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Early cardiac effects of a high-sucrose diet in a rat model of prediabetes

Nunes, Sara Raquel
Fonte: Universidade de Coimbra Publicador: Universidade de Coimbra
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.62%
A cardiomiopatia diabética (CMD) é vista como uma cardiomiopatia específica e definida por alterações estruturais e funcionais no miocárdio devido a anomalias metabólicas e celulares induzidas pela diabetes mellitus (DM). A transição das anomalias metabólicas precoces que precedem a DM, como a glicemia de jejum alterada e a intolerância à glicose, para um estado de diabetes pode levar muitos anos; no entanto, as estimativas actuais indicam que a maioria dos indivíduos neste estado de pré-diabetes eventualmente desenvolve DM. Durante o estado pré-diabético, o risco de eventos cardiovasculares está já aumentado e as anomalias cardíacas podem aparecer antes do diagnóstico da DM. A identificação precoce de alterações cardíacas em pacientes pré-diabéticos/resistentes à insulina poderá ser a melhor estratégia para prevenir a evolução para fases mais graves da doença. Para elucidar se estados iniciais de disfunção cardíaca estão já presentes na pré-diabetes com resistência à insulina, e os mecanismos envolvidos, testamos um possível modelo animal que pode mimetizar um estado pré-diabético em humanos com resistência à insulina, sem outros factores associados que podem levar à lesão/disfunção cardíaca...

Sucrose-induced memory deficits

Soares, Edna Filipa Pais
Fonte: Universidade de Coimbra Publicador: Universidade de Coimbra
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.02%
A pré-diabetes tal como a diabetes tipo 2 - uma doença metabólica heterogénea com uma elevada taxa de prevalência - está associada a um risco acrescido de desenvolver distúrbios do sistema nervoso central. A “encefalopatia diabética” é caracterizada por alterações electrofisiológicas, estruturais, neuroquímicas e degenerativas que poderão originar défices cognitivos, constituindo uma complicação da diabetes relativamente pouco conhecida. O hipocampo, sendo uma estrutura cerebral fundamental nos processos de aprendizagem e memória, apresenta uma elevada susceptibilidade ao ambiente adverso da pré-diabetes/diabetes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a memória e a aprendizagem bem como as alterações fenotípicas do hipocampo num modelo animal de resistência à insulina/pré-diabetes (induzido pela adição de sacarose à dieta). Ratos Wistar machos com 17 semanas de idade foram submetidos a uma dieta normal ad libitum e divididos em dois grupos: controlo (Cont) (água) e ratos submetidos à ingestão de um elevado teor de sacarose (HSu) (solução de sacarose a 35%). O consumo da solução de sacarose durante um período de 9 semanas resultou em normoglicemia em jejum acompanhada por uma hiperinsulinemia e hipertrigliceridemia num estado não-jejum e intolerância à glicose associada a resistência à insulina...

Spatial memory impairments in a prediabetic rat model

Soares, E.; Prediger, R. D.; Nunes, S.; Castro, A. A.; Viana, S .D.; Lemos, C.; Souza, C. M. De; Agostinho, P.; Cunha, R. A.; Carvalho, E.; Ribeiro, C. A. Fontes; Reis, F.; Pereira, F. C.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.62%
Diabetes is associated with an increased risk for brain disorders, namely cognitive impairments associated with hippocampal dysfunction underlying diabetic encephalopathy. However, the impact of a prediabetic state on cognitive function is unknown. Therefore, we now investigated whether spatial learning and memory deficits and the underlying hippocampal dysfunction were already present in a prediabetic animal model. Adult Wistar rats drinking high-sucrose (HSu) diet (35% sucrose solution during 9 weeks) were compared to controls’ drinking water. HSu rats exhibited fasting normoglycemia accompanied by hyperinsulinemia and hypertriglyceridemia in the fed state, and insulin resistance with impaired glucose tolerance confirming them as a prediabetic rodent model. HSu rats displayed a poorer performance in hippocampal-dependent short- and long-term spatial memory performance, assessed with the modified Y-maze and Morris water maze tasks, respectively; this was accompanied by a reduction of insulin receptor-β density with normal levels of insulin receptor substrate-1 pSer636/639, and decreased hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor levels without changes of the plasma corticosterone levels. Importantly, HSu animals exhibited increased hippocampal levels of AMPA and NMDA receptor subunits GluA1 and GLUN1...

Dietary glycemic load, glycemic index, and refined grains intake are associated with reduced β-cell function in prediabetic Japanese migrants; Associação entre carga glicêmica da dieta, índice glicêmico e consumo de cereais refinados e função reduzida das células-β em migrantes japoneses com pré-diabetes

SARTORELLI, Daniela Saes; FRANCO, Laércio Joel; DAMIÃO, Renata; GIMENO, Suely; CARDOSO, Marly Augusto; FERREIRA, Sandra Roberta Gouvea
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.21%
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between carbohydrate intakes and β-cell function (HOMA-β) in Japanese-Brazilians with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). METHODS: Dietary intakes were assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire in a cross-sectional survey carried out in 2000. The associations between diet and HOMA-β were verified in 270 newly diagnosed IGT in multiple linear regression models. RESULTS: The mean (SD) age was 58 (11) years and the mean HOMA-β was 65 (47). The glycemic load was inversely associated with HOMA-β, β1 -0.140 (95%CI = -1.044; -0.078), p = 0.023. The inverse association was also observed for refined grains intakes: -0.186 (95%CI = -0.4862; -0.058), p = 0.012. After adjustments for body mass index, the glycemic index was inversely associated with HOMA-β: -0.1246 (95%CI = -2.2482, -0.0257), p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggested that dietary glycemic load, glycemic index, and refined grains intakes are associated with reduced β-cell function, and the quality of dietary carbohydrates may be relevant for maintaining β-cell function among individuals with IGT.; OBJETIVO: Investigar a associação entre o consumo de carboidratos e função das células-β (HOMA-β) em nipo-brasileiros portadores de tolerância à glicose diminuída (TGD). MÉTODOS: O consumo alimentar habitual foi avaliado por meio do questionário quantitativo de frequência alimentar previamente validado em estudo transversal conduzido em 2000. A associação entre dieta e HOMA-β foi verificada em 270 indivíduos portadores de TGD em modelos de regressão logística ajustados. RESULTADOS: A média (DP) de idade foi 58 (11) anos e do HOMA-β foi 65 (47). A carga glicêmica foi inversamente associada ao HOMA-β...

Fast-to-fed shift in glucose homeostasis: clues to an earlier detection of human prediabetic states

Patarrão, Rita Susana Franco das Neves
Fonte: Faculdade de Ciências Médicas. Universidade Nova de Lisboa Publicador: Faculdade de Ciências Médicas. Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2010 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.21%
FCM: UC Bioquímica I - PhD Thesis; A acção da insulina está associada à libertação da substância hepática sensibilizadora da insulina (HISS), que aumenta o aporte de glucose periférico. No estado pós-prandial, a libertação da HISS é máxima, diminuindo com o período de jejum. O controlo prandial da acção da HISS é mediado pelo sistema parassimpático hepático/óxido nítrico (NO) e pelo glutationo (GSH) hepático. Os actuais métodos utilizados para avaliar a sensibilidade à insulina são realizados no estado de jejum. A presente dissertação destaca a hipótese de que o mecanismo dependente da HISS existe em humanos, e pode ser manipulado. Em humanos, uma robusta ferramenta para caracterizar a acção da insulina dependente da HISS, não só no estado de jejum, mas também após uma refeição, o teste rápido de sensibilidade à insulina (RIST), foi desenvolvido. O RIST pode ser realizado com reproductibilidade, e sem intra e intervariabilidade. A diminuição da sensibilidade à insulina observada no jejum é potenciada após uma refeição, e a administração de atropina, suprime este efeito. A inibição parcial da sensibilidade à insulina induzida pela refeição, é consistente com a hipótese de que um “sinal prandial” dependente do sistema parassimpático hepático é necessário para a libertação hepática da HISS. Quando voluntários magros e com excesso de peso foram submetidos a um período de 24h de jejum...

Evaluation of cell death markers and reproductive parameters in models of diabetes mellitus

Dias, Tânia Isabel Rodrigues Amaral
Fonte: Universidade da Beira Interior Publicador: Universidade da Beira Interior
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /06/2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.61%
Diabetes mellitus (DM) represents one of the greatest threats to modern global health and its incidence is rapidly rising worldwide. It describes a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia resulting from defective insulin secretion, resistance to insulin action, or both. There are two types of DM, type-1 DM (T1DM) and type-2 DM (T2DM), both associated with male infertility. T1DM is associated with insulin deprivation and although the overall in vivo effects in the reproductive function is well known, there is a lack of studies concerning about the insulin control over the physiological functions of cells from the reproductive system. Importantly, the in vivo studies are often focused after the disease is fully establish, but it is known that a prediabetic state, which is characterized by insulin resistance, precedes the development of DM, especially T2DM. With our work, we aimed to further investigate the association between DM and male infertility by analyzing several apoptotic markers and reproductive parameters. To do so, we simulated type 1 DM in cultured rat Sertoli cells and analyzed the mRNA and protein expression levels of several cellular markers involved in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. We also developed an animal model of prediabetes to evaluate the effect of this pathological state in the reproductive parameters as well as in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Our results lead us to suggest that insulin interferes with the interaction between pro and anti-apoptotic proteins. As the interaction of these proteins decide the cell fate and exert a strict control over the apoptotic signaling...

Dietary glycemic load, glycemic index, and refined grains intake are associated with reduced β-cell function in prediabetic Japanese migrants

Sartorelli,Daniela Saes; Franco,Laércio Joel; Damião,Renata; Gimeno,Suely; Cardoso,Marly Augusto; Ferreira,Sandra Roberta Gouvea
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.21%
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between carbohydrate intakes and β-cell function (HOMA-β) in Japanese-Brazilians with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). METHODS: Dietary intakes were assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire in a cross-sectional survey carried out in 2000. The associations between diet and HOMA-β were verified in 270 newly diagnosed IGT in multiple linear regression models. RESULTS: The mean (SD) age was 58 (11) years and the mean HOMA-β was 65 (47). The glycemic load was inversely associated with HOMA-β, β1 -0.140 (95%CI = -1.044; -0.078), p = 0.023. The inverse association was also observed for refined grains intakes: -0.186 (95%CI = -0.4862; -0.058), p = 0.012. After adjustments for body mass index, the glycemic index was inversely associated with HOMA-β: -0.1246 (95%CI = -2.2482, -0.0257), p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggested that dietary glycemic load, glycemic index, and refined grains intakes are associated with reduced β-cell function, and the quality of dietary carbohydrates may be relevant for maintaining β-cell function among individuals with IGT.

Serum uric acid and disorders of glucose metabolism: the role of glycosuria

Andrade,J.A.M.; Kang,H.C.; Greffin,S.; Garcia Rosa,M.L.; Lugon,J.R.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.44%
Hyperuricemia has been associated with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. We studied the association between hyperuricemia and glycemic status in a nonrandomized sample of primary care patients. This was a cross-sectional study of adults ≥20 years old who were members of a community-based health care program. Hyperuricemia was defined as a value >7.0 mg/dL for men and >6.0 mg/dL for women. The sample comprised 720 participants including controls (n=257) and patients who were hypertensive and euglycemic (n=118), prediabetic (n=222), or diabetic (n=123). The mean age was 42.4±12.5 years, 45% were male, and 30% were white. The prevalence of hyperuricemia increased from controls (3.9%) to euglycemic hypertension (7.6%) and prediabetic state (14.0%), with values in prediabetic patients being statistically different from controls. Overall, diabetic patients had an 11.4% prevalence of hyperuricemia, which was also statistically different from controls. Of note, diabetic subjects with glycosuria, who represented 24% of the diabetic participants, had a null prevalence of hyperuricemia, and statistically higher values for fractional excretion of uric acid, Na excretion index, and prevalence of microalbuminuria than those without glycosuria. Participants who were prediabetic or diabetic but without glycosuria had a similarly elevated prevalence of hyperuricemia. In contrast...

No association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and prediabetes in Brazilian patients. A cross-sectional study

Giorelli,Guilherme de Vieira; Matos,Lívia Nascimento de; Saado,Amir; Soibelman,Vera Lúcia; Dias,Cristiane Bitencourt
Fonte: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM Publicador: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.35%
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Several studies have evaluated the role of low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD3) in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and have presented controversial results. The metabolic processes that culminate in T2DM begin under prediabetic conditions. Our aim was to analyze the association between 25OHD3 and glucose metabolism in individuals who were free from but at elevated risk of diabetes. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at a tertiary hospital. METHODS: Anthropometric and laboratory profiles were determined in patients with one or more of the following risk factors: hypertension; body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2; waist circumference > 80 cm for women and > 94 cm for men; first-degree relatives with diabetes; women with large-for-gestational-age newborns or with gestational T2DM; HDL-cholesterol (high density lipoprotein) < 35 mg/dl; and triglycerides > 250 mg/dl. The patients were divided into two groups: one with prediabetes (abnormal fasting plasma glucose or oral glucose tolerance test) and the other with normal glucose (euglycemic). RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the prediabetic group (n = 38) and euglycemic group (n = 15) regarding age (66.4 ± 10.6 versus 62.6 ± 9.1 years)...

Insulin receptor isotype expression correlates with risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes.

Mosthaf, L; Eriksson, J; Häring, H U; Groop, L; Widen, E; Ullrich, A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/04/1993 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.29%
Skeletal muscle insulin resistance plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), as individuals with this defect are at increased risk of developing the disease later in life. To assess whether the abnormal expression of the structurally distinct human insulin receptor isoforms, HIR-A and HIR-B, which has been found in skeletal muscle of NIDDM patients, is a feature of a prediabetic state, skeletal muscle biopsies from nondiabetic individuals ranging from high insulin sensitivity to insulin resistance were examined. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of mRNA from muscle biopsies detected exclusive or predominant expression of HIR-A in 13 patients with normal insulin sensitivity. In contrast, 7 subjects with various degrees of insulin resistance exhibited abnormally increased HIR-B RNA expression. This association suggests the abnormal expression of receptor isoforms as a characteristic of the prediabetic state and supports the notion of a connection of this aberration with the pathogenesis of NIDDM. Changes in HIR-A/B expression in the skeletal muscle may thus provide a prognostic criterion for the development of NIDDM.

GLP-1 derivative liraglutide in rats with β-cell deficiencies: influence of metabolic state on β-cell mass dynamics

Sturis, Jeppe; Gotfredsen, Carsten F; Rømer, John; Rolin, Bidda; Ribel, Ulla; Brand, Christian L; Wilken, Michael; Wassermann, Karsten; Deacon, Carolyn F; Carr, Richard D; Knudsen, Lotte Bjerre
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.02%
Liraglutide is a long-acting GLP-1 derivative, designed for once daily administration in type II diabetic patients. To investigate the effects of liraglutide on glycemic control and β-cell mass in rat models of β-cell deficiencies, studies were performed in male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats and in 60% pancreatectomized rats.When liraglutide was dosed s.c. at 150 μg kg−1 b.i.d. for 6 weeks in ZDF rats 6–8 weeks of age at study start, diabetes development was markedly attenuated. Blood glucose was approximately 12 mM lower compared to vehicle (P<0.0002), and plasma insulin was 2–3-fold higher during a normal 24-h feeding period (P<0.001). Judged by pair feeding, approximately 53% of the antihyperglycemic effect observed on 24-h glucose profiles was mediated by a reduction in food intake, which persisted throughout the study and averaged 16% (P<0.02).Histological analyses revealed that β-cell mass and proliferation were significantly lower in prediabetic animals still normoglycemic after 2 weeks treatment compared to vehicle-treated animals that had begun to develop diabetes. When the treatment period was 6 weeks, the liraglutide-treated animals were no longer completely normoglycemic and the β-cell mass was significantly increased compared to overtly diabetic vehicle-treated animals...

Prediabetes and Pregnancy

Barnes, P. H.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/08/1963 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.21%
In a prospective study of perinatal losses associated with prediabetes, 105 pregnancies were followed in women showing mild abnormalities of glucose tolerance. Hypoglycemic agents were not administered in the absence of frank diabetes. All patients were attended at delivery by interns or residents. Only two perinatal losses (1.5%) occurred in complicated cases, one of which might have been avoided. Perinatal losses in unrecognized prediabetics are largely due to associated obstetric factors, and in uncomplicated prediabetes should not differ from nondiabetic pregnancies. Recognition of the prediabetic state allows subsequent complications to be anticipated and treated early. In the absence of frank diabetes, hypoglycemic agents would not improve the immediate fetal salvage. Their value for reducing the incidence of recognized complications or in promoting the remote welfare of the fetus (preventing the ultimate development of diabetes) has not been established. The administration of hypoglycemic agents to the pregnant prediabetic is not recommended in view of the possible teratogenic effect.

Lowering apolipoprotein CIII delays onset of type 1 diabetes

Holmberg, Rebecka; Refai, Essam; Höög, Anders; Crooke, Rosanne M.; Graham, Mark; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Berggren, Per-Olof; Juntti-Berggren, Lisa
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.35%
Serum levels of apolipoprotein CIII (apoCIII) are increased in type 1 diabetic patients, and when β cells are exposed to these diabetic sera, apoptosis occurs, an effect abolished by an antibody against apoCIII. We have investigated the BB rat, an animal model that develops a human-like type 1 diabetes, and found that apoCIII was also increased in sera from prediabetic rats. This increase in apoCIII promoted β-cell death. The endogenous levels of apoCIII were reduced by treating prediabetic animals with an antisense against this apolipoprotein, resulting in a significantly delayed onset of diabetes. ApoCIII thus serves as a diabetogenic factor, and intervention with this apolipoprotein in the prediabetic state can arrest disease progression. These findings suggest apoCIII as a target for the treatment of type 1 diabetes.

The Frequency of Prediabetes and Contributing Factors in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

Razeghi, Effat; Heydarian, Peimaneh; Heydari, Mahshid
Fonte: SBDR - Society for Biomedical Diabetes Research Publicador: SBDR - Society for Biomedical Diabetes Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.43%
AIMS: Uremia is a prediabetic state, but abnormal glucose metabolism and relative risk factors in non-diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are not studied extensively. This study aimed to evaluate prediabetes and contributing factors in patients with CKD. METHODS: We studied the frequency of prediabetes (defined as fasting plasma glucose 100-125 mg/dl and 2-h plasma glucose 140-199 mg/dl) and contributing risk factors in 91 (34 women and 57 men) non-diabetic CKD (GFR < 60) patients who were referred to Sina Hospital between November 2010 and November 2011. Impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance were regarded as prediabetic state. RESULTS: Thirty-eight patients (41.8%), 28 male and 10 female, with mean age of 57.4 ± 17.1 yr, had prediabetes. Among these, 18.7% had impaired fasting glucose, 7.7% impaired glucose tolerance, and 15.4% combined impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance. CKD patients with impaired glucose tolerance had more frequently hypertriglyceridemia (85.7% vs. 42.0%, p = 0.001), hypertension (66.6% vs. 31.4%, p = 0.004), and metabolic syndrome according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (52.3% vs. 25.7%, p = 0.02). Also, mean systolic blood pressure (134.2 ± 13.9 vs. 124.5 ± 20.0...

High Energy Diets-Induced Metabolic and Prediabetic Painful Polyneuropathy in Rats

Xie, Fang; Fu, Han; Hou, Jun-Feng; Jiao, Kai; Costigan, Michael; Chen, Jun
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/02/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.21%
To establish the role of the metabolic state in the pathogenesis of polyneuropathy, an age- and sex-matched, longitudinal study in rats fed high-fat and high-sucrose diets (HFSD) or high-fat, high-sucrose and high-salt diets (HFSSD) relative to controls was performed. Time courses of body weight, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin, free fatty acids (FFA), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), thermal and mechanical sensitivity and motor coordination were measured in parallel. Finally, large and small myelinated fibers (LMF, SMF) as well as unmyelinated fibers (UMF) in the sciatic nerves and ascending fibers in the spinal dorsal column were quantitatively assessed under electron microscopy. The results showed that early metabolic syndrome (hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension) and prediabetic conditions (impaired fasting glucose) could be induced by high energy diet, and these animals later developed painful polyneuropathy characterized by myelin breakdown and LMF loss in both peripheral and central nervous system. In contrast SMF and UMF in the sciatic nerves were changed little, in the same animals. Therefore the phenomenon that high energy diets induce bilateral mechanical...

Prediabetes: A high-risk state for developing diabetes

Tabák, Adam G.; Herder, Christian; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Brunner, Eric J.; Kivimäki, Mika
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.02%
Prediabetes (or “intermediate hyperglycaemia”), based on glycaemic parameters above normal but below diabetes thresholds is a high risk state for diabetes with an annualized conversion rate of 5%–10%; with similar proportion converting back to normoglycaemia. The prevalence of prediabetes is increasing worldwide and it is projected that >470 million people will have prediabetes in 2030. Prediabetes is associated with the simultaneous presence of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction, abnormalities that start before glucose changes are detectable. Observational evidence shows associations of prediabetes with early forms of nephropathy, chronic kidney disease, small fibre neuropathy, diabetic retinopathy, and increased risk of macrovascular disease. Multifactorial risk scores could optimize the estimation of diabetes risk using non-invasive parameters and blood-based metabolic traits in addition to glycaemic values. For prediabetic individuals, lifestyle modification is the cornerstone of diabetes prevention with evidence of a 40%–70% relative risk reduction. Accumulating data also suggests potential benefits from pharmacotherapy.

Serum uric acid and disorders of glucose metabolism: the role of glycosuria

Andrade, J.A.M.; Kang, H.C.; Greffin, S.; Garcia Rosa, M.L.; Lugon, J.R.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/08/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.44%
Hyperuricemia has been associated with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. We studied the association between hyperuricemia and glycemic status in a nonrandomized sample of primary care patients. This was a cross-sectional study of adults ≥20 years old who were members of a community-based health care program. Hyperuricemia was defined as a value >7.0 mg/dL for men and >6.0 mg/dL for women. The sample comprised 720 participants including controls (n=257) and patients who were hypertensive and euglycemic (n=118), prediabetic (n=222), or diabetic (n=123). The mean age was 42.4±12.5 years, 45% were male, and 30% were white. The prevalence of hyperuricemia increased from controls (3.9%) to euglycemic hypertension (7.6%) and prediabetic state (14.0%), with values in prediabetic patients being statistically different from controls. Overall, diabetic patients had an 11.4% prevalence of hyperuricemia, which was also statistically different from controls. Of note, diabetic subjects with glycosuria, who represented 24% of the diabetic participants, had a null prevalence of hyperuricemia, and statistically higher values for fractional excretion of uric acid, Na excretion index, and prevalence of microalbuminuria than those without glycosuria. Participants who were prediabetic or diabetic but without glycosuria had a similarly elevated prevalence of hyperuricemia. In contrast...

Characterization of the Prediabetic State in a Novel Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetes, the ZFDM Rat

Gheni, Ghupurjan; Yokoi, Norihide; Beppu, Masayuki; Yamaguchi, Takuro; Hidaka, Shihomi; Kawabata, Ayako; Hoshino, Yoshikazu; Hoshino, Masayuki; Seino, Susumu
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
We recently established a novel animal model of obese type 2 diabetes (T2D), the Zucker fatty diabetes mellitus (ZFDM) rat strain harboring the fatty mutation (fa) in the leptin receptor gene. Here we performed a phenotypic characterization of the strain, focusing mainly on the prediabetic state. At 6–8 weeks of age, fa/fa male rats exhibited mild glucose intolerance and severe insulin resistance. Although basal insulin secretion was remarkably high in the isolated pancreatic islets, the responses to both glucose stimulation and the incretin GLP-1 were retained. At 10–12 weeks of age, fa/fa male rats exhibited marked glucose intolerance as well as severe insulin resistance similar to that at the earlier age. In the pancreatic islets, the insulin secretory response to glucose stimulation was maintained but the response to the incretin was diminished. In nondiabetic Zucker fatty (ZF) rats, the insulin secretory responses to both glucose stimulation and the incretin in the pancreatic islets were similar to those of ZFDM rats. As islet architecture was destroyed with age in ZFDM rats, a combination of severe insulin resistance, diminished insulin secretory response to incretin, and intrinsic fragility of the islets may cause the development of T2D in this strain.

Therapeutic Use of Metformin in Prediabetes and Diabetes Prevention

Hostalek, Ulrike; Gwilt, Mike; Hildemann, Steven
Fonte: Springer International Publishing Publicador: Springer International Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.35%
People with elevated, non-diabetic, levels of blood glucose are at risk of progressing to clinical type 2 diabetes and are commonly termed ‘prediabetic’. The term prediabetes usually refers to high–normal fasting plasma glucose (impaired fasting glucose) and/or plasma glucose 2 h following a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (impaired glucose tolerance). Current US guidelines consider high–normal HbA1c to also represent a prediabetic state. Individuals with prediabetic levels of dysglycaemia are already at elevated risk of damage to the microvasculature and macrovasculature, resembling the long-term complications of diabetes. Halting or reversing the progressive decline in insulin sensitivity and β-cell function holds the key to achieving prevention of type 2 diabetes in at-risk subjects. Lifestyle interventions aimed at inducing weight loss, pharmacologic treatments (metformin, thiazolidinediones, acarbose, basal insulin and drugs for weight loss) and bariatric surgery have all been shown to reduce the risk of progression to type 2 diabetes in prediabetic subjects. However, lifestyle interventions are difficult for patients to maintain and the weight loss achieved tends to be regained over time. Metformin enhances the action of insulin in liver and skeletal muscle...

Evaluation of cell death markers and reproductive parameters in models of diabetes mellitus; Avaliação de marcadores de morte celular e parâmetros reprodutivos em modelos de diabetes mellitus

Dias, Tânia Isabel Rodrigues Amaral
Fonte: Universidade da Beira Interior Publicador: Universidade da Beira Interior
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /06/2012 ENG
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) represents one of the greatest threats to modern global health and its incidence is rapidly rising worldwide. It describes a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia resulting from defective insulin secretion, resistance to insulin action, or both. There are two types of DM, type-1 DM (T1DM) and type-2 DM (T2DM), both associated with male infertility. T1DM is associated with insulin deprivation and although the overall in vivo effects in the reproductive function is well known, there is a lack of studies concerning about the insulin control over the physiological functions of cells from the reproductive system. Importantly, the in vivo studies are often focused after the disease is fully establish, but it is known that a prediabetic state, which is characterized by insulin resistance, precedes the development of DM, especially T2DM. With our work, we aimed to further investigate the association between DM and male infertility by analyzing several apoptotic markers and reproductive parameters. To do so, we simulated type 1 DM in cultured rat Sertoli cells and analyzed the mRNA and protein expression levels of several cellular markers involved in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. We also developed an animal model of prediabetes to evaluate the effect of this pathological state in the reproductive parameters as well as in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Our results lead us to suggest that insulin interferes with the interaction between pro and anti-apoptotic proteins. As the interaction of these proteins decide the cell fate and exert a strict control over the apoptotic signaling...