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O processo de degeneração dos partidos políticos no Brasil; Degeneration process of political parties in Brazil.

Jehá, Pedro Rubez
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/06/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.5%
Este trabalho é dedicado à análise do fenômeno partidário brasileiro. Mais especificamente, apresenta maiores detalhes de algumas de suas feições degeneradas e busca identificar, no ordenamento jurídico brasileiro, as possíveis principais causas normativas que expliquem este processo para, em seguida, propor alternativas possivelmente capazes de combatê-lo. O foco do estudo é essencialmente jurídico, visto que, os partidos políticos, após longa e deliberada omissão dos legisladores (constitucionais, principalmente), desde meados do século XX, vêm afirmando sua presença nos ordenamentos jurídicos de todo o mundo. Hoje, portanto, os partidos políticos são amplamente reconhecidos como um dos principais players do cenário político e, como tal, têm merecido uma atenção cada vez maior dos juristas. Pois se o direito em geral e o constitucional em particular - interessa-se por todos os principais aspectos que envolvem o processo de aquisição, exercício e perda do poder político dentro do Estado, nada mais natural que também passe a interessar-se em regular o funcionamento destas associações especificamente constituídas para este propósito. Entretanto, apesar de reconhecido e regulado pelo direito legislado...

A democracia Cabo-verdiana e os pequenos partidos políticos; Cape Verde democracy and small political parties

Rodrigues, Anildo Lopes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/02/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.53%
A presente dissertação busca entender as razões do insucesso dos pequenos partidos políticos em Cabo Verde e o seu fraco desempenho eleitoral ao longo da história política cabo verdiana. O modelo do financiamento público tem sido apontado como a causa principal deste resultado. Questionamos essa explicação, buscando mostrar que a razão que está por trás do insucesso dos pequenos partidos não se deve unicamente à dificuldade de acesso ao financiamento público, mas também a outras variáveis, nem todas elas institucionais. Através da análise dos dados do Afrobarómetro é possível inferir que os pequenos partidos não têm apoio da população. As pessoas não transferem as suas preferências numa terceira força partidária, favorecendo assim os dois grandes partidos, fomentando ainda mais o bipartidarismo.; This work seeks to understand the reasons for the failure of small political parties in Cape Verde and its weak electoral performance throughout the political history Cape Verdean . Public funding model has been suggested as the main cause of this result. We question this explanation, seeking to show that the reason behind the failure of small parties is not due solely to the difficulty of access to public funding...

Collective Action, Political Parties and Pro-Development Public Policy

Keefer, Philip
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.57%
Broad consensus exists that the ability of political actors to make credible commitments is key to development. An important and little-explored determinant of the credibility of political commitments is the existence of organizations that facilitate citizen collective action to sanction political actors who renege. This paper focuses on one essential organization, the political party. Three measures of political parties are used to assess cross-country differences in the degree to which politicians facilitate the ability of citizens to act in their collective interest. Each of these measures is associated with superior development outcomes, above and beyond the effects of competitive elections. These results have implications for understanding the extraordinary economic success of some East Asian countries and notable lags among others: East Asian non-democracies exhibit more institutionalized ruling parties than other non-democracies, while East Asian democracies exhibit equally or less institutionalized parties. The evidence suggests that greater research and policy emphasis be placed on the organizational characteristics of countries that allow citizens to hold leaders accountable.

Political Budget Cycles and the Organization of Political Parties

Hanusch, Marek; Keefer, Philip
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.59%
This paper introduces a new explanation for political budget cycles: politicians have stronger incentives to increase spending around elections in the presence of younger political parties. Previous research has shown that political budget cycles are larger when voters are uninformed about politician characteristics and when politicians are less credible. The effects of party age can be traced to organizational differences between younger and older parties that also affect voter information and politician credibility. Parties organized around particular individuals, rather than around policy labels or a party machine, are less likely to survive the departure of party leaders, to adopt organizational attributes that promote voter information and political credibility, and to limit political budget cycles. Previous research has also shown larger political budget cycles in younger democracies. Evidence presented here indicates that party age accounts for this effect.

Organic law on the integrity of political parties and candidates: a tool for political

Sepoe, Orovu
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 134336 bytes; 358 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.5%
In this article I wish to provide some insights into the current status of OLIPPAC as a tool for creating political stability and to highlight the challenges of implementing the law. I wish to argue that OLIPPAC is a worthwhile tool for creating political stability in PNG and take issue with the argument that OLIPPAC has failed. Two issues underpin the views I express here. First, is OLIPPAC meaningless or insignificant in the context of a weak party system or endemic political instability in PNG? Second, who is responsible for making OLIPPAC achieve its overall goal of creating political stability?; This paper is a response to Alphonse Gelu’s contribution to the Pacific Week on “ The Failure of the Organic Law on the Integrity of Political Parties & Candidates”, RSPAS, Australian National University, January 2005.; no

The failures of the organic law on the integrity of political parties and candidates

Gelu, Alphonse
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 214238 bytes; 357 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.65%
Papua New Guinea (PNG) had its democratic institutions and processes established during the 1960’s. This process began with the establishment of the Legislative Council in 1959 and later the House of Assembly in 1964. The discussion of the Organic Law on the Integrity of Political Parties and Candidates (OLIPPAC) relates to political parties and candidates, therefore a brief mention will be made on the historical evolution of political parties in Papua New Guinea. Political parties first emerged in Papua New Guinea in 1967. Two of the earliest parties were the Pangu Party and the United Party. Political parties in the history of PNG first contested the 1968 national election (Moore and Kooyman, 1998). The emergence of the different groups that later became political parties became sporadic which brought about the multiparty nature of the party system in the country. During the 1972 election, new political groups such as the People’s Progress Party, National Party, Melanesian Alliance and other smaller groups emerged and contested the election. Other groups based on nationalistic sentiments also contested but most of them did not last after the 1982 national election (May, 1982). This paper will look at the failures of the OLIPPAC. The first part will be a general discussion of the OLIPPAC. The second part will look at the events after the 2002 elections...

The role of political parties in democratization in Turkey

TURSAN, Huri
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Paper
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.44%
Party politics has been undergoing a revival in many democracies. However, parties are much less studied in countries with unstable political regimes. Party interactions can help to provide explanations for the emergence and performance of regimes, whether of the democratic or authoritarian type. This dissertation is a comprehensive case study that analyses, in depth, Turkish political parties. Starting with broad historical analysis, Huri Tursan takes the reader down to the most recent electoral activities and party politics in a country whose topicality is on the rise, not least due to its political problems. While the author deals with many issues of politics (including the role of the military), she focuses on an aspect of party competition which renders democracy problematic in Turkey, namely polarisation in party politics along cleavages.; Defence date: 25 June 1999; Examining board: Prof. Philippe C. Schmitter, European University Institute (supervisor) ; Prof. Gianfranco Pasquino, University of Bologna ; Prof. Semih Vaner, Centre Européen de Recherche Internationale, Paris ; Prof. Stefano Bartolini, European University Institute

The New Politics of Autonomy. Territorial Strategies and the uses of European Integration by Political Parties in Scotland, Bavaria and Sardinia 1979-2005

HEPBURN, Eve
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 1350435 bytes; application/pdf; digital
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.48%
European integration has upset many assumptions regarding the distribution of power, functions and authority across and within states. Scholars have bewailed or rejoiced the ‘emptying’ of the state – the erosion of its competences by supranational integration and decentralisation. However, there are few examinations of how substate actors have responded to state and European structural change, and none that have analysed how substate political parties have sought to enhance regional powers and influence during a period in which state boundaries have become permeable. This research fills this lacuna by exploring how substate parties in Scotland, Bavaria and Sardinia have pursued territorial strategies to secure autonomy and capacity in Europe since 1979. The choice of comparing dissimilar regions enables us to explore the uneven effects of European integration in different places, and to examine why some parties have used Europe to advance their territorial projects whilst others have not. Territorial strategies – which include demands for constitutional recognition as well as policy capacity – differ across territories and party systems, owing to a variety of local and statewide factors. They also change over time in response to perceived opportunities for action in Europe. For instance...

The Europeanization of Political Parties: Influencing the Regulations on Political Finance

WALECKI, Marcin
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.6%
Europe does matter for political parties because of the impact of its rules, directives and norms into the domestic sphere. Drawing on new evidence, this paper sheds light on largely hidden aspects of the Europeanization of political parties and argues that the legal framework regulating party funding has been directly affected by this process. Political parties in EU candidate countries and the member states of the Council of Europe have become the target of stricter regulations in order to combat political corruption. The way in which external agencies have influenced the regulations on the funding of political parties is analysed. The article illustrates how political parties gain in importance in the context of the EU accession process and associated anti-corruption reforms. The influence of Europeanization on party funding regulations has been particularly important in the cases of Latvia, Poland, Slovakia, Bulgaria and Romania, as well as Turkey and the Balkan countries that have declared their intention of joining the EU.

Pariah Parties: On the origins and electoral consequences of the ostracism of political parties in established democracies

VAN SPANJE, Joost
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.65%
Party politics is about cooperation and conflict between political parties. At certain times, a party may rule out all political cooperation with a particular other party. In these cases, there is only conflict between the parties. This dissertation is about such situations. I define the systematic refusal of a particular party to cooperate politically with a particular other party as the party’s ostracism of the other party. It is the causes and consequences of ostracism that I wish to explain in this thesis. In order to do so, I first define the concepts of the ‘anti-immigration party’ and the ‘communist party.’ Based on both a literature review and an expert survey, conducted in the course of this study, I classify other parties’ responses to the existence of 46 anti-immigration and communist parties in 15 countries in postwar Western Europe as either ‘ostracism’ or ‘no ostracism.’ In the first part of this dissertation, I use the resulting classification as the dependent variable in a comparative-empirical analysis, in order to explain the variation in other parties’ political responses to particular political parties. Using logistic regression analysis on the basis of two different data sets, I find that other parties are likely to systematically boycott a far right party if they do not need to cooperate with it anyway. They are even more likely to do so if it holds anti-democratic ideologies. The ‘ostracism’ / ‘no ostracism’ classification is the main independent variable in the second part of the research...

Social movements and political parties: A zero-sum game?

DELLA PORTA, Donatella
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
IT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.59%
Social movements and political parties are perceived as more and more distant from each other. While in the past the emerging social movements tended to ally with existing parties (especially the «Old Left») and/or to create new ones (see the Green parties), the cycle of protest that became visible at the turn of the millennium around issues of global justice testifies for an increasing mistrust between those two actors. This article documents - on the basis of survey data and focus groups - the attitudes and behaviors of European activists of the global justice movement towards political parties, explaining the growing criticism as motivated by a perceived oragnizational detachment of the (left-wing) parties from the society as well as their move towards the center. At the same time, there are however also evidences of overlapping memberships in social movements and political parties, as well as an interest by movement activists in addressing party politics. These evidences are explained on the basis of a comparative analysis of political and discoursive opportunities in six European countries.

Political Parties and Party Systems in World Politics: A comparative analysis of party-based foreign policy contestation and change

CHRYSSOGELOS, Angelos-Stylianos
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.57%
The argument of this dissertation is that instances of foreign policy change can be best understood as interactions between ongoing dynamics of important aspects of domestic party systems and changes in a state’s normative and material international environment. I identify three types of dynamics of party systems: different patterns of coalition and opposition, different patterns of expression of social cleavages through parties, and redefinitions of the meaning attached to the main axis of competition. These dynamics provide partisan actors with the ideational resources to make sense of changes in the international system, contribute to the creation of new (domestic and foreign) policy preferences and bring about political incentives for the promotion of new foreign policies. The pace, content and fields of change are determined by the specific aspects of a party system undergoing change. Using insights from party systems theory and political sociology, the dissertation promotes the idea that the contestation of foreign policy, the engagement of domestic political actors with developments in the international system, and ultimately foreign policy change, all take place within a thick social and institutional structure that prescribes interests and delineates the terms of debate. In this way...

Political parties at the European level - their organization and activities: The case of the European People's Party and the Party of European Socialists

GAGATEK, Wojciech
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.48%
Examining Board: Prof. Peter Mair, EUI (Supervisor) Prof. Stefano Bartolini, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, EUI Prof. Luciano Bardi, University of Pisa Prof. Thomas Poguntke, University of Bochum; Defence date: 17 December 2008; The literature devoted to political parties at the European level - also known as the ‘Europarties’ - frequently argues that due to the impact of the EU’s peculiar institutional environment and the need to adapt to it, Europarties have converged on some common organizational features. Building on neo-institutional theories of party change and adaptation, and especially on historical and sociological institutionalism, this thesis offers an alternative set of explanations for the organizational forms of the Europarties. In so doing, it brings into question both the extent of their organizational convergence and the primary focus of the literature on environmental factors, as well the limits of the few comparisons between Euroand national level party organizations that have been made thus far. To this end, the research focuses on the organization of the two largest Europarties - the European People’s Party (EPP) and the Party of European Socialists (PES) - and on how and why they differ from one another. Europarty organizational development is explained through an assessment of the impact of the organizational traditions of the individual member parties on their EU-level counterpart. Building on data gathered through in-depth interviews...

Organizing for Prosperity : Collective Action, Political Parties and the Political Economy of Development

Keefer, Philip
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.57%
The ability of citizens to act collectively plays a central role in major debates in the political economy of development, including the causes and consequences of democratization and clientelism. This essay uses two lines of research to underscore the importance of explicitly introducing the organization of collective action into these debates. Exhaustive research on the management of open access resources demonstrates that citizens' ability to act collectively depends on non-trivial organizational arrangements that allow leaders to sanction free-riding and allow members to replace leaders if they shirk. Other research demonstrates wide variability in the organization of political parties. In countries where political parties do not have these two organizational characteristics, public policies are less friendly to economic development. This evidence suggests that in future research on democracy, state-building and development, citizen organization should be a central object of analysis.

Essays on Political Parties, their Organization, and Policy Choice

Martineau, Nicolas-Guillaume M.
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.5%
The primary aim of this thesis is to advance economics' understanding of the organization of political parties, for the purpose of explaining the policy choices that result from collective decision procedures. Motivating this inquiry is the benign neglect that the political party as an organization has long suffered from in economics, in a manner that mirrors depictions of the firm in early neoclassical analysis. Accordingly, this thesis first considers the question of the relative influence of different contributors to the political parties' electoral activities, i.e. special-interest groups contributing money and individual party activists volunteering their time, on their choice of policy platforms. It is found that the presence of activists induces parties to offer differentiated policy platforms, even in the presence of a special-interest group whose contributions are perfectly substitutable with those of activists. Concurrently, the special interest's influence is to bias the parties' platforms towards its preferred policy. Second, the internal dynamics of parties organized into factions sharing common goals are investigated. It is studied how they affect the party leader's choice of policies while in office and her accountability to voters...

Overcoming Political Disenchantment: A New Appreciation of Campaign Finance and Political Parties

Datta, Prithviraj
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.55%
This dissertation offers a novel argument for the democratic importance of political parties and campaign finance. Taking issue with the United States Supreme Court's campaign finance and political party jurisprudence, which tends to value campaign spending and party activity for the role that they play in expanding voter choice, my account seeks, instead, to emphasize the role that these forms of political participation can play in countering the sense of political disenchantment which characterizes the political attitudes of a large number of American citizens today. I argue in this project that by subjecting their preferences to continuous contestation and challenge, parties and campaign finance can help instill an appreciation for compromise, as well as tolerance for political diversity and disagreement, among the disenchanted. This, in turn, has many beneficial implications for enabling good governance on the part of the American state. In the course of the dissertation, I also specify the many ways in which contemporary parties and campaign finance regimes need to be reformed in order for them to be able to perform this role. Questions of institutional design thus occupy an extremely prominent place in the project.; Government

Império das incertezas: política e partidos nas décadas finais da monarquia brasileira (1868-1889); The rule of uncertainty: politics and political parties in the final decades of the Brazilian monarchy (1868-1889)

Ribeiro, Filipe Nicoletti
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/08/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.47%
A presente dissertação tem como objeto de estudo os dois grandes partidos monárquicos, Conservador e Liberal, nas décadas finais do Império. Partindo de temas fundamentais às disputas políticas do período, como eleições, autonomia provincial e escravidão, pretende-se compreender de que forma as importantes inflexões ocorridas na década de 1880 impactaram o sistema político-partidário do Império. Essas inflexões, já apontadas pela historiografia, dizem respeito ao recrudescimento das tensões políticas, ocorrido em consonância com o robustecimento da mobilização de forças extraparlamentares, que ganharam radicalidade no período. O surgimento de um movimento social organizado contrário à escravidão e as reivindicações de crescentes setores da população por maior participação nos negócios públicos acabaram por cindir profundamente a elite política do país. Se a solução para alguns foi a resistência obstinada, outros se mostraram dispostos a tomar parte na formulação de um projeto denominado por eles mesmos de monarquia democrática, que teve em seu horizonte a abolição incondicional da escravidão, a vigorosa expansão do direito ao voto, a reforma do Estado, o alargamento da autonomia provincial e a disseminação do acesso à terra.; The present thesis aims to study the two major political parties in the Brazilian monarchy...

Book review: Political parties in Britain

Goes, Eunice
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/05/2013 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.51%
"Political Parties in Britain." Matt Cole and Helen Deighan. Edinburgh University Press. July 2012. --- This introductory textbook examines the factors contributing to a political party’s fortune and identity. Authors Matt Cole and Helen Deighan examine Britain’s main political parties as well as ‘peripheral’ parties including the BNP and UKIP. Eunice Goes writes that Political Parties in Britain is a highly informative, accessible and up-to-date introductory text that should be included in all British politics reading lists.

The rise of virtual activism means that Europe’s political parties must embrace digital technologies as campaigning tools

Hartleb, Florian
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/11/2012 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.46%
Historically, Europe’s political parties have relied on an active membership to achieve and maintain influence. However, with the rise of professional communications management, political parties must increasingly seek influence and relevance through other means. Florian Hartleb looks at the emergence of ‘virtual politics’ in Europe and finds that social media and online engagement offer new opportunities and challenges for political parties.

Political parties and trade unions in Cyprus

Katsourides, Yiannos
Fonte: Hellenic Observatory, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Hellenic Observatory, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2013 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.47%
The political parties in Cyprus are extremely powerful. They play a dominant role in the public as well as the private sphere, resulting in a civil society that is extremely weak. The article will address two issues. First, it will map the evolution of civil society organisations (CSOs), especially the trade unions, and their relationship with political parties. Trade unions are probably the most important and influential of the CSOs in Cyprus. Second, it will examine the relationship between political parties and trade unions in contemporary Cyprus, focusing on the changing context within which their interaction takes place, the strategies adopted by the two actors and the direction of influence between them. Research and analysis are based on interviews, surveys, party documents and other secondary literature.