Página 1 dos resultados de 41 itens digitais encontrados em 0.017 segundos

« Citoyennisation » et consolidation d’entités supranationales : les cas de l’Union européenne et de l’Organisation des Nations Unies

Auvachez, Elise
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.93%
Le contexte contemporain est marqué dans la sphère politique par la multiplication des paliers de régulation. Une nouvelle structure de gestion des affaires publiques a émergé, caractérisée par la superposition, ou plutôt l’enchevêtrement, des institutions nationales, des entités infra-étatiques et des organisations supranationales (à caractère régional et international). L’État, tout en conservant un rôle privilégié, ne détient plus le monopole de la production de politiques ; la sphère nationale n’est plus le seul locus de la vie politique. De telles dynamiques de changement n’ont pas laissé inchangés les contours de la citoyenneté, élément central de la régulation du politique. Les années 90 ont ainsi vu émerger une prolifération d’analyses concernant la dimension de plus en plus post/trans/supra-nationale, voire globale, de la citoyenneté ; selon ces travaux, le locus de la citoyenneté est de moins en moins national et de plus en plus supranational. La thèse cherche à dépasser cette problématique du locus à partir d’une conception multiple et dynamique de la citoyenneté ; celle-ci est considérée comme une construction dont les contours mouvants évoluent dans le temps et l’espace. Les individus ne sont pas citoyens « par nature » ; ils le deviennent à travers un processus de « citoyennisation »...

Resistere creativamente. Il design di denuncia politica

PESCE, M. FEDERICA; PESCE, MARIA FEDERICA
Fonte: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma Publicador: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
IT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.02%
In this work we aim at investigating categories of product design in terms of cultural communication by exploring artefacts conceived with the intent of encouraging users’ reflection upon “conflict” issues. Under this light, we have chosen case studies referred to those conflicts in which walls and fences are still separating populations one from another, as for Palestine, Mexico, etc. The conflict is here read as an event that is able to encode expectations of emancipation, and because of that it becomes central for articulating significant transitions. Such artefacts, rather than for their functionality or utility, might be interpreted through the Stephanie and Bruce Tharp theory of discursive design, where objects are treated like transmitters of ideas and messages. We believe that discursive design can be a good starting point for better understanding the value of the semantic content spread by objects within time and space, and that artefacts can be considered as specific agents of communication. Therefore, if we consider objects as communicative facts, then we can use tools taken from the field of logics and linguistics in order to analyse the semantic and the cultural length of the objects themselves. As a consequence...

The Road to Results : Designing and Conducting Effective Development Evaluations

Morra Imas, Linda G.; Rist, Ray C.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.8%
The analytical, conceptual, and political framework of development is changing dramatically. The new development agenda calls for broader understandings of sectors, countries, development strategies, and policies. It emphasizes learning and continuous feedback at all phases of the development cycle. As the development agenda grows in scope and complexity, development evaluation follows suit. Development evaluator are moving away from traditional implementation and output-focused evaluation models toward results-based evaluation models, as the development community calls for results and embraces the millennium development goals. As the development community shifts its focus away from projects in order to comprehensively address country challenges, development evaluators are seeking methods with which to assess results at the country, sector, theme, policy, and even global levels. As the development community recognizes the importance of not only a comprehensive but also a coordinated approach to developing country challenges and emphasizes partnerships...

Strengthening Governance through Engaged Societies : Lessons from the Implementation of Poverty Reduction Strategies

Barbone, Luca; Sharkey, Katrina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.93%
In December 1999, the Boards of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund approved a new approach to their relations with low-income countries. The approach was centered around the development and implementation of Poverty Reduction Strategies (PRS), which are intended to be country-driven and medium- to long-term in perspective, comprehensive and results-oriented, partnership-oriented, and built on broad-based participation. Against this tall order of business, experience to date has been varied, and much debate is ongoing on whether the approach can be considered more than "old wine in new bottles." This paper-based on the results of a thorough review of the five-year implementation experience-examines the implementation of the PRS approach from the point of view of participation and accountability. For some 50 countries adopting the approach since 1999, it discusses the factors which can facilitate the development of accountability and participatory governance mechanisms. Lessons learned from distinct country circumstances are analyzed, arguing that ownership of the PRS depends on the way countries and their external donor partners handle real tensions in the relationship between country ownership on the one hand, and perceptions of internationally-driven prescriptions on the other. The central message of the paper is that in several countries the PRS initiative has helped open up societies to forms of dialogue and contestability not previously experienced in-country or observed by external partners. This positive outcome...

A Financial Social Accounting Matrix for the Integrated Macroeconomic Model for Poverty Analysis : Application to Cameroon with a Fixed-Price Multiplier Analysis

Christian A. Emini; Hippolyte Fofack
Fonte: World Bank: Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.73%
Cameroon is engaged in the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) process, which emphasizes increased focus on poverty reduction in the design and implementation of growth and adjustment strategies. The Integrated Macroeconomic Model for Poverty Analysis (IMMPA) recently developed at the World Bank provides an analytical structure for supporting the PRSP process and quantifying poverty reduction strategies. Drawing on that framework, the authors provide a detailed financial social accounting matrix (SAM) for the Cameroonian economy to serve as input into the construction of an IMMPA model for Cameroon. An analysis of this financial SAM shows that the dramatic fall in investment during the crisis period persisted in the post-devaluation growth period in the late 1990s. Continued low investment has implications for ongoing high unemployment rates and poor welfare indicators. The authors illustrate this with simulations based on fixed-price multiplier analysis that highlight the potential growth and welfare benefits of increased public investment...

Access to Finance, Product Innovation and Middle-Income Traps

Agénor, Pierre-Richard; Canuto, Otaviano
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.73%
This paper studies interactions between access to finance, product innovation, and labor supply in a two-period overlapping generations model with an endogenous skill distribution and credit market frictions. In the model lack of access to finance (induced by high monitoring costs) has an adverse effect on innovation activity not only directly but also indirectly, because too few individuals may choose to invest in skills. If monitoring costs fall with the number of successful projects, multiple equilibria may emerge, one of which, a middle-income trap, characterized by low wages in the design sector, a low share of the labor force engaged in innovation activity, and low growth. A sufficiently ambitious policy aimed at alleviating constraints on access to finance by innovators may allow a country to move away from such a trap by promoting the production of ideas and improving incentives to invest in skills.

India - District Poverty Initiatives Project : Joint Interim Assessment - Understanding Differences in Project Design

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.93%
Since 2000, the World Bank has been engaged in community driven development projects called District Poverty Initiatives Projects in four States: Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Rajasthan. These projects are built on the principle of improving rural livelihoods as well as fostering community empowerment. These projects give particular emphasis to the empowerment of communities and groups, with a special focus on women and other excluded segments of the community. The objective of this Joint Interim Assessment is to take stock of what has been learned from the projects, with an eye towards improving the design and implementation of future projects of this type, a number of which are already in the pipeline.

Kurdistan Region of Iraq : Economic and Social Impact Assessment of the Syrian Conflict and the ISIS Crisis

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.73%
The development objective of the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) economic and social impact assessment is to provide the Iraqi Government with an impact analysis of the current crisis at the regional level. This will provide a foundation for international efforts to assist the KRG in its efforts to rally humanitarian support. The events which motivate this study include: the Syrian civil war, which began in 2011; and the insurgency of the ISIS (Islamic State in Iraq and Syria) group, which began in June 2014. The violence and atrocities associated with each of these two events caused tens of thousands to flee their homes and many chose the relative safety of Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI), as refugees from the Syrian conflict and as internally displaced persons (IDPs) from the ISIS crisis. These events took place in the context of the fiscal crisis, which caused about a 90 percent drop in fiscal transfers from the central government in Baghdad starting in early 2014. This report provides the government with a technical assessment of the impact and stabilization costs associated with the influx of refugees and IDPs. Impact refers to the immediate economic and fiscal effects on the KRG economy and budget...

How Politics and Institutions Affect Pension Reform in Three Postcommunist Countries

Orenstein, Mitchell A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26%
The author examines the political and institutional processes that produced fundamental pension reform in three post-communist countries: Hungary, Kazakhstan, and Poland. He tests various hypothesis about the relationship between deliberative process and outcomes through detailed case studies of pension reform. The outcomes of reform were similar: each country implemented a mandatory funded pension system as part of reform, but the extent, and configuration of changes, greatly differed. Countries with more veto actors - social and institutional actors with an effective veto over reform - engaged in less radical reform, as theory predicted. Poland and Hungary generated less radical change than Kazakhstan, partly because they have more representative political systems, to which more associations, interest groups, and proposal actors have access. Proposal actors shape the reform agenda and influence the positions of key veto actors. Pension reform takes longer in countries with more veto and proposal actors...

Helping America vote? The institutional design of elections and recent reforms

Vonnahme, Greg William
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.73%
This project focuses on the effects of recent electoral reforms on voter participation. The project specifically examines three aspects of election administration, which are voter registration deadlines, early voting, and Election Day vote centers. The project builds from recent theoretical advances in the study of turnout to better understand the effects of the reforms and also suggests areas for future research. The project also analyzes aggregate and survey data using matching methods to test the effects of the reforms. The results suggest that registration deadlines and Election Day vote centers increase turnout, particularly for less politically engaged individuals, while early voting seems to negatively affect turnout.

Nepal Country Assistance Evaluation, 2003–08

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.02%
The FY03-08 evaluation period was one of tumultuous political turmoil, conflict, and dramatic change in Nepal; today, prospects for sustainable peace are brighter, though still fragile. In such difficult and unpredictable conditions, formulating and implementing an effective development assistance strategy and programs were great challenges for development partners, including the Bank. To its credit, the Bank managed to remain constructively engaged in Nepal despite a challenging political and security context and has achieved some significant results on the ground. Nevertheless, the Bank's strategy was poorly adapted to the country's conflict situation and political instability, and until recently (FY08) underwent little adjustment in response to the rapidly-evolving conditions on the ground. Looking forward, Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) recommends that International Development Association (IDA) introduce greater realism into its strategy and program design and keep these flexible against a backdrop of a clear long-term vision...

Promoting Agro-Enterprise and Agro-Food Systems Development in Developing and Transition Countries : Towards an Operational Strategy for the World Bank Group

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Rural Development Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.73%
This paper sets out a strategic framework for WBG assistance for the modernization of agro-food systems in client countries. The objective of this strategy is to enhance the competitiveness of food, feed, and fiber systems-as a powerful source of growth and income generation-and to do so in a manner in which the poor are major beneficiaries in their capacities as consumers, farmers, workers, and entrepreneurs. This is a major challenge, not only because of the long-standing constraints faced by developing country farmers and agro-enterprises (i.e., weak infrastructure, anti-business policies, etc.) but also because major changes in the global agro-food market are tilted toward those economic agents who have capital, superior organizational and marketing skills, and an acute understanding of consumer requirements. Those lacking such assets and capabilities risk being (further) marginalized. The focus of attention here is on those enterprises, activities, institutions, and relationships that occur off the farm-in other words...

Architecture for a territorial dispute resolution system : a systems approach

Sharma, Rajeev, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 139 leaves
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.05%
Introduction: A great part of the world today is engaged in excruciating conflicts that threaten the afflicted regions locally besides holding global peace to ransom. Most of these conflicts take the form of territorial disputes that are often protracted and sap the energies out of the nation states. Kashmir, Sudan, Israel-Palestine and Sri-Lanka today are embroiled in a bitter dispute embittered by relentless bloodshed and deep-rooted animosity carried forward through generations. The disputed regions in themselves are a mute testimony of the abject neglect of its subjects by the central ruling body (could be a democratic government! a dictator or a monarch) and failure to provide some of the important political goods across the board for a long period of time. When weighed against some of the accepted norms of development indices like the GINI index, GDP, GDP per capita, infant mortality rates, HDI index, TI index, etc one would see that the disputed regions perform quite pathetically across most of the metrics and not without a reason. Nation states exist to provide political goods to people (Ref 1). However, quite unabashedly nation-states continue its tirade against each other over a piece of land pumping huge sums of public assets that could otherwise be diverted towards development efforts depressing benefits in both the disputed territory and on the whole. Territoriality is dogma that invokes strong reactions. As per Zartman (Ref 2) a state's territory is a collective good that is equally shared by the citizens of the state. This means that the territory is indivisible and is available in the same proportion to all the citizens. It is considered to be one of the three basic components--together with people and a government--which endow a state with a sovereign moral personality universally recognized by the law and the community of nations. Till the time the territoriality is perceived as a collective good...

A systems perspective for assessing carbon dioxide capture and storage opportunities; Systems perspective for assessing CO₂ capture and storage opportunities

Singh, Nisheeth, 1973-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 89 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.84%
Even as the acceptance of the fossil fuel greenhouse effect theory continues to grow amongst academics, statesmen and plebeians alike, the early adopters have already engaged in pre-emptive research activities aimed at mitigating the effects of such greenhouse gases. The focus of one such effort is on the capture and storage of CO₂ (carbon dioxide) from anthropogenic fixed source emissions. This effort can be broken down into a few broad categories such as terrestrial, ocean and geologic sequestration. Geologic sequestration refers to all activities geared towards the capture and storage of CO₂ under the surface of the earth in diverse 'reservoirs' such as deep saline formations, depleted oil and gas wells and unmineable coal seams to name a few. This investigation develops a systems perspective for assessing carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) opportunities within the realm of geologic sequestration. While multiple concurrent research activities continue to explore CCS opportunities from various perspectives, efforts at a systems analysis of the overall picture are just beginning. A systems view describing methodologies to integrate a variety of CCS data to assess potential sequestration opportunities is at the heart of this study. It is based on research being conducted at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) under sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Using a Geographic Information System (GIS) and publicly available data...

Enemies in Agreement: Domestic Politics, Uncertainty, and Cooperation between Adversaries

Vaynman, Jane Eugenia
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.87%
Adversarial agreements, such as the nuclear weapons treaties, disarmament zones, or conventional weapons limitations, vary considerably in the information sharing provisions they include. This dissertation investigates why adversarial states sometimes choose to cooperate by creating restraining institutions, and how their choices for the form of that cooperation are constrained and motivated. I argue that uncertainties arising out of domestic political volatility, which includes leadership changes or public unrest, make arms control agreements more likely because these moments create the possibility of foreign policy change. When states consider one another as relatively cooperative, increasing uncertainty about the adversary's security incentives leads them to hedge and pursue low monitoring agreements instead of relying on informal cooperation. Conversely, under highly competitive conditions, increased uncertainty makes states more willing risk cooperation and form agreements with intrusive information provisions where no agreements were previously possible. I show support for the theory through tests using an original data set of all adversarial cooperation agreements (1816-2007) and their provisions. Controlling for other determinants of arms control...

Tobacco lobby political influence on US state legislatures in the 1990s

Givel, M.; Glantz, S.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.93%
BACKGROUND—Throughout the 1990s the tobacco lobby was a potent political force in US state legislatures advancing its pro-tobacco agenda.
OBJECTIVE—To describe the market and political motivations of the tobacco lobby and the strategies they use to achieve these goals in US state legislatures.
DESIGN—This study is a content analysis and summary overview of recently released historical tobacco industry documents; tobacco related government documents; and recent state tobacco control policy reports.
RESULTS—In the 1990s, the tobacco lobby engaged in a comprehensive and aggressive political effort in state legislatures to sell tobacco with the least hindrance using lobbying, the media, public relations, front groups, industry allies, and contributions to legislators. These efforts included campaigns to neutralise clean indoor air legislation, minimise tax increases, and preserve the industry's freedom to advertise and sell tobacco. The tobacco lobby succeeded in increasing the number of states that enacted state pre-emption of stricter local tobacco control laws and prevented the passage of many state tobacco control policies. Public health advocates were able to prevent pre-emption and other pro-tobacco policies from being enacted in several states.
CONCLUSIONS—The tobacco lobby is a powerful presence in state legislatures. Because of the poor public image of the tobacco lobby...

Institutional Persistence and Economic Performance in the long-run

López Velásquez, Francisco José; Ramos, Xavier
Fonte: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Publicador: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.82%
Esta tesis es un esfuerzo para obtener una mejor comprensión sobre las causas y mecanismos que explican la persistencia institucional. Aunque varios estudios de sección-cruzada relacionan la persistencia institucional a las condiciones iniciales, y por medio de estas, a los equilibrios que dichas situaciones primigenias crearon, hasta el momento, ningún trabajo ha vinculado firmemente la asociación entre la longevidad o duración de una institución como manifestación de su persistencia. Más aún, ningún estudio previo atiende de forma explicita como la desigualdad en la riqueza o el poder político pudo afectar la persistencia de instituciones formales o informales, este si estudia esos aspectos. El capitulo inicial revisa la literatura sobre la persistencia institucional. El capítulo es un esfuerzo en la integración de dos enfoques sobre persistencia institucional que se han desarrollado de forma separada; no obstante, son más complementarios que sustitutivos. El primer enfoque ha venido apelando a los estudios de sección-cruzada para evidenciar que los aspectos culturales, geográficos, o de dotación de factores, y la historia de un país juegan roles considerables en la persistencia institucional. Mientras que el segundo...

Politics, Mass Media, and Policy Change: Recreational Water Rights in Colorado Communities

Crow, Deserai Anderson
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 40347413 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em 02/04/2008 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.73%
This study looks at the process of local policy change in environmental policy decisions. It employs a comparative case study research design to analyze the creation of a new recreational water right in Colorado to support whitewater boating. It compared the 12 communities that have applied for the new water right to 6 non-adopter communities. Factors including stakeholder groups, citizens, policy entrepreneurs, mass media, policy knowledge, policy timing, and politicians' motivations are analyzed to determine their role in local policy decisions. This research also considers how policy change in local communities promoted new state laws, and was in turn influenced by them. The dataset includes interviews with 75 Colorado water experts and community decision makers, mass media coverage of the policy process, and legal and legislative documentation of the process. These data were then analyzed within cases and across cases to create a model of community policy change. This research found that three elements were present when a community's policies changed regarding the use of natural resources. First, the community was dependent on the resource, either economically or socially. Second, a policy entrepreneur was present to influence the community's decision makers to enact a new policy regarding natural resource use. These policy entrepreneurs were most often experts in water law or management. Finally...

Harnessing the power of the 'Massive': an innovative approach to participation, digital citizenship and open learning on-line.

Bryant, Peter; Fryer, Christopher; Moon, Darren
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Research Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Research
Tipo: Conference or Workshop Item; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2015 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.82%
In January 2015, the London School of Economics and Political Science (UK) launched an innovative civic engagement project, which aimed to crowd source the United Kingdom Constitution. One of the key intentions of the project was to leverage and magnify the power of the community and the ‘massive’ in order to empower participants to engage in debate, identify solutions and come to a common agreement about the need for and the content of a UK Constitution. Involving over 1500 participants and generating tens of thousands of on-line interactions that increased as opposed to decreased over the 14 week duration of the ‘course’, Crowd Sourcing the UK Constitution challenged some of the dominant paradigms of Massive Open On-line Learning. We will present the findings arising from a critical evaluation of the project and pose a number of questions that emerged from both our engagement with the project and from the participants themselves centred on enhancing the effectiveness of a pedagogical design to harness the power of the massive, a large community of engaged participants working together in order to solve a problem, effect change or develop capacity.

On the design of hierarchies: coordination versus specialization

Hart, Oliver; Moore, John
Fonte: Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplnes, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplnes, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /10/1999 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.73%
We develop a model of hierarchies based on the allocation of authority. A firm's owners have ultimate authority over a firm's decisions, but they have limited time or capacity to exercise this authority. Hence owners must delegate authority to subordinates. However, these subordinates also have limited time or capacity and so further delegation must occur. We analyze the optimal chain of command given that different agents have different tasks: some agents are engaged in coordination and others in specialization. Our theory throws light on the nature of hierarchy, the optimal degree of decentralization, and the boundaries of the firm.