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"A influência da cultura no comportamento de prevenção do câncer" ; The influence of the culture on the cancer prevention behavior.

Cestari, Maria Elisa Wotzasek
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/02/2005 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.39%
O objetivo deste estudo foi apreender as idéias de prevenção do câncer, de um grupo específico de pessoas cadastradas no programa nacional de prevenção, sob o seu ponto de vista, tendo como referencial a cultura, baseada na antropologia médica e interpretativa. Nessa perspectiva, este estudo foi desenvolvido segundo a abordagem metodológica qualitativa, especificamente a do método etnográfico, usando-se a técnica do estudo de caso. Os sujeitos do estudo foram nove mulheres que realizaram o exame de prevenção do câncer do colo do útero, no período de janeiro a dezembro de 2003, em uma Unidade Básica de Saúde do Norte do Paraná. Os dados foram coletados por entrevistas semi-estruturadas e observação. Na análise dos dados encontramos quatro unidades de significação: o câncer e sua etiologia; a importância da prevenção, as formas de prevenção e os fatores que motivam e desmotivam esta prática; o impacto dos profissionais de saúde nos comportamentos de prevenção do câncer e o que realmente previne o câncer. Percebemos uma aproximação do conhecimento leigo com o conhecimento do modelo biomédico em algumas unidades. Encontramos a crença de que o câncer é uma doença fatal, cercada de estigmas. As formas de prevenção apreendidas foram: realização de exames periódicos; alimentação saudável; comportamento sexual e reprodutivo seguro; abstinência do tabaco; cuidados com o sol; terapias alternativas e não fazer nada. Os fatores considerados motivadores do comportamento de prevenção foram: os meios de comunicação; os profissionais de saúde; o contato com pessoas com câncer; o autocuidado; a facilidade de acesso aos exames; o medo; o dever de consciência e a habituação. Entre os fatores desmotivadores...

Prevenção da doença renal crônica: intervenção na prática assistencial em uma equipe de saúde da família; Prevention of Chronic Kidney Disease: Intervention in the care practice of a Family Health Team.

Travagim, Darlene Suellen Antero
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/08/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.36%
Introdução: A Doença Renal Crônica (DRC) possui múltiplos fatores de risco, revelando a necessidade de uma abordagem integral e interdisciplinar e sendo imprescindível a atuação dos profissionais da Atenção Básica à Saúde (ABS) para sua detecção precoce. A preparação desses profissionais torna-se prioridade para o estabelecimento da prevenção da DRC. Objetivos: Identificar os problemas prioritários em relação à prevenção da DRC, destacados pela equipe de saúde da atenção básica, na qual o enfermeiro se insere; implementar um plano de ação organizado pela equipe de saúde e pesquisadores que busca solucionar os problemas identificados sobre a prevenção da DRC; avaliar as ações relacionadas à prevenção da DRC realizadas junto à equipe participante da pesquisa. Percurso Metodológico: Foi utilizada a abordagem metodológica qualitativa baseada na pesquisa-ação, sendo que, na coleta de dados, foram utilizadas a técnica de observação participante e a entrevista semiestruturada. A coleta de dados foi realizada com 11 profissionais de uma equipe de saúde da família da região oeste de Ribeirão Preto/SP, entre maio e julho de 2011. A análise dos dados resultante das observações e das entrevistas foi feita por meio da Análise de Conteúdo Temática de Minayo. Baseando-se nos problemas prioritários levantados...

Direito penal e prevenção criminal: as experiências de São Paulo e Nova Iorque; Criminal law and criminal prevention: the measures implemented in the São Paulo and New York

Vilardi, Rodrigo Garcia
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/05/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.35%
A presente tese tem por objetivo investigar a relação entre o Direito Penal e a prevenção criminal, especialmente, no que se refere à possibilidade de construção de uma Política Criminal, fundada em conhecimentos produzidos pela Criminologia, que seja consentânea com os princípios e garantias do Direito Penal. No primeiro capítulo é apresentada a premissa de que a missão única e exclusiva do Direito Penal em um Estado Democrático de Direito deve ser a de proteger bens jurídicos que sejam valiosos para a preservação de uma determinada sociedade. Essa missão atribuída ao Direito Penal deve considerar os relevantes argumentos apresentados durante os debates realizados no âmbito das teorias da pena. Neste sentido, em que pese a existência de relevantes posicionamentos agnósticos e retributivos em relação à sanção e ao próprio Direito Penal, o conceito de prevenção criminal limitada ainda se apresenta como o mais apto a equacionar os desafios inerentes ao ius puniendi, assim como fundamentálo. Mais do que um sistema teórico complexo, no segundo capítulo visa-se demonstrar como este conceito pode ser viabilizado a partir da construção de uma Política Criminal que, não limitada às respostas jurídico-penais...

Camisinha, homoerotismo e os discursos da prevenção de HIV/aids; Condom, homoeroticism and discourses on HIV/AIDS prevention

Pinheiro, Thiago Félix
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/06/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%
A proposição inicial do uso de camisinha como prevenção de HIV/aids está vinculada à noção de sexo seguro, desenvolvida pela comunidade gay estadunidense no início da década de 1980. No Brasil, o sexo seguro foi incorporado nas primeiras respostas à epidemia e, com o desenvolvimento das ações preventivas, a camisinha foi adotada como a principal estratégia de proteção contra a transmissão do HIV por via sexual. Atualmente, o segmento populacional composto por gays e outros homens que fazem sexo com homens (HSH) configura um dos focos de concentração da epidemia e, portanto, um dos públicos-chave para o direcionamento da prevenção. Este trabalho tem como objetivo recuperar os discursos acerca da camisinha como estratégia de prevenção de HIV/aids entre gays/HSH, construídos pela política pública de saúde e pelos movimentos sociais no Brasil, buscando compreender seus significados no contexto dos impasses enfrentados pela prevenção ao longo de sua história. O estudo é fundamentado nas abordagens construcionistas da sexualidade e utiliza como referências a perspectiva da vulnerabilidade e a teoria dos scripts sexuais. Trata-se de investigação qualitativa, realizada com base em entrevistas em profundidade com 13 pessoas que mantêm/mantiveram envolvimento significativo com o enfrentamento da epidemia de HIV/aids no país e/ou com a reflexão acerca das questões relativas à prevenção...

Missed opportunities for congenital syphilis and HIV perinatal transmission prevention

Rodrigues,Celeste Souza; Guimarães,Mark Drew Crosland; César,Cibele Comini
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2008 EN
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OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of missed opportunities for congenital syphilis and HIV prevention in pregnant women who had access to prenatal care and to assess factors associated to non-testing of these infections. METHODS: Cross-sectional study comprising a randomly selected sample of 2,145 puerperal women who were admitted in maternity hospitals for delivery or curettage and had attended at least one prenatal care visit, in Brazil between 1999 and 2000. No syphilis and/or anti-HIV testing during pregnancy was a marker for missed prevention opportunity. Women who were not tested for either or both were compared to those who had at least one syphilis and one anti-HIV testing performed during pregnancy (reference category). The prevalence of missed prevention opportunity was estimated for each category with 95% confidence intervals. Factors independently associated with missed prevention opportunity were assessed through multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of missed prevention opportunity for syphilis or anti-HIV was 41.2% and 56.0%, respectively. The multivariate analysis showed that race/skin color (non-white), schooling (<8 years), marital status (single), income (<3 monthly minimum wages), having sex during pregnancy...

A Public Health Approach to Eating Disorders Prevention: It’s Time for Public Health Professionals to Take a Seat at the Table

Austin, Sydney Bryn
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Background: The societal burden of eating disorders is clear, and though there is a compelling need for a public health approach to eating disorders prevention, public health professionals have yet to take up the challenge. Discussion: The article lays out an argument for what steps need to be taken to bring a public health approach to eating disorders prevention. First, stock is taken of what the field has achieved so far, using tools from the prevention science literature, and, second, a research plan of action is offered that plays to the unique strengths of public health, drawing on a triggers-to-action framework from public health law. Minimal participation was found from public health professionals in eating disorders prevention research, and the vast majority of prevention research to date was found to be concentrated within the disciplines of psychology and psychiatry. Extreme disciplinary concentration of the research has led to a preponderance of individually targeted prevention strategies with little research focused on environmental targets, particularly at the macro level. New environmental initiatives are now emerging, such as a government-sponsored mass media anti-dieting campaign, and legal bans on extremely thin models in advertising...

Developing and implementing an integrated delirium prevention system of care: a theory driven, participatory research study

Godfrey, Mary; Smith, Jane; Green, John; Cheater, Francine; Inouye, Sharon K; Young, John B
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Background: Delirium is a common complication for older people in hospital. Evidence suggests that delirium incidence in hospital may be reduced by about a third through a multi-component intervention targeted at known modifiable risk factors. We describe the research design and conceptual framework underpinning it that informed the development of a novel delirium prevention system of care for acute hospital wards. Particular focus of the study was on developing an implementation process aimed at embedding practice change within routine care delivery. Methods: We adopted a participatory action research approach involving staff, volunteers, and patient and carer representatives in three northern NHS Trusts in England. We employed Normalization Process Theory to explore knowledge and ward practices on delirium and delirium prevention. We established a Development Team in each Trust comprising senior and frontline staff from selected wards, and others with a potential role or interest in delirium prevention. Data collection included facilitated workshops, relevant documents/records, qualitative one-to-one interviews and focus groups with multiple stakeholders and observation of ward practices. We used grounded theory strategies in analysing and synthesising data. Results: Awareness of delirium was variable among staff with no attention on delirium prevention at any level; delirium prevention was typically neither understood nor perceived as meaningful. The busy...

La régulation autonome du myocarde et les performances cognitives sont-elles des outils valides de prévention du surentraînement ?

Dupuy, Olivier (OD)
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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Le syndrome du surentraînement survient généralement suite à un haut degré de stress, associé ou non, au stress de l’entraînement et à un manque certain de repos et de récupération. La manifestation d’un tel syndrome peut être lourd de conséquences tant sur le plan médical que sur le plan social et économique. Il est donc important à ce jour, de valider des outils de prévention pertinents. Plusieurs théories ont donc tenté de déterminer l’avènement du surentraînement et d’en extraire des outils de prévention valides. Néanmoins, nos connaissances à ce sujet restent encore parcellaires. Malgré tout, deux axes de recherches nous permettraient d’accéder à des outils non-invasifs et accessibles. Les mesures de la régulation autonome du myocarde semblent être, depuis les résultats très encourageants de Bosquet et al (2008), des outils très prometteurs. De même, l’utilisation des performances cognitives pourraient être des outils très intéressants dans la prévention du surentraînement (Nederhof et al. 2006, Dupuy et al. 2010). Dans une perspective holistique, le modèle de Thayer et al (2009), nous permettrait d’intégrer l’utilisation combinée des performances cognitives aux indices de la variabilité de la fréquence cardiaque. Dans une démarche de validation il est également nécessaire de connaitre la sensibilité de ces techniques. Or à ce jour la reproductibilité des indices de la réactivation parasympathique ; technique relativement récente...

Prévention de l’asthme professionnel : nouvelles perspectives

Pralong, Jacques-André
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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36.35%
L’asthme professionnel est une maladie fréquente, qui coûte cher, qui touche des travailleurs jeunes, dont le diagnostic est difficile et avec d’importantes conséquences socio-économiques. La prévention occupe une place centrale dans la gestion de l’asthme professionnel, d’un point de vue de santé publique. Ce mémoire de maîtrise présente trois articles rapportant des développements récents en matière de prévention de l’asthme professionnel. Tout d’abord, une revue de la littérature sur les agents sensibilisants de bas poids moléculaire dans l’asthme professionnel entre 2000 et 2010 recense 41 nouveaux agents et insiste sur l’importance de mettre à jour régulièrement les bases de données afin d’améliorer la prévention primaire. Ensuite, basé sur un cas clinique, la deuxième publication présente l’utilité potentielle du modèle d’analyse de risque QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship) dans le processus diagnostique de l’asthme professionnel, notamment lors d’une exposition multiple à des agents sensibilisants. Enfin, le troisième article présente la performance en milieu clinique du premier questionnaire de dépistage spécifique à l’asthme professionnel. Un modèle simple associant 8 items du questionnaire...

The tools of prevention : building prevention and deterrence into exercise programs

Meehan, Michael K.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiv, 122 p. : ill. ;
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CHDS State/Local; This thesis will briefly explore the questions surrounding why prevention has typically not been incorporated into homeland security exercises and strives to document and demonstrate that prevention can be exercised. It will look at various prevention strategies, most notably, "All-Crimes," Information Sharing, Private Sector Security, Attack Trees, Red-Teaming, and Behavioral Analysis, to determine how these prevention-related tools can be integrated into exercise design and conduct. These tools can be used in exercises individually or in groups. They are, however, not the end-state, as other tools undoubtedly exist. Prevention as a science and a skill is still in its infancy; with additional research, analysis, and practice, maturity will come. This thesis also endeavors to provide a road map for agencies desiring to understand and exercise prevention activities. Understanding that prevention can be practiced and exercised through the use of certain tools is one significant step in having the guidance necessary to begin a prevention exercise, or better, a complete prevention exercise program. Agencies using these tools, working within the Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program (HSEEP) Guidelines, and using technical expertise available from local...

Advancing Cervical Cancer Prevention in India : Insights from Research and Programs

Krishnan, Suneeta; Madson, Emily; Porterfield, Deborah; Varghese, Beena
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.35%
Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in India, accounting for 17 percent of all cancer deaths among women age 30 to 69 years. At current incidence rates, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the annual burden of new cases in India will increase to nearly 225,000 by 2025. Despite the considerable burden of cervical cancer morbidity and mortality in India, there are few large-scale, organized cervical cancer prevention programs in the country. We reviewed the research literature and conducted interviews with individuals engaged in research and public health program implementation to identify important elements of cervical cancer prevention efforts in India and implementation issues that merit further investigation. Although primary prevention through HPV vaccination has been endorsed by WHO, under certain conditions, in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), its cost, partial efficacy and safety have been intensely debated in India. Further research and advocacy efforts are needed to determine the optimal strategies for its introduction and sustained use in the country. However...

Optimizing the Allocation of Resources among HIV Prevention Interventions in Honduras

Beeharry, Girindre; Schwab, Nicole; Akhavan, Dariush; Hernández, Rosalinda; Paredes, Carla
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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36.38%
This paper presents a model that policymakers can use to determine the resource allocation that will prevent the maximum number of new HIV infections at any given budget level. The optimal allocation exercise was conducted in Honduras, where the epidemic is still concentrated in high-risk groups but has begun spreading into the general population. Most transmissions occur through heterosexual sex, followed by sex between men, and mother-to-child transmission. Adult prevalence is estimated at 1.4 percent. The optimization exercise involves several steps:(a) choosing population subgroups targeted for intervention; (b) estimating the proportion of each subgroup that can be reached; (c) estimating the total number of new infections expected in each subpopulation; (d) defining the set of HIV prevention interventions to be considered; (e) estimating the unit cost of each intervention; and (f) estimating the expected effectiveness of each intervention. Most of the data required to run the model has to be guesstimated or derived from the literature. To address this challenge...

Kenya - HIV Prevention Response and Modes of Transmission Analysis

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Health Study
ENGLISH
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In 2007, an estimated 33.2 million people in the world were living with HIV, and despite twenty years of prevention programmes, an estimated 2.5 million new infections occurred in that year. Underpinning the shortcoming in the prevention response is the inadequate use of evidence to inform the response. The result has been largely ineffective prevention interventions, with non-optimal use of available resources and the loss of early opportunities to address the unique factors driving infection in the populations most at risk within the country. The overall objective of this study is: 'to contribute to the ongoing efforts to understand the epidemic and response in Kenya and thus help the country improve the scope (doing the right kind of activities), relevance (with the right populations) and comprehensiveness (reaching all members of target populations) with HIV prevention efforts', with an ultimate goal of helping Kenya make more effective HIV/AIDS-related decisions. The report then assesses the relevance...

Lesotho - HIV Prevention Response and Modes of Transmission Analysis

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Health Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.38%
The purpose of this modes of transmission (MoT) study is 'to contribute to the ongoing efforts to understand the epidemic and response in Lesotho and thus help the country improve the scope (doing the right kind of activities), relevance (with the right populations), and comprehensiveness (reaching all members of target populations) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevention efforts'. The process for the Know Your Epidemic (KYE) was an in-depth review of available epidemiological data from Lesotho and the sub-region, and application of the UNAIDS incidence estimation model. The aim was to determine the epidemiology of new (incident) infections. For the Know Your Response (KYR) part, data were collected on the policy context for prevention and on implemented prevention activities and programs. Prevention-specific data from the National AIDS Spending Assessment (NASA) of 2008 and previous two years were reviewed. In a final step, the KYE and KYR evidence was linked to produce an epidemic, response and policy synthesis with recommendations to improve HIV prevention in Lesotho through aligning prevention activities with the evidence on the sources of new infections. The study examined the hypothesis that multiple longer-term partnerships between single young people as well as between married or cohabiting adults are the major driver of HIV transmission...

Swaziland - HIV Prevention Response and Modes of Transmission Analysis

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Health Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
The purpose of this modes of transmission (MoT) study is 'to contribute to the ongoing efforts to understand the epidemic and response in Swaziland and thus help the country improve the scope (doing the right kind of activities), relevance (with the right populations), and comprehensiveness (reaching all members of target populations) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevention efforts'. The process for the Know Your Epidemic (KYE) was an in-depth review of available epidemiological data from Swaziland and the sub-region, and application of the UNAIDS incidence estimation model. The aim was to determine the epidemiology of new (incident) infections. For the Know Your Response (KYR) part, data were collected on the policy context for prevention, prevention and prevention activities by implementers, and data from the National AIDS Spending Assessment (NASA) of 2008 were reviewed. In a final step, the KYE and KYR evidence was linked to produce an epidemic, response and policy synthesis with recommendations to improve the HIV prevention response through aligning prevention activities with the evidence on the sources of new infections. The study examined the hypothesis that multiple...

Évaluation logique de trois (3) campagnes de prévention contre le VIH/Sida à Montréal

Dratchova, Irina
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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À l’heure où nous écrivons, l’ONU enregistre 33 million de personnes touchées par le VIH/Sida. Dans les perspectives actuelles de lutte contre la propagation de la pandémie, plusieurs moyens peuvent être mis en place : utilisation du condom, dépistage, échange de seringues, abstinence… Mais une question se pose : quels éléments nous influencent dans l’utilisation d’une telle ou telle pratique? Faisant usage des stratégies de marketing social, les campagnes de prévention contre le VIH/Sida mettent l’emphase sur l’empowerment des individus face à leur prise de risque. Par ce biais, on tente de changer certains comportements et d’en adopter de nouveaux plus sécuritaires pour la santé. Nous avons évalué ici trois (3) campagnes de prévention contre le VIH/Sida à Montréal. Le but de cette recherche a été de distinguer les éléments pouvant faciliter la planification des campagnes dans une perspective de diminution de l’incidence du VIH/Sida. Lors de la prise de décisions concernant l'évaluation d'une campagne de prévention de lutte contre le VIH/Sida, plusieurs points fondamentaux sont à considérer : la source de l’information, le message, le canal utilisé, les caractéristiques du récepteur et l’effet désiré par la campagne. Ces aspects sont primordiaux dans la prise de conscience de la campagne. Mais attention...

"A prevenção do câncer do colo do útero no contexto da Estratégia Saúde da Família da área básica da Distrital-Oeste / Sumarezinho, do município de Ribeirão Preto - SP" ; The Prevention of Uterine Cervix Cancer within the context of the Health Family Strategy of the Basic Area of Distrital-Oeste/Sumarezinho in Ribeirão Preto - São Paulo.

Oliveira, Michele Mandagará de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/08/2003 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
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A prevenção do câncer do colo do útero (PCCU), ainda hoje, representa um sério problema de Saúde Pública. As razões para explicar este problema são as mais variadas, entre elas a própria organização da saúde pública, a organização dos serviços de saúde e a qualidade da assistência. Foi pensando nesta realidade que decidi analisar a percepção/ótica das mulheres atendidas nos Núcleos de Saúde da Família (NSF), da Área Básica da Distrital-Oeste/Sumarezinho do Município de Ribeirão Preto-SP, sobre as práticas de PCCU desenvolvidas nestes serviços. Foi utilizado como Referencial Teórico, as linhas filosóficas da Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS). Trata-se de uma pesquisa de abordagem qualitativa, do tipo exploratória e descritiva. Foram entrevistadas 14 mulheres. Utilizarei como instrumento de coleta de dados a entrevista semi-estruturada, procedendo à análise dos dados, orientados pela análise temática. A análise dos dados foi estruturada em três temas: Tema 1 - O Olhar da Mulher sobre o Processo Saúde-Doença (O Conceito do Processo Saúde e Doença, A Condição Atual de Saúde e A Resolução dos Problemas Pessoais/Família); Tema 2 - A Mulher e a Prevenção do Câncer do Colo do Útero (O Conceito da Prevenção de Doenças e da Prevenção do Câncer do Colo do Útero); Tema 3 - As Práticas de Prevenção do Câncer do Colo do Útero nos Núcleos de Saúde da Família (A Primeira Experiência de Realização do Exame Papanicolaou e as Dificuldades Permanentes Apresentadas pelas Mulheres Durante sua Realização...

Supporting Dropout Prevention in North Carolina's Rural Schools

Preston, Jennifer
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 25/04/2011 EN_US
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Executive Summary North Carolina’s Race to the Top proposal outlines plans to increase the state’s graduation rate to 86 percent by the 2016 – 2017 school year. In order to reach that goal, graduation rates will need to rise in counties throughout the state, including in the state’s many rural communities. Race to the Top has the potential to bring increased attention and funding to the issues of high school graduation and dropout prevention. Even before the federal Department of Education selected North Carolina as a Race to the Top recipient state, North Carolina Governor Bev Perdue had underscored the importance of high school graduation in her “Career & College: Ready, Set, Go! Every Child a Graduate” education agenda. In light of this focus on high school graduation, the policy question for this report is: how should the State of North Carolina prevent students in rural areas from dropping out of high school? I make recommendations for how the General Assembly, the State Board of Education, and the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction (NCDPI) can take action to increase graduation rates in rural communities. The Dropout Challenge in North Carolina and Resulting Problems for the State: Only 74.2 percent of the students who entered high school in 2006 – 2007 in North Carolina graduated four years later. About 65 percent of black students...

Prévention Contre la Déficience Mentale Des Femmes Enceintes et Des Nouveau-Nés Dans le Système De Santé Publique; Ações de Prevenção da Deficiência Mental, dirigidas a Gestantes e Recém-Nascidos, no âmbito da Saúde Pública da Grande Vitória-ES; Mental Deficiency Preventive Actions Directed to Pregnant Women and Newborn Children in the Public Health System.

Enumo, Sônia Regina Fiorim; Trindade, Zeidi Araújo
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Psicologia Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Psicologia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2002 POR
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Faire de la prévention dans la santé publique est conditionné par une très bonne connaissance afin de proposer des programmes et les évaluer. Au Brésil, on sait peu de choses sur la prévention de la déficience mentale, qui atteint pourtant 10 % de la population. Adoptant une méthodologie et pour faire un catalogue des actions préventives de déficience mentale dans les hôpitaux et les unités de santé, pour les femmes enceintes et les nouveau-nés, on a pu décrire et analyser les actions de santé publique dans la ville de Grande Vitoria (État du Espirito Santo), indiquant le niveau de prévention les plus couverts. On a regroupé les actions de prévention de cinq hôpitaux publics importants, neuf (31 %) unités de santé et six bureaux centralisateurs, entre 1996 et 97. Les données de vingt-cinq entrevues montrent que ces locaux réalisent 51,5 % des 433 actions de prévention possibles (57,4 % de prévention primaire et 45,5 % de secondaire). En détaillant les réalisations de chaque municipalité et local étudié, les chiffres fournissent des ressources pour des analyses et les modifications possibles dans les indicateurs de santé maternelle et infantile.; The accomplishment of prevention in Public Health requires a systematized knowledge for the proposition of a program and its evaluation. When it comes to the prevention of Mental Deficiency...

Missed opportunities for congenital syphilis and HIV perinatal transmission prevention

Rodrigues,Celeste Souza; Guimarães,Mark Drew Crosland; César,Cibele Comini
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2008 EN
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OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of missed opportunities for congenital syphilis and HIV prevention in pregnant women who had access to prenatal care and to assess factors associated to non-testing of these infections. METHODS: Cross-sectional study comprising a randomly selected sample of 2,145 puerperal women who were admitted in maternity hospitals for delivery or curettage and had attended at least one prenatal care visit, in Brazil between 1999 and 2000. No syphilis and/or anti-HIV testing during pregnancy was a marker for missed prevention opportunity. Women who were not tested for either or both were compared to those who had at least one syphilis and one anti-HIV testing performed during pregnancy (reference category). The prevalence of missed prevention opportunity was estimated for each category with 95% confidence intervals. Factors independently associated with missed prevention opportunity were assessed through multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of missed prevention opportunity for syphilis or anti-HIV was 41.2% and 56.0%, respectively. The multivariate analysis showed that race/skin color (non-white), schooling (<8 years), marital status (single), income (<3 monthly minimum wages), having sex during pregnancy...