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Conicidade de preparos para coroas totais: acompanhamento de estudantes de Odontologia; Taper preparations for full crowns: monitoring of dental students

Lopes, Livia Duarte Santos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/04/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.19%
A avaliação do processo ensino-aprendizagem constitui uma etapa importante da prática docente que visa interpretar os conhecimentos, habilidades e atitudes dos alunos e proporcionar melhorias nos objetivos educacionais. Com intuito de acompanhar o desempenho de estudantes da Faculdade de Odontologia de Bauru da Universidade de São Paulo na área de Prótese Dentária, a conicidade dos preparos para coroas totais realizados por alunos do segundo ano da graduação: grupo 1 (G1), terceiro ano da graduação: grupo 2 (G2) e pós-graduação: grupo 3 (G3) foi mensurada. Foram avaliados 174 preparos, sendo 112 dentes artificiais preparados por G1, 30 troquéis de dentes preparados por G2 e 32 troquéis de dentes preparados por G3. A conicidade mesio-distal (MD) e vestibulo-lingual (VL) de cada preparo foi medida com auxílio do microscópio digital Dino Capture AM 313T. As médias de conicidade total no sentido mesio-distal (MD) foram, no G1: 11,13° para dentes anteriores e 14,21° para dentes posteriores, G2: 20,47° para dentes anteriores e 21,34° para dentes posteriores e G3: 8,75° para dentes anteriores e 12,54° para dentes posteriores. No sentido vestíbulo-lingual (VL) as médias de conicidade total dos preparos realizados foram no G1: 24...

Association between religiousness and blood donation among Brazilian postgraduate students from health-related areas

Martinez,Edson Zangiacomi; Almeida,Rodrigo Guimarães dos Santos; Braz,Ana Carolina Garcia; Carvalho,Antonio Carlos Duarte de
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.13%
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the association between religiousness and blood donation among postgraduate students. METHODS: The Portuguese-language version of the Duke University Religion Index was administered to a sample of 226 Brazilian students with ages ranging from 22 to 55 years. All study participants had completed undergraduate courses in health-related areas. RESULTS: In the present study, 23.5% of the students were regular donors. Organizational religiousness was found to be associated with attitudes related to blood donation. This study also shows evidence that regular blood donors have a higher intrinsic religiousness than subjects who donate only once and do not return. CONCLUSION: This study shows that the attitudes concerning blood donation may have some association with religiosity.

Awareness about scope of anaesthesiology, attitudes towards the speciality and stress levels amongst postgraduate students in anaesthesiology: A cross-sectional study

Kamat, Chaitanya A; Todakar, Mahantesh; Rangalakshmi, S; Pawan,
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.36%
Trends in selection of a career in medicine vary from country to country. To plan future recruitment strategies and to balance distribution of physicians among medical specialties, each country needs to examine these reasons as part of educational research. The aim of this study was to explore the Anaesthesiology postgraduate students’ knowledge about anaesthesia as a speciality, their attitude towards anaesthesia as a career choice, stress levels during the period of postgraduation, views regarding Diploma in Anaesthesiology and undergraduate exposure to the subject. Eight hundred pretested questionnaires were provided to the anaesthesia postgraduate students attending various national level conferences in India. The collected data were statistically analysed using SPSS version 20. Only 31.6% of the students were aware of scope of anaesthesiology and 42.3% of students joined the speciality out of the interest to learn the subject, whereas 55.7% joined for other reasons, including non-availability of other specialties during medical postgraduate counselling. About 70% of students were stressed out during postgraduation, 31.6% found difficulty in accommodating the demands of challenging job and 3.8% went into depression. Majority of anaesthesiology postgraduate students were unaware of the scope of Anaesthesiology at the time of medical postgraduate counselling; only two-fifth of the students joined the speciality out of interest to learn the subject and most of them felt stressed out during the period of postgraduation. Majority of the students were of the opinion that Diploma in Anaesthesia was not a viable career option and should be scrapped.

Expectations and experiences of Indonesian postgraduate students studying in Australia : a longitudinal study / Margaret Kiley.

Kiley, Margaret Mary
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 164398 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.06%
This study examines the changing expectations and experiences of thirty-three Indonesian postgraduate students who were interviewed every three months during candidature in Australia.; Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Adelaide, Depts. of Applied and Molecular Ecology, 1999; Bibliography: leaves 359-374; 430 leaves : ill. ; 30 cm.; Title page, contents and abstract only. The complete thesis in print form is available from the University Library.

Preliminary study on the influence of collaboration on the success and efficiency of postgraduate students

Hansen, K.; Shokri-ghasabeh, M.; Missingham, D.
Fonte: University of Adelaide; Adelaide Publicador: University of Adelaide; Adelaide
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
Postgraduate research calls for a novel contribution to the existing literature, which should be made independently by the researcher. In many institutions, the traditional approach does not encourage or promote collaboration with others as it is thought that a student of higher education should be able to function independently. This paper argues that postgraduate students could be more successful through increased collaboration with both other PhD students and their supervisor. This proposition is supported by a survey, which shows that students are highly in favour of increasing the extent of their collaboration with others. It is envisaged that collaboration should take place from the early stages of a PhD in the form of mentoring and working closely with a supervisor to the later stages, where experience enables guidance of others to more efficient methods and analysis techniques. Increased collaboration can also provide sidebenefits such as better communication and leadership skills.; Kristy L. Hansen, Morteza Shokri-Ghasabeh, Dorothy Missingham

Supporting postgraduate students in their role as clinical teachers: a pilot study

Winning, T.; Greenwood, L.; Lekkas, D.
Fonte: University of Glasgow Publicador: University of Glasgow
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
In higher education, reliance on part-time teachers, including postgraduate students (PGs), in our undergraduate (UG) programmes is widespread. Dental education is no exception: the bulk of our UG clinical teaching/supervision is provided by casually-employed clinicians. Consistent with reports highlighting the need for professional development for part-time (including PG) teachers, we identified our PGs needed support. This paper describes the programme we developed for our PGs and the initial evaluation. Recommendations from the literature informed our programme design. Evaluation of the programme involved PG-clinical teachers’ perceptions of their experience and analysis of their learning outcomes, using pre- and post-tests. The tests required PG-clinical teachers to identify behaviours related to UG clinical assessment criteria and clinical teacher attributes, and judge the level of performance portrayed in a series of UG clinic video simulations. To check that clinical assessment criteria for UGs and clinical teacher attributes were identifiable, experienced-clinical teachers completed the same tests. Learning from repeated viewing of the test-videos was not evident. It was difficult to identify and/or classify UG clinical assessment criteria in the videos. Both PG- and experienced-clinical teachers identified and classified more clinical teacher attributes than UG clinical assessment criteria. There was some improvement by PG-clinical teachers in identifying and classifying clinical teacher attributes. These data indicated the programme may have contributed to PG-clinical teachers’ learning about their role...

Research and psychological experiences of international postgraduate students

Maadad, N.; Nallaya,, S.
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.31%
The greater mobility of students and academic staff has enhanced and forced a rethink of both curricula and assessment practices. Moreover, the diversity of students in an educational setting, be it a classroom or seminar presentation, evokes interesting patterns of interaction with other students, staff, learning material and context for learning. This paper explores the research and psychological experiences of international postgraduate students embarking on research at the School of Education, in an Australian university. The experiences of twelve international postgraduate students from diverse geographic, cultural, professional and educational backgrounds are documented. Supervisors, the academic interactions and communications come under scrutiny. The management of the research process often ignores the wealth of experience, expertise as well as knowledge that these students bring to the learning environment. The students were interviewed to document their experiences of the research culture in the Australian university where they are pursuing their study program. A case study was conducted to analyse factors affecting drive of institutions, research support and their impact on the learning outcomes. The study further examined how these experiences reflect on learning outcomes student and satisfaction. Twelve postgraduate students from the school of education were participants in this case study. Data was collected and analysed quantitatively.; Nina Maadad and Sasikala Nallaya

An analysis of factors predicting graduation of students at Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center

Wong, Chin Han
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; This thesis analyzes factors related to academic, military and personal backgrounds that affect graduation of students enrolled at the Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center (DLIFLC). The data in this thesis were taken from DLIFLC and only students from the four principal services with valid DLAB scores were considered for this study. Also, as DLI is concerned with students who do not make the grade academically, entries having administrative attritions were not considered. Four logistic regression models were analyzed for the purposes of this study: Graduation of students across all four categories of languages taught at DLIFLC, graduation of students in Category I languages, graduation of students in Category III languages and graduation of students in Category IV languages. The results of this study can assist DLIFLC in investing its resources in students with the best chances of success and assist the staff in identifying the weaker students from the onset of the course.

Naval Postgraduate School / Fact Book 2005

Naval Postgraduate School Office of Institutional Research
Fonte: Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California. Publicador: Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California.
EN_US
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) provides unique, professional, military-relevant graduate education that meets the highest academic standards while responding to the dynamic educational and research needs of the Department of Defense (DoD), other federal agencies, and our international allies. NPS students learn in a multi-disciplinary, joint, international and inter-agency environment. Roughly 2,000 students are enrolled in degree programs. Nearly half are officers from the Navy and Marine Corps. The others are officers and civilians from other U.S. services and federal agencies studying side-by-side with nearly 300 officers from approximately 60 other nations.

Requirements Fair Seeks to Expand the Reach of NPS Studies Program; Requirements Fair Seeks to Expand the Reach of NPS Studies Program

Naval Postgraduate School Public Affairs Office; Naval Postgraduate School Public Affairs Office
Fonte: Naval Postgraduate School; Monterey, California, Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Naval Postgraduate School; Monterey, California, Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.19%
Faculty Showcase Archive Article; Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; Faculty Showcase News Article; Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) students, faculty and staff recently came together to participate in a first-of-its-kind, research requirement fair at venues scattered across the NPS campus in Monterey.; Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) students, faculty and staff recently came together to participate in a first-of-its-kind, research requirement fair at venues scattered across the NPS campus in Monterey.

Engineering Students, Faculty Find Solutions in Satellite Sustainability; Engineering Students, Faculty Find Solutions in Satellite Sustainability

Ehrlich, Michael; Ehrlich, Michael
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School; Monterey, California, Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School; Monterey, California, Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.31%
Faculty Showcase Archive Article; Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; Faculty Showcase News Article; Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) students Lt. Eric Kinzbrunner and Lt. Cmdr. Matthew Argenziano are in the midst of their research theses in the university’s Graduate School of Engineering and Applied Sciences. And with the assistance of their advisor, Research Assistant Professor Mark Karpenko, the two space systems students may just have an immediate impact on NASA’s deep space observation satellite, the Kepler Spacecraft.; Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) students Lt. Eric Kinzbrunner and Lt. Cmdr. Matthew Argenziano are in the midst of their research theses in the university’s Graduate School of Engineering and Applied Sciences. And with the assistance of their advisor, Research Assistant Professor Mark Karpenko, the two space systems students may just have an immediate impact on NASA’s deep space observation satellite, the Kepler Spacecraft.

Usable Knowledge gained for personnel serving in the operating forces through Naval Postgraduate School's distributed learning program

Hortman, Billy S.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xvi, 99 p. : col. ill. ;
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.22%
This research examines the usable knowledge gained or refined through Distributed Learning from Naval Postgraduate School for personnel serving in operational billets. The population studied was students currently enrolled or students that had completed the Information Systems and Operations certificate program. The study used a web based survey for data collection and used that data to answer four research questions. The data clearly demonstrates that Distributed Learning is equivalent to resident coursework in terms of usable knowledge gained or refined and distributes that usable knowledge quickly and efficiently to individual servicemembers. Beyond the individual, a direct transfer to the organization of a portion of the knowledge gained or refined occurs. The data suggest that frequency of use of skills can be used as a measure of effectiveness for the Distributed Learning program at Naval Postgraduate School, but more data are needed to be conclusive. Additionally, the results provide evidence that Distributed Learning provides a strong, social interaction learning context. This evidence challenges the assertion that social interaction between students and faculty is primarily a characteristic of resident coursework and a limitation of Distributed Learning.; US Marine Corps (USMC) author.

STEM at Naval Postgraduate School Homepage

Fonte: Monterey, California, Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California, Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Web Page Capture
Relevância na Pesquisa
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"The Naval Postgraduate School is the nation's premiere national security research university, and although NPS produces highly-qualified M.S. and Ph.D. graduates in several disciplines, the university also reaches beyond the gates to provide opportunities for students interested in the science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields. NPS host dozens of high school, undergraduate and graduate level students fromschools locally and across the countrry with a desire to learn from world-class researchers and graduate military students at NPS. The internships provide hands-on experiential learning and valuable networking potential while encouraging budding scientists and engineers to pursue careers within the Department of Defense."; Includes an image of the main page on this date and compressed file containing additional web pages. Last updated 3/31/2015

Does Evolution matter?: a case study in Brazil of the effects of an evolutionary-thinking academic atmosphere in postgraduate students' belief in God/religious belief

Dias, Ivan A.; Willemart, Rodrigo Hirata; Marques, Antônio C.
Fonte: Academia Brasileira de Ciências; Rio de Janeiro Publicador: Academia Brasileira de Ciências; Rio de Janeiro
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.18%
Although the theory of evolution is more than 150 years old, a substantial proportion of the world population does not mention it when explaining the origin of human beings. The usual alternative conception is offered by creationism, one of the main obstacles to full acceptance of evolution in many countries. National polls have demonstrated that schooling and religiosity are negatively correlated, with scientists being one of the least religious professionals. Herein we analyzed both (1) the profile of 1st semester undergraduate students and (2), thesis and dissertations, concerning religious and evolutionary thoughts from Biology and Veterinary Schools at the largest university of South America. We have shown that students of Biology are biased towards evolution before they enter university and also that the presence of an evolutionary-thinking academic atmosphere influences the deism/religiosity beliefs of postgraduate students.; Embora a teoria da evolução tenha mais de 150 anos, uma proporção substancial da população mundial não se refere a ela para explicar a origem dos seres humanos. A alternativa conceitual usual é oferecida pelo criacionismo, um dos principais obstáculos à aceitação plena da Evolução em muitos países. Pesquisas nacionais demonstraram que nível de instrução e religiosidade estão correlacionados negativamente...

Does Evolution matter?: a case study in Brazil of the effects of an evolutionary-thinking academic atmosphere in postgraduate students' belief in God/religious belief

Dias,Ivan A.; Willemart,Rodrigo H.; Marques,Antonio C.
Fonte: Academia Brasileira de Ciências Publicador: Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.18%
Although the theory of evolution is more than 150 years old, a substantial proportion of the world population does not mention it when explaining the origin of human beings. The usual alternative conception is offered by creationism, one of the main obstacles to full acceptance of evolution in many countries. National polls have demonstrated that schooling and religiosity are negatively correlated, with scientists being one of the least religious professionals. Herein we analyzed both (1) the profile of 1st semester undergraduate students and (2), thesis and dissertations, concerning religious and evolutionary thoughts from Biology and Veterinary Schools at the largest university of South America. We have shown that students of Biology are biased towards evolution before they enter university and also that the presence of an evolutionary-thinking academic atmosphere influences the deism/religiosity beliefs of postgraduate students.

Knowledge, attitude and practices toward pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reactions in postgraduate students of Tertiary Care Hospital in Gujarat

Upadhyaya, Het B.; Vora, Mukeshkumar B.; Nagar, Jatin G.; Patel, Pruthvish B.
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.37%
Being key health care professional, physicians, pharmacist and nurses have immense responsibility in reporting adverse drug reaction (ADR). Therefore, the study objective was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) toward pharmacovigilance and ADRs of postgraduate students of our institute. A cross-sectional questionnaires based study was carried out in postgraduate students of the clinical department at tertiary care hospital attached with Govt. Medical College, Vadodara, Gujarat (India). A total of 22 questionnaires about KAP toward ADRs and pharmacovigilance were developed and peer viewed of all questionnaires by expert faculties from our institute. We were contacted directly to postgraduate students of respective clinical department; questionnaires were distributed and taken back after 30 min. The filled KAP questionnaires were analyzed in question wise and their percentage value was calculated by using Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. Postgraduate residents (n = 101) from different clinical departments were enrolled in the study. Average 34.83% correct and 64.08% incorrect knowledge about ADRs and pharmacovigilance and an average 90.76% students were agreed to reporting ADRs is necessary, mandatory and increased patient's safety. Only 7.92% of postgraduate doctors were reported ADR at institute or ADR reporting center. We concluded that postgraduate students have a better attitude toward reporting ADRs...

Rapid ecological assessment of benthic indicators of water quality: a successful capacity-building experience for Brazilian postgraduate students in ecology

Callisto,M.; Ribeiro,AS.; Santana,VB.; França,JS.; Ligeiro,R.; Ferreira,WR.; Silva,D.; Castro,D.; Tupinambás,TH.; Santana,D.; Souza,B.; Gonçalves,F.; Rodrigues,L.; Andrade,CB.; Sales,SCM.; Souza,R.
Fonte: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia Publicador: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.18%
Rapid Ecological Assessment protocols are important tools for the training of postgraduate students, as well as the collection of data on poorly-known and protected areas with the potential for the preservation of water supplies for urban areas. The objective of this study was to perform a survey of water quality and diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates in two sub-basins at the Mata do Junco Wildlife Refuge in the Brazilian state of Sergipe. The collection of data in the field, laboratory processing, and the interpretation and discussion of data were conducted in groups by students from two postgraduate programmes in Ecology and Conservation (UFMG and UFS), personnel of the state environment agency (SEMARH), school teachers from the local town of Capela, and members of the reserve's voluntary fire brigade. The results of the assessment were organised, analysed, and presented at the reserve headquarters in the form of posters, for the development of environmental education activities with pupils from local schools, as well as contributing to a SEMARH seminar. Samples were characterised by distinct taxonomic compositions and diversity, as confirmed by MDS and additive partitioning of diversity analyses. The gravel substrate presented the lower mean taxonomic richness in each sampling unit (a1 = 28%)...

POLITICS IN NURSING: AN ESSENTIAL LEARNING FOR POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS

Bérubé, Andrée-Anne; Frenette, Audrey; Dallaire, Clémence; Bernardino, Elizabeth; Blanchet, Julie; Pomerleau, Sophie
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Paraná Publicador: Universidade Federal do Paraná
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/12/2013 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.14%
In Canada, as elsewhere, nurses must face many challenges if they want to participate as an influential group within health care organizations, but there are some facilitators; among them are the ability to analyze the context, issues and the right course of actions from a political perspective. This article shares the learning outcomes of postgraduate students during a seminar on policies related to nursing services administration at Université Laval, Québec, Canada. The aim of this article is to present the learning achieved from themes and issues discussed in the seminar and introduce tools for political analysis that are useful to draw the current state of nursing in the healthcare system. At the end of the seminar, the learning achieved allowed students to comprehend different elements that must be taken into account to assess the current situation concerning important issues for the nursing profession and consider courses of action to influence their evolution. 

Postgraduate research methodological flaws detected at final examination stage: Who is to blame?

Nyika,Aceme
Fonte: South African Journal of Science Publicador: South African Journal of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
In the wake of globalisation, most universities are intensifying efforts to improve their overall performance in order to attract students and enhance chances of securing competitive funding from various sources. As part of these efforts, universities are striving to ensure that their postgraduate programmes meet nationally and internationally acceptable standards. Research projects conducted by students form a critical component of most postgraduate programmes and universities have put in place procedures meant to ensure that postgraduate research meets acceptable minimum standards. The procedures include setting minimum entry educational qualifications, supervision by qualified members of university academic staff, institutional evaluation of research proposals before the proposed research is embarked on, submission of progress reports by postgraduate students during the course of their programmes, and final examination of students' theses, dissertations or research reports by internal as well as external examiners. In some instances, the examiners recommend outright rejection of the student's write-up if they consider the methodology used to be inappropriate to answer research questions of the project conducted. The implications of research methodological shortcomings which are identified at the final examination stage...

Expectations of postgraduate nursing students: An inquiry

Lekalakala-Mokgele,S
Fonte: Curationis Publicador: Curationis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.36%
Postgraduate supervision in South Africa currently takes place in the context of university transformation with a notable increase in concern for quality. The latter is determined by the extent to which students' expectations within a supervisory practice are met. This study investigated students' expectations regarding their research supervision in a postgraduate nursing programme. A 48-item questionnaire was mailed to 24 postgraduate students, of which 22 (92%) responded, to determine their expectations within a supervisory relationship. Items in the questionnaire included students' perceptions of the responsibilities of the institution, the department, the supervisor and students' responsibilities regarding their supervised postgraduate studies in the School of Nursing Science. Descriptive statistics, namely frequencies and percentages for categorical data and means and standard deviations or medians and percentiles for continuous data, were calculated. Findings indicate that more than 80% of the postgraduate students in the study expected the university and the department to provide them with structures that would enable them to succeed in their studies. They also believed that the student had a major role to play in ensuring that studies were completed. Recommendations included making a code of practice for postgraduate supervision available to students and the use of a learning contract to clarify roles and expectations in the supervisory process. It was also recommended that supervisors should be trained to supervise students.