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Political ideology and consumption decisions : insights of a field experiment on conservatives’ and liberals’ choice preferences

Heilen, Linda Johanna Marie
Fonte: Universidade Católica Portuguesa Publicador: Universidade Católica Portuguesa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em 05/09/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72%
Despite continuous polarisation along political party lines, it remains unclear how differences in political ideology impact the choices consumers make. This dissertation presents a field experiment performed to investigate the impact of political ideology on consumers’ behaviour, by examining the influence of traits associated with a conservative or liberal ideology on choice preferences. We hereby draw on the motivated social cognition theory, which establishes conservatism as a defence system against threats and on the ideology–social comparison link. Our analysis of the choice preferences of conservatives and liberals regarding luxurious and green products shows that political ideology indeed influences conservatives’ and liberals’ product choices and that these choices can be subconsciously affected by selected priming tasks. This research therefore emphasises the importance of political ideology for consumer behaviour and its implications on choice preferences by unveiling the predictive power of political tendencies.

Association between political ideology and health in Europe

Subramanian, S. V.; Huijts, Tim; Perkins, Jessica M.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.65%
Studies have largely examined the association between political ideology and health at the aggregate/ecological level. Using individual-level data from 29 European countries, we investigated whether self-reports of political ideology and health are associated. In adjusted models, we found an inverse association between political ideology and self-rated poor health; for a unit increase in the political ideology scale (towards right) the odds ratio (OR) for reporting poor health decreased (OR 0.95, 95% confidence interval 0.94–0.96). Although political ideology per se is unlikely to have a causal link to health, it could be a marker for health-promoting latent attitudes, values and beliefs.

Friendships Moderate an Association Between a Dopamine Gene Variant and Political Ideology

Settle, Jaime E.; Dawes, Christopher T.; Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.66%
Scholars in many fields have long noted the importance of social context in the development of political ideology. Recent work suggests that political ideology also has a heritable component, but no specific gene variant or combination of variants associated with political ideology have so far been identified. Here, we hypothesize that individuals with a genetic predisposition toward seeking out new experiences will tend to be more liberal, but only if they are embedded in a social context that provides them with multiple points of view. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we test this hypothesis by investigating an association between self-reported political ideology and the 7R variant of the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4), which has previously been associated with novelty seeking. Among those with DRD4-7R, we find that the number of friendships a person has in adolescence is significantly associated with liberal political ideology. Among those without the gene variant, there is no association. This is the first study to elaborate a specific gene-environment interaction that contributes to ideological self-identification, and it highlights the importance of incorporating both nature and nurture into the study of political preferences.

“Not for All the Tea in China!” Political Ideology and the Avoidance of Dissonance-Arousing Situations

Nam, H. Hannah; Jost, John T.; Van Bavel, Jay J.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/04/2013 EN
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46.37%
People often avoid information and situations that have the potential to contradict previously held beliefs and attitudes (i.e., situations that arouse cognitive dissonance). According to the motivated social cognition model of political ideology, conservatives tend to have stronger epistemic needs to attain certainty and closure than liberals. This implies that there may be differences in how liberals and conservatives respond to dissonance-arousing situations. In two experiments, we investigated the possibility that conservatives would be more strongly motivated to avoid dissonance-arousing tasks than liberals. Indeed, U.S. residents who preferred more conservative presidents (George W. Bush and Ronald Reagan) complied less than Americans who preferred more liberal presidents (Barack Obama and Bill Clinton) with the request to write a counter-attitudinal essay about who made a “better president.” This difference was not observed under circumstances of low perceived choice or when the topic of the counter-attitudinal essay was non-political (i.e., when it pertained to computer or beverage preferences). The results of these experiments provide initial evidence of ideological differences in dissonance avoidance. Future work would do well to determine whether such differences are specific to political issues or topics that are personally important. Implications for political behavior are discussed.

Nonpolitical Images Evoke Neural Predictors of Political Ideology

Ahn, Woo-Young; Kishida, Kenneth T.; Gu, Xiaosi; Lohrenz, Terry; Harvey, Ann; Alford, John R.; Smith, Kevin B.; Yaffe, Gideon; Hibbing, John R.; Dayan, Peter; Montague, P. Read
Fonte: Cell Press Publicador: Cell Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/11/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.59%
Political ideologies summarize dimensions of life that define how a person organizes their public and private behavior, including their attitudes associated with sex, family, education, and personal autonomy [1, 2]. Despite the abstract nature of such sensibilities, fundamental features of political ideology have been found to be deeply connected to basic biological mechanisms [3–7] that may serve to defend against environmental challenges like contamination and physical threat [8–12]. These results invite the provocative claim that neural responses to nonpolitical stimuli (like contaminated food or physical threats) should be highly predictive of abstract political opinions (like attitudes toward gun control and abortion) [13]. We applied a machine-learning method to fMRI data to test the hypotheses that brain responses to emotionally evocative images predict individual scores on a standard political ideology assay. Disgusting images, especially those related to animal-reminder disgust (e.g., mutilated body), generate neural responses that are highly predictive of political orientation even though these neural predictors do not agree with participants’ conscious rating of the stimuli. Images from other affective categories do not support such predictions. Remarkably...

Friendships Moderate an Association between a Dopamine Gene Variant and Political Ideology

Christakis, Nicholas Alexander; Settle, Jaime E.; Dawes, Christopher; Fowler, James H.
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.66%
Scholars in many fields have long noted the importance of social context in the development of political ideology. Recent work suggests that political ideology also has a heritable component, but no specific gene variant or combination of variants associated with political ideology have so far been identified. Here, we hypothesize that individuals with a genetic predisposition toward seeking out new experiences will tend to be more liberal, but only if they are embedded in a social context that provides them with multiple points of view. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we test this hypothesis by investigating an association between self-reported political ideology and the 7R variant of the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4), which has previously been associated with novelty seeking. Among those with DRD4-7R, we find that the number of friendships a person has in adolescence is significantly associated with liberal political ideology. Among those without the gene variant, there is no association. This is the first study to elaborate a specific gene-environment interaction that contributes to ideological self-identification, and it highlights the importance of incorporating both nature and nurture into the study of political preferences.; Sociology

Regional Variations in Political Ideology in Canada

Héroux-Legault, Maxime
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.45%
Il est reconnu que les résultats électoraux au Canada varient grandement selon la région. Afin de trouver des explications à ce phénomène, il convient d’étudier comment les grandes régions du Canada se distinguent les unes des autres sur le plan politique. La présente recherche amorce cette étude sous l’angle de l’idéologie. Elle tente de déterminer en quoi l’idéologie politique diffère d’une région à l’autre du pays. Elle s’appuie sur les données des études électorales canadiennes de 2008. On a recours à des questions évaluant les préférences des répondants par rapport à plusieurs enjeux politiques pour répondre à la question de recherche. On conduit en premier lieu une analyse factorielle, qui identifie six facteurs qui ont structuré l’opinion publique lors de l’élection de 2008. Ensuite, des tests T sont conduits pour vérifier si les moyennes de ces facteurs idéologiques sont statistiquement différentes d’une région à l’autre. Les résultats montrent que les différences régionales sont souvent significatives et suivent les hypothèses. Toutefois, les résultats touchant à la privatisation de la santé ainsi qu’au Manitoba et à la Saskatchewan vont à l’encontre des attentes.; It is widely known that electoral results in Canada vary greatly from one region to the next. To explain this phenomenon...

Political Ideology, Quality at Entry and the Success of Economic Reform Programs

Smets, Lodewijk; Knack, Stephen; Molenaers, Nadia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.41%
This study investigates how government ideology matters for the success of World Bank economic policy loans, which typically support market-liberalizing reforms. A simple model predicts that World Bank staff will invest more effort in designing an economic policy loan when faced with a left-wing government. Empirically, estimates from a Heckman selection model show that the quality at entry of an economic policy loan is significantly higher for governments with a left-wing party orientation. This result is robust to changes in the sample, alternative measures of ideology, different estimation techniques and the inclusion of additional control variables. Next, robust findings from estimating a recursive triangular system of equations indicate that leftist governments comply more fully with loan agreements. Results also suggest that World Bank resources are more productive -- in terms of reform success -- in the design of policy operations than in their supervision. Anecdotal evidence from several country cases is consistent with the finding that left-wing governments receive higher quality loans.

Ecología política y agroecología: marcos cognitivos y diseño institucional; Political ecology and agro-ecology: cognitive frameworks and institutional design

Garrido Peña, Francisco
Fonte: Murcia: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Murcia Publicador: Murcia: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Murcia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.34%
La ideología política y el modelo institucional producen “marcos cognitivos” y “marcos institucionales” que favorecen uno u otro tipo de elecciones y conductas. La Ecología Política como generadora de marcos cognitivos (ideología) y marcos institucionales (normas y programas de gobierno). En este trabajo tratamos de identificar las virtualidades que para el desarrollo de la agroecología tiene el contar con marco cognitivos e institucionales afines como los que proponen la Ecología Política.; Abstract: Political ideology and the institutional model produce “cognitive frames” and “institutional frameworks” that favor different kinds of choices and behaviors. Political Ecology, as a generator of cognitive (ideology) and institutional (government policies) frameworks, can help Agroecology to design cognitive and institutional arrangements and thus develop sustainable rural development.

El pensamiento pol??tico irland??s en la Espa??a del XVII

Recio Morales, ??scar
Fonte: Universidad de Granada Publicador: Universidad de Granada
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.34%
Art??culo de la secci??n: Estudios; La derrota de las fuerzas aliadas hispano irlandesas en Kinsale (1602) y el inicio de la britanizaci??n del Ulster (1607) marcaron el definitivo colapso del sistema ga??lico en Irlanda. Miles de irlandeses acompa??aron a sus se??ores en un exilio dirigido hacia los territorios de la Monarqu??a hisp??nica. En su necesidad de presentarse dignamente ante la Monarqu??a, desterrando as?? muchos de los t??picos culturales que sobre la sociedad ga??lica se ten??an, y en su intento de integraci??n en la sociedad espa??ola, los irlandeses elaboraron toda una ideolog??a pol??tica con el objetivo de legitimar sus aspiraciones. Esta ideolog??a se basaba en tres premisas fundamentales: una continua alusi??n al supuesto origen ib??rico de la poblaci??n irlandesa, su inquebrantable fidelidad a Roma y sus continuos servicios a la Monarqu??a espa??ola.; The defeat of the Spanish-Irish allied forces at Kinsale (1602) and the beginning of the plantations in Ulster (1607) marked the final collapse of the Gaelic system in Ireland. Thousands of Irishmen left the country with their lords bound for the Spanish Monarchy???s territories. The Irish needed to be presented at Court with dignity, denying in this way those cultural clich??s about Gaelic society that were common at the time; besides...

Nonpolitical Images Evoke Neural Predictors of Political Ideology

Ahn, Woo-Young; Kishida, Kenneth T.; Gu, Xiaosi; Lohrenz, Terry; Harvey, Ann; Alford, John R.; Smith, Kevin B.; Yaffe, Gideon; Hibbing, John R.; Dayan, Peter; Montague, P. Read
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Journal article; Text; publisher version
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.59%
Political ideologies summarize dimensions of life that define how a person organizes their public and privateᅠbehavior, including their attitudes associated with sex, family, education, and personal autonomy [1ᅠandᅠ2]. Despite the abstract nature of such sensibilities, fundamental features of political ideology have been found toᅠbe deeply connected to basic biological mechanisms [3, 4, 5, 6ᅠandᅠ7] that may serve to defend against environmental challenges like contamination and physical threat [8, 9, 10, 11ᅠandᅠ12]. These results invite the provocative claim that neural responses to nonpolitical stimuli (like contaminated foodᅠor physical threats) should be highly predictive ofᅠabstract political opinions (like attitudes toward gun control and abortion) [13]. We applied a machine-learningᅠmethod to fMRI data to test the hypotheses that brain responses to emotionally evocative images predict individual scores on a standard political ideology assay. Disgusting images, especially those related to animal-reminder disgust (e.g., mutilated body), generate neural responses that are highly predictive of political orientation even though these neural predictors do not agree with participants' conscious rating of the stimuli. Images from other affective categories do not support such predictions. Remarkably...

What is ideology?

Martin, John Levi
Fonte: Editora Mundos Sociais Publicador: Editora Mundos Sociais
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.63%
Political ideology has been a confusing topic for social analysts, and those who attempted to eschew judgmental reductions of others’ conceptions and develop a non-polemical political psychology found ideology behaving in ways that defeated their theories of political reasoning. I argue that political ideology can best be understood as actors’ theorization of their own position, and available strategies, in a political field.; A ideologia política tem sido um tema confuso para os investigadores sociais e para aqueles que tentam evitar julgar as limitações de outras conceções e desenvolver uma psicologia política não polémica que procure encontrar um comportamento ideológico que ultrapasse as teorias do raciocínio político. Defendo que a ideologia política pode ser melhor entendida como uma teorização da posição dos próprios atores e de estratégias disponíveis no campo político.; Le thème de l'idéologie politique suscite la confusion chez les chercheurs sociaux et chez ceux qui s'efforcent d'éviter de juger les limites d'autres conceptions et de développer une psychologie politique non polémique, afin de trouver un comportement idéologique qui dépasse leurs théories du raisonnement politique. Je soutiens que l'idéologie politique peut être mieux comprise en tant que théorisation de la position des acteurs eux-mêmes et de stratégies disponibles...

Sexismo ambivalente, paternalismo masculino e ideología política en una muestra de adultos jóvenes de la ciudad de Lima; Ambivalent sexism, male paternalism, and political ideology in a sample of young adults in the city of Lima; Sexismo ambivalente, paternalismo masculino e ideologia política em uma amostra de adultos jovens da cidade de Lima (Peru)

Rottenbacher de Rojas, Jan Marc
Fonte: Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali Publicador: Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; "Artículo revisado por pares"; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artículo Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf; application/pdf
SPA; ENG; POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.59%
Objetivo: este estudio describe la relación entre el sexismo ambivalente, el autoritarismo de derecha (RWA) y la orientación hacia la dominancia social (SDO) en una muestra de adultos jóvenes de la ciudad de Lima (N= 117). Método: se realizó un estudio cuantitativo de tipo descriptivo-correlacional. Además, se utilizaron versiones traducidas al Español de dos escalas que evalúan la ideología política (RWA y SDO), y una escala de sexismo ambivalente de Glick y Fiske (1996, 1997) validada para la población mexicana. Resultados: se encontró una relación directa entre el sexismo ambivalente y ambas medidas de ideología política (RWA y SDO). Y puede observar que los hombres presentan una mayor tendencia hacia el paternalismo y el sexismo hostil. Los análisis de regresión lineal muestran que sólo el RWA ejerce una influencia directa sobre los componentes del sexismo ambivalente. No se encontró ninguna relación significativa entre la ideología política conservadora y el sexo. Conclusión: es posible sostener, con base en los resultados, que la ideología política conservadora está asociada al sexismo ambivalente. Esta modalidad de sexismo promueve los roles de género tradicionales, no de   manera abiertamente hostil...

Why do liberals drink lattes? How lifestyles tied to political views can be self-reinforcing among partisan groups

DellaPosta, Daniel; Shi, Yongren; Macy, Michael
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/07/2015 EN; EN
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56.14%
The increasing polarization of U.S. politics has seen the rise of partisan ‘echo chambers’ with little interaction between those at opposite poles. This division has broadened to include lifestyles, with liberals often characterized as ‘latte-drinking’ and conservatives as ‘gun enthusiasts’, for example. In new research, Daniel DellaPosta, Yongren Shi, and Michael Macy look at how political ideology becomes linked to people’s lifestyles. They show how demographic influences on opinions can be amplified by the self-reinforcing dynamics of peer group interactions.

Political advertising in the crossroad of political pragmatism and political ideology

Kissas, Angelos
Fonte: Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies Publicador: Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2015 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.63%
The study of political advertising so far could be an exemplar of the schism that permeates the whole study of political communication nowadays; the schism between the politics of pragmatism and the politics of ideology. This paper comes to counter-argue that the study of political advertising can become an exemplar of the reconciliation of these two different areas of concern in so far as we do justice to the ontological status of discourse in political communication. This means that we should not take discourse to be a derivative of electoral design, as the legacy of modernization has taught us, but to be the primary locus where all strategies of political communication are meaningfully articulated. It is not, however, the articulation on the basis of political philosophy (ideology in liberal political theory) and for the reproduction of the social order (ideology in critical cultural studies) that grasp the ideological potential of contemporary, aestheticized and managerialized, political communication. It is rather, as I will argue, drawing on post-structuralist discourse theory, the re-contextualization of symbolisms from the past, interwoven with the precarious institutional interests and asymmetries of the present, which lies at the heart of the ideological potential of political advertising. It is...

Partisanship and ideology are likely to shape how women will react to Hillary Clinton and Carly Fiorina’s candidacies

Mathews-Schultz, A. Lanethea; Marshall, Bryan W.; Mariani, Mack D.
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/10/2015 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.34%
In Congress, the representation of women currently stands at around 20 percent – far lower than it should be. But how can we encourage more women to run for office? Past research shows that in the 1980s and early 90s, women running for national office inspired other women to get involved in politics, but this did not occur in 2008, despite Hillary Clinton and Sarah Palin’s presidential and vice-presidential runs. In new research which measures young women’s interest in political involvement, A. Lanethea Mathews-Schultz, Bryan W. Marshall, and Mack D. Mariani find that the extent to which young women see themselves as likely to participate in politics is now much more tied to partisanship and ideology.

Book review: Justice globalism: ideology, crises, policy

Kortendiek, Nele
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/05/2013 EN; EN
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46.34%
"Justice Globalism: Ideology, Crises, Policy." Manfred B. Steger, James Goodman and Erin K. Wilson. Sage. December 2012. --- Drawing on dozens of interviews and rich textual analyses involving nearly fifty global justice organizations linked to the World Social Forum, the authors of this book present a compelling case that the global justice movement has fashioned a new political ideology with global reach: ‘justice globalism’. Far from being incoherent, justice globalism possesses a rich and nuanced set of core concepts and powerful ideological claims. The book will be of interest to activists and scholars alike, writes Nele Kortendiek.

Book review: the power of ideology: from the Roman Empire to Al-Qaeda

Papagaryfallou, Ioannis
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/09/2012 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.48%
Since the Roman Empire, leaders have used ideology to organize the masses and instil amongst them a common consciousness, and equally to conquer, assimilate, or repel alternative ideologies. Ideology has been used to help create, safeguard, expand, or tear down political communities, states, empires, and regional or world systems. The Power of Ideology explores the multiple effects that competing ideologies have had on the world system for the past 1,700 years, covering Christianity, Islam, secularism, liberalism, communism, fascism and Nazism. Ioannis Papagaryfallou finds that Hybel offers a balanced and well- informed book, firmly embedded in history.

Essays in political economy and voting behaviour

De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel C. J. M.
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.64%
This thesis explores how political preferences are shaped by institutions, economic conditions, and personality. Each chapter is a distinct contribution and provides a different perspective on the formation of political preferences and, ultimately, voting behaviour. These different approaches relate to the fields of comparative political economy, behavioural economics, and political psychology. Methodologically, this thesis is empirically applied and the results of these separate enquiries into political preferences are grounded in statistical analysis. A first substantive chapter introduces a median voter data set that provides insight into the ideological position of the electoral centre in over 50 democracies. A second chapter uses this new data and studies cross-national voting behaviour in 18 Western democracies over 1960-2003. It is found that electoral behaviour is closely related to the salience of the following economic institutions: labour organization, skill specificity, and public sector employment. This research shows that political preferences are endogenous to economic institutions and implies the existence of institutional advantages to partisan politics. A third substantive chapter focuses on ideological change in the United States and tests the proposition that voters advance a more liberal agenda in prosperous times and shift towards being more conservative in dire economic times. A reference-dependent utility model relates income growth to political preferences by way of the demand for public goods and the optimal tax rate. This work thus links voting behaviour to economic business cycles and shows that ideological change is endogenous to income growth rates. Finally...

What is ideology?

Martin,John Levi
Fonte: Editora Mundos Sociais Publicador: Editora Mundos Sociais
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.63%
Political ideology has been a confusing topic for social analysts, and those who attempted to eschew judgmental reductions of others’ conceptions and develop a non-polemical political psychology found ideology behaving in ways that defeated their theories of political reasoning. I argue that political ideology can best be understood as actors’ theorization of their own position, and available strategies, in a political field.