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Análise de políticas, modos de policy-making e intermediação de interesses: uma revisão

Labra,Maria Eliana
Fonte: IMS-UERJ Publicador: IMS-UERJ
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/1999 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.02%
O artigo aborda o tema da análise de políticas a partir de contribuições de diversos autores. Os marcos referenciais enfatizam: (1) a ordem social e a regulação do conflito, em particular a dimensão associativa enquanto base institucional adicional à comunidade, ao mercado político/econômico e ao Estado/burocracia; (2) as correntes neo-institucionalistas da escolha racional e do institucionalismo histórico; (3) os enfoques sociológico, regime político, coalizão de atores e sistema internacional; (4) componentes analíticos, como agenda, atores, arenas, processos e produtos; (5) relações entre modos de policy-making e tipos de intermediação de interesses organizados nas teorizações pluralista, neocorporativa e neopluralista.

Reframing Evidence Synthesis As Rhetorical Action in the Policy Making Drama

Greenhalgh, Trisha; Russell, Jill
Fonte: Longwoods Publishing Publicador: Longwoods Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.2%
This paper presents a novel conceptualization of policy making as social drama. The selection and presentation of evidence for policy making, including the choice of which questions to ask, which evidence to compile in a synthesis and which syntheses to bring to the policy making table, should be considered as moves in a rhetorical argumentation game and not as the harvesting of objective facts to be fed into a logical decision-making sequence. Viewing policy making as argument does not mean it is beyond rationality – merely that we must redefine rationality to include not only logical inference and probabilistic reasoning, but also the consideration of plausibility by a reasonable audience. We need better evidence, but we also urgently need better awareness by policy makers of the language games on which their work depends.

Technology and policy options for reducing industrial air pollutants in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

Vijay, Samudra, 1968-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 261 p.; 14451916 bytes; 14485152 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.16%
Technology plays an important role in dealing with air pollution and other environmental problems faced by developing and developed societies. This research examines if technological solutions alone, such as end-of-pipe and process control technologies, can achieve substantial and sustained emissions reduction from the industrial sector in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Environmental standards for most of the criteria pollutants have frequently been violated in the MCMA. Severe air pollution in the MCMA, and the roles of point and area sources, particularly industrial sector, are the prime motivating factors for this research. Industrial sources of air pollution play a significant role in aggravating the air pollution problem in the MCMA. This research focuses on a 25-year horizon for socio-economic growth of the MCMA, and its implications on industrial energy demand, and pollutant emissions. I develop a simulation model to estimate industrial energy demand and emissions from the MCMA industrial sector. The model incorporates industrial growth rate, changes in the structure of industry and energy intensity, pollution control technologies, fuel-switching, technological progress, etc. I find that the level of industrial activity...

11.002J / 17.30J Fundamentals of Public Policy, Fall 2002; Fundamentals of Public Policy

Meyer, Stephen M.; Laws, David
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
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EN-US
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Provides an introduction to policy-making. Explores policy questions from the perspective of different focal actors, including administrative agencies, citizen and interest groups, and the media. Examines the interplay between policy development and institutions, and reviews normative and empirical models of policy-making. Considers the significance of the democratic context for policy-making. Primary focus on domestic policy. From the course home page: Course Description Fundamentals of Public Policy is an introductory course that explores policy-making as both a problem-solving process and a political process. We look at policy-making from the perspective of different focal actors and institutions, including: administrative agencies, legislators, the courts, the mass public, interest groups, and the media. We examine the interplay between policy development and institutions, and review normative and empirical models of policy-making. Exploring these issues will require us to address questions like: How and why does something come to be seen as a "public problem" requiring a governmental response, while others fail to get attention? Why do we need public policies? What determines the content and nature of public policies? Who decides public policy priorities? Does public policy every accomplish anything worthwhile?

Colet??nea de pol??ticas p??blicas: volume 2: a pol??tica industrial no Brasil, 1985-1992: pol??ticos, burocratas e interesses organizados no processo de policy-making

Rua, Maria das Gra??as; Aguiar, Alessandra T.
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Administra????o P??blica (ENAP) Publicador: Escola Nacional de Administra????o P??blica (ENAP)
Tipo: Cap??tulo de Livro
IDIOMA::PORTUGU??S:PORTUGU??S:PT
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66.02%
O principal objetivo deste livro ?? constituir uma fonte de pesquisa para o estudo do processo de produ????o e implementa????o de pol??ticas p??blicas. Por meio de textos selecionados, analisa-se o pr??prio conceito de pol??ticas p??blicas, discute-se as defini????es utilizadas para distinguir suas diversas fases e apresenta-se algumas das principais correntes te??ricas de an??lise sobre o processo de pol??ticas p??blicas.; N??mero de p??ginas: 24 p.; Pol??ticas P??blicas e Sociais; SUM??RIO Pref??cio Apresenta????o Introdu????o Pol??tica p??blica: dos cl??ssicos ??s modernas abordagens. Orienta????o para a leitura Enrique Saravia Cap??tulo I ??? Formula????o Principios generales de t??cnica legislativa Jos?? Hector Meehan Cap??tulo II ??? Implementa????o Implementa????o: uma vis??o geral Michael Hill Federalismo e pol??ticas sociais no Brasil: problemas de coordena????o e autonomia Marta Arretche Cap??tulo III ??? Execu????o El papel de la burocracia en el proceso de determinaci??n e implementaci??n de las pol??ticas publicas Joan Subirats A pol??tica industrial no Brasil, 1985-1992: pol??ticos, burocratas e interesses organizados no processo de policy-making Maria das Gra??as Rua e Alessandra T. Aguiar Cap??tulo IV ??? Novos arranjos para a pol??tica p??blica Conselhos de pol??ticas p??blicas: desafios para sua institucionaliza????o Carla Bronzo Ladeira Carneiro Redes de Pol??tica P??blica Gilles Massardier Parcerias...

Case Study 4 - Poland : Participation in Macroeconomic Policy Making and Reform

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.12%
In January 1999, Poland launched a new pension system that was the result of 5-6 years of broad outreach campaigns and complex negotiations within the government and between the government and key stakeholder groups. A number of compromises were made to broaden support for the reform; these changes will significantly increase costs during the transition period but without undermining the long-term viability of the reformed pension system. Post-communist Poland operated on a traditional pay-as-you-go (PAYG) system; payroll taxes of current workers financed the pension benefits of current retirees. Due to a number of policy changes expanding early retirement options and other privileges, pension costs skyrocketed in the mid-1990s and Poland had one of the highest spending rates of any post-communist transition country. In addition, long-term demographic shifts led to a decline in people paying into the system relative to those receiving benefits. Contribution rates (i.e., payroll taxes) had already risen from 25% in 1981 to 45% in 1990. They could not easily be pushed up further.

From Transfer to Transformation: Rethinking the Relationship between Research and Policy

Gibson, Brendan John Joseph
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.18%
The most common and enduring explanation for the way research is used (or abused or not used) in policy is the ‘two communities’ theory. According to this theory, the problematic relationship between research and policy is caused by the different ‘cultures’ inhabited by policy makers and researchers. The most common and enduring types of strategies that are put forward to increase research use in policy involve bridging or linking these ‘two communities’. This study challenges this way of thinking about the relationship between research and policy. Four case studies of national public health policy in Australia are used to present the context, events, processes, research, and actors involved in policy making. Three theories are deployed to explore the relationship between research and policy in each of the cases individually and across the cases as a whole. The Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) understands the relationship in terms of a power struggle between competing coalitions that use research as a political resource in the policy process. The Policy Making Organisation Framework (PMOF) understands the relationship in terms of institutional and political factors that determine the way data is selected or rejected from the policy process. The Governmentality Framework (GF) understands the relationship in terms of the Foucauldian construct of power/knowledge that is created through discourse...

Drug policy in Australia: the supervised injecting facilities debate

Gunaratnam, Praveena
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 131772 bytes; 352 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
Many theories have been developed to explain the influence of different groups in policy making. Some focus on public opinion, claiming that especially in issues of high salience, public opinion will play a decisive role in determining policy directions. Other theories claim interest groups (including professionals) and politicians are more critical in shaping the agenda and the solutions which are seen as viable in addressing a particular problem. The supervised injecting facilities debate in Australia, which reached its peak between 1999 and 2001 when the ACT, Victoria and NSW attempted to establish such facilities, was one characterised by a high degree of conflict between groups with differing moral and political beliefs about drug use. Case studies of each jurisdiction were assembled to delineate the impact of these different groups on the eventual failure to establish trials in ACT and Victoria, compared to success in NSW. The results indicate public opinion was sharply divided on the issue, therefore cannot be considered a major determinant of public policy in this area. Politicians however, because of their ability to block the legislation and funding needed to establish the trials, undoubtedly had the greatest influence in policy making.; no

State capacity for policy making: has it diminished? Can it be renewed?

Marsh, Ian
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 196571 bytes; 355 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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66.23%
Responding to a leaked Cabinet submission on possible future funding arrangements for higher education, Prime Minister Howard commented: ‘We have got to have a capacity in this country to have a sensible discussion about long-term policy issues without everything being distorted and blown out of the water by misrepresentation’ (Sydney Morning Herald, 16th October 1999, p. 49). This paper, in endorsing the Prime Minister’s observation, advances three propositions. First, this gap has emerged in the past couple of decades and ultimately reflects profound changes in the character of the Australian community. Second, it limits the effectiveness of the entire policy making system and is thus a significant impediment to state capacity. And third, the renewal of state policy-making capacity involves a transfer of tasks from the executive to the legislature. A threshold issue concerns the distinctive contribution of a strategic phase to broader policy making capabilities. Recent management literature offers guidance. ‘Learning organisations’ are in vogue. These are distinguished by their capacity to sustain activity in two modes termed respectively first and second order organisational learning. In the former mode, organisations focus on current operations. Information systems are designed to monitor such factors as product quality...

Networks and policy making: from theory to practice in Australian social policy

Hazlehurst, David
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 252164 bytes; 359 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.23%
Traditional approaches to policy-making, in Australia and elsewhere, have assumed that policy-making processes are, and ought to be, centralised and hierarchical. However, policy networks have emerged as an alternative model of policy-making, particularly in Europe. Policy networks have been a regular feature of Australian policy-making, though usually under government sponsorship and on the government’s terms. Recent developments suggest that governments may be encouraging a more independent and less ‘top-down’ approach to the use of policy networks. The Coalition Government’s engagement of a ‘social coalition’ in welfare reform, particularly through the Reference Group on Welfare Reform, provides an interesting case study of this trend.; no

A time-responsive tool for informing policy making: rapid realist review

Saul, J.; Willis, C.; Bitz, J.; Best, A.
Fonte: BioMed Central Ltd Publicador: BioMed Central Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.17%
BACKGROUND A realist synthesis attempts to provide policy makers with a transferable theory that suggests a certain program is more or less likely to work in certain respects, for particular subjects, in specific kinds of situations. Yet realist reviews can require considerable and sustained investment over time, which does not always suit the time-sensitive demands of many policy decisions. ‘Rapid Realist Review’ methodology (RRR) has been developed as a tool for applying a realist approach to a knowledge synthesis process in order to produce a product that is useful to policy makers in responding to time-sensitive and/or emerging issues, while preserving the core elements of realist methodology. METHODS Using examples from completed RRRs, we describe key features of the RRR methodology, the resources required, and the strengths and limitations of the process. All aspects of an RRR are guided by both a local reference group, and a group of content experts. Involvement of knowledge users and external experts ensures both the usability of the review products, as well as their links to current practice. RESULTS RRRs have proven useful in providing evidence for and making explicit what is known on a given topic, as well as articulating where knowledge gaps may exist. From the RRRs completed to date...

Economists and neoliberal reform : profession and power in tax policy-making, 1980-2010

CHRISTENSEN, Johan
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.14%
Why do some advanced capitalist countries go further than others in neoliberal reform? Why do some states seek to achieve economic growth through policies that emphasize economic efficiency and level playing fields while others pursue prosperity by stimulating specific economic sectors and activities? Challenging conventional ideational, partisan and political-institutional accounts, this dissertation proposes a professional explanation for neoliberal reform. Based on insights from the sociology of professions and the state and bureaucracy literatures, the thesis argues that the extent of neoliberal reform in large part is a function of the position of neoclassical economists within the state. To explore this argument, the dissertation examines tax policy-making in four small states in the period 1980-2010, namely New Zealand, Ireland, Norway and Denmark. The comparison of both similar cases with different outcomes and different cases with similar outcomes - that is, a "mixed systems design" - allows us to evaluate a set of explanations for neoliberal reform. Based on official documents, secondary literature and more than 70 interviews with policy-making elites, the analysis combines comparative analysis, process-tracing and counterfactual reasoning. The dissertation finds that neoliberal tax policies were adopted in some countries (New Zealand and Norway) and not in others (Ireland and Denmark) because of the varying entrenchment of the economics profession within the state. Where economists obtained a prominent position in the state during the Keynesian era...

Optimization based approach for land-use/ transportation policy making

Weldemichael, Ashenafi Aregawi
Fonte: Universidade de Coimbra Publicador: Universidade de Coimbra
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.12%
This thesis explores the potentials of optimization for land-use/transportation policy-making purposes. Fundamentally, the research aimed to design an approach that generates efficient maps (solutions) to respond to specific land-use/transportation policy objectives. In this context, unlike simulation based land-use/transportation models which vastly employ trial and error, the purpose was to design an optimization approach which directly guarantees the efficiency of solutions. The mixed-integer optimization model upon which the approach is based has multiple objectives and is aimed at determining land use allocations and transportation infrastructure developments taking into account current form and future demographic changes at municipality level. The objectives of the optimization model are defined to address issues such as accessibility of population to jobs and services, suitability of land units to particular land-use types, compatibility of adjacent land-use types and utilization of existing infrastructure. The model makes special emphasis to the interactions between transportation and land-use. In addition to the development of the model, this thesis explores potential solution methods. Initially, the optimization model is solved using a branch and bound method. In general...

Networks and policy making; from theory to practice in Australian social policy

Hazlehurst, David
Fonte: Graduate Program in Public Policy, Australian National University; http://www.crawford.anu.edu.au Publicador: Graduate Program in Public Policy, Australian National University; http://www.crawford.anu.edu.au
Tipo: Other; Working/Technical Paper Formato: 26 pages
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.21%
Traditional approaches to policy-making, in Australia and elsewhere, have assumed that policy-making processes are, and ought to be, centralised and hierarchical. However, policy networks have emerged as an alternative model of policy-making, particularly in Europe. Policy networks have been a regular feature of Australian policy-making, though usually under government sponsorship and on the government's terms. Recent developments suggest that governments may be encouraging a more independent and less 'top-down' approach to the use of policy networks. The Coalition Government's engagement of a 'social coalition' in welfare reform, particularly through the Reference Group on Welfare Reform, provides an interesting case study of this trend.

Small Is Beautiful, at Least in High-Income Democracies : The Distribution of Policy-Making Responsibility, Electoral Accountability, and Incentives for Rent Extraction

Hamilton, Alexander
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.17%
Why is there significant variation in rent extraction among high-income democracies? A large number of political economy investigations into this research question have found that a long period of democratic rule and high per capita income are associated with less rent extraction among public policy-makers. However, attempts to explain the residual, yet significant, variation in rent extraction among countries that possess both these characteristics have been significantly more circumspect and disputed. This paper explores how the distribution of policy-making responsibilities between electorally accountable decision-makers and their electorally unaccountable public policy-making counterparts determines the optimal level of rents extracted in any given high-income democracy context. Specifically, the paper formally models how: (1) variation in the ratio of electorally accountable decision-makers to electorally unaccountable decision-makers, by altering (2) voters' evaluation of incumbent competency, changes (3) the incentives that policy-makers...

The European Union policy-making dataset

Häge, Frank M
Fonte: SAGE Publications Publicador: SAGE Publications
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
peer-reviewed; This article introduces the European Union Policy - Making (EUPOL) dataset. The dataset contains the complete records of the European Commission's PreLex database, which tracks the interactions between the European institutions on legislative proposals and non-legislative policy documents over time. To be of maximum use to the research community, the dataset is both comprehensive and replicable. It relies on 2600 variables to describe the detailed event histories of more than 29,000 inter-institutional decision-making processes between 1975 and 2009. The data collection has been completely automated, enabling scholars to scrutinize and replicate the generation of the dataset. To illustrate the dataset's general utility and discuss specific pitfalls, I present a descriptive analysis of the outcome and duration of Council decision-making.; ACCEPTED; peer-reviewed

Scales, networks and uncertainty : an examination of environmental policy-making in Ontario

Calvert, Kirby.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.25%
Through a case-study analysis of Ontario's ethanol policy, this thesis addresses a number of themes that are consequential to policy and policy-making: spatiality, democracy and uncertainty. First, I address the 'spatial debate' in Geography pertaining to the relevance and affordances of a 'scalar' versus a 'flat' ontoepistemology. I argue that policy is guided by prior arrangements, but is by no means inevitable or predetermined. As such, scale and network are pragmatic geographical concepts that can effectively address the issue of the spatiality of policy and policy-making. Second, I discuss the democratic nature of policy-making in Ontario through an examination of the spaces of engagement that facilitate deliberative democracy. I analyze to what extent these spaces fit into Ontario's environmental policy-making process, and to what extent they were used by various stakeholders. Last, I take seriously the fact that uncertainty and unavoidable injustice are central to policy, and examine the ways in which this uncertainty shaped the specifics of Ontario's ethanol policy. Ultimately, this thesis is an exercise in understanding sub-national environmental policy-making in Canada, with an emphasis on how policy-makers tackle the issues they are faced with in the context of environmental change...

Policy legacies and the politics of labour immigration selection and control: the processes and dynamics shaping national-level policy decisions during the recent wave of international migration

Wright, Christopher F
Fonte: University of Cambridge; Department of Politics and International Studies; Darwin College Publicador: University of Cambridge; Department of Politics and International Studies; Darwin College
Tipo: Thesis; doctoral; PhD
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.18%
The two decades preceding the global financial crisis of 2008 saw an increase in international migration flows. This development was accompanied by the relaxation of immigration entry controls for select categories of foreign workers across the developed world. The scale of labour immigration, and the categories of foreign workers granted entry, varied considerably across states. To some extent, these developments transcended the traditional classifications of comparative immigration politics. This thesis examines the reform process in two states with contrasting policy legacies that adopted liberal labour immigration selection and control policies during the abovementioned period. The instrumental role that immigration has played in the process of nation-building in Australia has led it to be classified as a ?traditional destination state? with a positive immigration policy legacy. By contrast, immigration has not been significant in the formation of national identity in the United Kingdom. It has a more negative immigration policy legacy and is generally regarded as a ?reluctant state?. Examining the reasons for liberal shifts in labour immigration policy in two states with different immigration politics allows insights to be gained into the processes of policy-making and the dynamics that underpin it. In Australia...

Policy-making process and interest groups: how do local government associations influence policy outcome in Brazil and the Netherlands?

Jesus,Anderson Macedo de
Fonte: Brazilian Political Science Review (Online) Publicador: Brazilian Political Science Review (Online)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.1%
In recent years a considerable number of studies have been undertaken concerning the impact of interest groups' influence in the European and North American policy-making process. However, little can be acquired from the literature regarding this knowledge outside of both of these environments. Therefore, this study aimed to assess conditions for policy influence of local government associations in Brazil and the Netherlands. This comparative case study carried out exploratory research, based on interviews, a questionnaire, and document analysis. Specifically, this study looked at factors that, according to the literature, determine influence and examined these factors within the cases. The findings suggest that the associations are relatively successful in influencing technical aspects of certain policies, however, when they try to change the core of a policy the likelihood of success decreases considerably.

Descriptive analysis of immunization policy decision making in the Americas

Burns,Julianne E.; Mitrovich,Rachel C.; Jauregui,Barbara; Ruiz Matus,Cuauhtémoc; Andrus,Jon K.
Fonte: Organización Panamericana de la Salud Publicador: Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.22%
OBJECTIVES: Reducing and eliminating vaccine-preventable diseases requires evidence-based and informed policy decision making. Critical to determining the functionality of the decision-making process for introduction of a new vaccine is understanding the role of the national immunization technical advisory group (ITAG) in each country. The aim of this study is to document the current situation of national level immunization policy decision making for use in the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) ProVac Initiative. METHODS: A structured 66-variable questionnaire developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in collaboration with the University of Ottawa was distributed to all WHO regions; it was composed of dichotomous, multiple-choice, and open-ended questions. Questionnaires were e-mailed or faxed to the six WHO regional offices and the offices distributed them to all member states. This paper analyzes surveys from the Americas as part of PAHO's ProVac Initiative. RESULTS: Twenty-nine countries of the Americas answered the survey. They conveyed that immunization policy making needed to be improved and further supported by organizations such as PAHO. Areas of improvement ranged from organization and technical support to strengthening capacity and infrastructure to improved coordination among stakeholders. This survey also highlighted a variety of ITAG processes that need further investigation. CONCLUSION: This survey supports the efforts of PAHO's ProVac Initiative to disseminate knowledge and best practices for an immunization policy decision-making framework through the development of clear definitions and guidelines. By highlighting each problem noted in this study...