalecimento do espaço interno de discussão, possibilitou a tomada de decisões de forma mais ágil e o avanço na implementação das ações de prevenção e controle. Possibilitou a emergência de questões e desafios a serem enfrentados para o desenvolvimento da gestão intersetorial no controle da dengue.; The high larvae rates found in the city of Belo Horizonte (Southeastern Brazil) and the complexity of environmental factors related to Aedes aegypti proliferation and survival led the municipal government authorities to adopt integrated policies and add partners to define effective actions for dengue control...

The meaning and consequences of tuberculosis for an at-risk urban group in Ecuador

Armijos,Rodrigo X.; Weigel,M. Margaret; Qincha,Matilde; Ulloa,Bernarda
Fonte: Organización Panamericana de la Salud Publicador: Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.51%
OBJECTIVE: To explore knowledge, beliefs, perceptions, and attitudes about tuberculosis (TB) in a high-risk group in Ecuador. This included signs and symptoms, causation, transmission, treatment, treatment adherence, impact on lifestyle and role functioning, and stigma. METHODS: A convenience sample of 212 adults undergoing diagnostic TB testing at a public health facility in Quito, Ecuador, was recruited for the study. Data were collected from subjects during face-to-face interviews using a structured instrument containing closed and open-ended questions. Descriptive and bivariate statistics were used for quantitative analyses; content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. RESULTS: Most subjects were familiar with TB and some of its characteristics and treatment aspects. However, many also held misconceptions or lacked key knowledge which could adversely affect early diagnosis and treatment and adherence to treatment, and thereby allow the disease to spread. Subject education was the single most important predictor of knowledge, beliefs, perceptions, and attitudes followed by gender, age, and prior disease experience. The subjects linked TB to multiple adverse health, economic, psychological, and social consequences, including stigma. Although none knew if they had TB when interviewed...

Chronic respiratory diseases in developing countries: the burden and strategies for prevention and management

Aït-Khaled,Nadia; Enarson,Donald; Bousquet,Jean
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.56%
In developing countries, chronic respiratory diseases represent a challenge to public health because of their frequency, severity, projected trends, and economic impact. Health care planners, for example, are faced with a dramatic increase in tobacco use and must establish priorities for the allocation of limited resources. Nevertheless, smoking prevention and standardized management programmes for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease should be implemented in developing countries whenever possible. International measures will be required to reverse tobacco smoking trends, and international agencies could define essential drugs and equipment and encourage the use of generic drugs, particularly for corticosteroids inhaled at high dosages. For such programmes to be effective, producers of high-quality generics will need to be identified, and the medications added to national lists of essential drugs and included in procurement procedures. Other recommendations for alleviating the burden of chronic respiratory diseases in developing countries are: adapting guidelines to local contexts and ensuring their distribution; upgrading equipment at district level; purchasing high-quality drugs at low prices; routine training and supervision of health services personnel; and regular monitoring of performance. Social mobilization by professional societies...

Prevention and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in resource-limited settings

Hogan,Daniel R.; Salomon,Joshua A.
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.63%
Strategies for confronting the epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) have included a range of different approaches that focus on prevention and treatment. However, debate persists over what levels of emphasis are appropriate for the different components of the global response. This paper presents an overview of this debate and briefly summarizes the evidence on a range of interventions designed to prevent the spread of HIV infection, paying particular attention to voluntary counselling and testing, treatment for sexually transmitted infections and prevention of mother-to-child transmission. We also review the experience with antiretroviral therapy to date in terms of response rates and survival rates, adherence, drug resistance, behavioural change and epidemiological impact. Although various studies have identified strategies with proven effectiveness in reducing the risks of HIV infection and AIDS mortality, considerable uncertainties remain. Successful integration of treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS will require a balanced approach and rigorous monitoring of the impact of programmes in terms of both individual and population outcomes.

Dengue in the Americas: challenges for prevention and control

Gómez-Dantés,Héctor; Willoquet,Janine Ramsey
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.58%
Dengue is the most important vector-borne disease in the Americas and threatens the lifes of millions of people in developing countries. Imprecise morbidity and mortality statistics underestimate the magnitude of dengue as a regional health problem. As a result, it is considered a low priority by the health sector with no timely steps for effective control. Dengue is perceived as a problem of "others" (individually, collectively and institutionally), therefore responsibility for its control is passed on to others (neighbors, the community, municipality, health institutions, or other governmental agencies). With no precise risk indicators available there is little opportunity for timely diagnoses, treatment, health interventions or vector control (poor surveillance). Solutions only targeting the vector reduce the impact of interventions and there is no sustainable control. Without political commitment there are insufficient resources to face the problem. This paper discusses the challenges for prevention and control in the Americas.