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A validated capillary gas chromatography method for guaco (Mikania glomerata S.) quality control and rastreability: from plant biomass to phytomedicines; Método validado por cromatografia gasosa capilar para o controle de qualidade e rastreabilidade de guaco (Mikania glomerata S.): da matéria-prima ao fitoterápico

BUENO, Paula C. P.; BASTOS, Jairo K.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.02%
This work describes a full validation of a capillary gas chromatography analytical methodology using internal standardization for the quantification of coumarin (1,2-benzopyrone) in guaco (Mikania glomerata Spreng - Asteraceae) products: syrup, plant and its extract, including the stability study of the phytomedicine. For the analysis, it was used an HP-5 capillary column (30 m x 0.32 mm x 0.25 µm), hydrogen at a flow rate of 1.8 mL/min and the increasing temperature gradient was: 100 ºC to 250 ºC, 15 ºC/min. The temperature of injector (split 1:20) and detector were kept at 250 ºC and 270 ºC, respectively. The retention times of the standards for the above conditions were 2.86 minutes for 1, 2, 3, 4-tetramethylbenzene, 4.45 min for piperonal (internal standards), and 5.36 minutes for coumarin. After extraction procedure, the recovery of coumarin determined for plant raw material was 101.6 %, while for syrup it was 100.8 %. Detection and quantification limits were 0.5 µg/mL and 1.5 µg/mL, respectively. Precision was determined for all samples and the results were lower than 2.5 %. The total amount of coumarin in plant raw material, its extract and syrup were 0.38% w/w, 1.33 mg/mL and 0.143 mg/mL, respectively.; Este trabalho descreve a validação completa de metodologia analítica empregando cromatografia gasosa capilar com padronização interna para quantificação da cumarina (1...

A survey on the sanitary condition of commercial foods of plant origin sold in Brazil

NUNES, Bruno N.; CRUZ, Adriano G.; FARIA, Jose A. F.; ANA, Anderson S. Sant; SILVA, Ramon; MOURA, Mirian R. L.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCI LTD Publicador: ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46%
The objective of the study was to evaluate the hygienic conditions and practices of commercial foods of plant origin in establishments and street marketed by street vendors in cities in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Forty different sales points were evaluated (establishments that prepared and sold fruit juices and street vendors that commercialized fresh coconut water, sugarcane juice and orange juice) using a questionnaire with 12 items, divided into three blocks (salesmen/handlers, operations, installations). The results indicated that the activities related to the commerce of fruit beverages in the cities of Sao Goncalo and Rio de Janeiro required the elaboration of a set of actions by the Sanitary Vigilance Agency in order to improve the hygienic and sanitary level and minimize health risk to consumers. Important requirements in the legislation relevant to this type of food are still not followed; adequate packaging and storage of the raw material, obtaining the raw material from registered suppliers, hygiene of the handlers and adequate management of wastes produced during the activities in question are amongst the main items deserving attention. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

A atividade artesanal com fibra de bananeira em Comunidades Quilombolas do Vale do Ribeira (SP).; Activities in handcraft from banana plant fibre in Quilombola communities in The Ribeira Valley (São Paulo State).

Santos, Katia Maria Pacheco dos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/05/2005 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.85%
O presente estudo trata da descrição e análise da atividade artesanal com fibra de bananeira praticada pelas comunidades quilombolas de Ivaporunduva, André Lopes e Sapatu, município de Eldorado, região do Vale do Ribeira, tendo como referencial teórico o conceito de ecodesenvolvimento proposto por Sachs (1980). A atividade artesanal com fibra de bananeira foi iniciada no ano de 1997, através de um projeto de pesquisa executado pela Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" (ESALQ) - Universidade São Paulo (USP): "Projeto de Aproveitamento de Resíduos da Agroindústria da Banana no Vale do Ribeira, SP" cujo objetivo consistia em realizar estudos que resultassem em alternativas economicamente viáveis para o aproveitamento dos resíduos da bananicultura na região. Desde de então, a atividade artesanal com fibra de bananeira vêm sendo praticada por integrantes das comunidades referidas. Para coletas de dados foram utilizadas técnicas comumente trabalhadas pelas nas ciências sociais como: observação participante, entrevistas informais não-estruturadas e semi-estruturadas com os artesãos envolvidos e com representantes de Instituições governamentais e não governamentais atuantes no processo. Verificou-se neste trabalho a contribuição da atividade artesanal na valorização da mulher...

"O estudo da utilização do gás natural como insumo para a indústria química e petroquímica: modelagem de uma planta gás-química"; The study of the use of natural gas as a feedstock for the chemical and petrochemical industry: the modeling of a gas-chemical plant.

Gerosa, Tatiana Magalhães
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/02/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.85%
Este trabalho tem como objetivo apresentar, através da modelagem de uma planta gásquímica e da identificação das tecnologias disponíveis, a versatilidade do uso do gás natural como insumo para a indústria química, visando à produção de metanol, amônia e hidrogênio, a partir da fração metano, bem como na indústria petroquímica a obtenção do eteno através da fração etano. Baseado nas pesquisas de mercado, determinou-se que dentre os produtos a serem obtidos a partir do metano, o metanol é o que apresenta o cenário interno mais crítico. Esta situação é refletida através do contínuo aumento da importação, sem que haja nenhuma sinalização deste déficit ser sanado, através da construção de novas unidades industriais. Por outro lado, o cenário da amônia se mostra estável e, ainda que haja um déficit na produção nacional, a situação atual não se mostra tão crítica, mesmo quando realizada a projeção da demanda até 2030. Analisando-se o cenário petroquímico, em poucos anos a produção de eteno atingirá o seu gargalo, e o maior entrave diagnosticado, para a expansão das centrais produtoras, está relacionado à disponibilidade do insumo. Dentro da abordagem técnica proposta, a modelagem da planta gás-química aponta ser viável concentrar a produção de amônia...

Ferramenta para maximização do lucro de laticínios pelo planejamento do mix ótimo de produtos lácteos e precificação dos componentes do leite cru; Tool for maximizing profit of dairies by planning of the optimal mix of dairy products and by pricing the raw milk components

Meneghini, Rafael Cedric Möller
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/02/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.14%
Pequenos e médios laticínios têm grandes dificuldades no planejamento da produção para maximizar o lucro. Além disso, a forma atual de precificar o leite cru no Brasil desestimula o produtor a melhorar sua qualidade, pois valoriza mais seu volume do que seus componentes sólidos. A composição do leite cru é muito importante para os laticínios, pois ela afeta diretamente o rendimento de produção e a qualidade dos produtos lácteos. Técnicas de otimização, como programação linear (PL), ajudam a resolver problemas relacionados à decisão do mix de produtos, além de fazer análise econômica dos recursos. Em razão disso, foi desenvolvido em PL um modelo para maximização da margem de contribuição total (MCT = receita total das vendas - custos e despesas diretas totais) e precificação do leite cru através da determinação do mix ótimo de produtos lácteos. O modelo foi simulado em cenários diários de alta (Janeiro) e baixa (Julho) disponibilidade de matéria prima comparando as soluções ótimas com resultados reais de um laticínio do sudeste do Brasil. Foram realizadas análises de sensibilidade dos componentes nutritivos de dois tipos de leite cru de diferentes composições (LC1, leite cru proveniente de um fornecedor...

Cogeração de Eletricidade Utilizando Bambu no Brasil: Aspectos Técnicos Econômicos e Ambientais; Bamboo is a grass, woody perennial with good biomass productivity per hectare. Bamboo can be grown virtually anywhere in the Brazilian territory and almost all existing plantations are located in tropical and rainy areas, offering excellent conditions for the production and use of biomass energy in large scale. Two Brazilian companies already utilize bamboo biomass in large scale in Brazil. The Penha Group, in Bahia, burns bamboo in boilers and uses the steam in the process for recycling paper. Joao Santos Group uses bamboo as raw material in the manufacture of pulp and paper. However in any case there is the use of this biomass for energy cogeneration, which is the most efficient technology for energy conversion. Therefore, this thesis analyses the use of bamboo as fuel for electricity cogeneration in Brazil considering the technical aspects, as well as the corresponding economic and environmental system deployment. Also, to study the development of the productive chain of bamboo in large scale in Brazil, specifically targeted for energy purposes, this paper presents the survey of data concerning the different production systems adopted by companies, both in the cultivation and processing of biomass. Based in these results it is analyzed an efficient cogeneration system using bamboo as fuel on large scale. Obtained results show that the power to be produced in an efficient cogeneration system (60 bar, 490 oC), from 17 tones of bamboo per hour, is 3,5 MW but, with the existing bamboo production models, there is no economic feasibility, as discussed in the paper. Regarding environmental aspects, it must be noted that the bamboo is as perennial plant, able to produce biomass annually without replanting, and so appears to be an excellent carbon sink.

Guarnetti, Rodrigo Luiz
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/12/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.95%
O bambu e uma graminea lenhosa, renovavel, perene e com boa produtividade de biomassa por hectare. Pode ser cultivada praticamente em todo o territorio brasileiro, que esta quase todo localizado em regioes tropicais e chuvosas, oferecendo excelentes condicoes para a producao e o uso energetico da biomassa de bambu em larga escala. O setor de papel e celulose apresenta boas perspectivas na producao de papel de fibras longas utilizando bambu, no entanto, apenas duas empresas brasileiras utilizam esse tipo de biomassa em grande escala no Brasil: O Grupo Penha queima o bambu em caldeira e utiliza o vapor no processo de reciclagem de papel e O Grupo Joao Santos utiliza a biomassa como materia prima na fabricacao de papel e celulose. No entanto, em ambos os casos a biomassa nao e utilizada em sistema de cogeracao de eletricidade, considerada uma tecnologia eficiente de conversao. O objetivo dessa tese e estudar os aspetos tecnicos, economicos e ambientais da implantacao de um sistema de cogeracao de eletricidade utilizando biomassa de bambu. Sao estudadas as caracteristicas agronomicas e as particularidades da implantacao de cultivos comerciais de bambu voltado a fins energeticos. Visando determinar o Poder Calorifico (PCS) de cinco diferentes especies consideradas adaptadas ao clima brasileiro e conhecidas como boas produtoras de biomassa por hectare...

Uso de lodo de estação de tratamento de agua e agregado reciclado miudo na fabricação de elementos de alvenaria; Use of dry sludge of station water treatment plant and aggregate debris recycled kid in the manufacture of bricks cement soil type and blocks of concrete type

Alvaro Chavez Porras
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/11/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.81%
Diante da grande quantidade de resíduos sólidos gerados, incluídos os resíduos da construção e demolição - RCD, na cidade de Campinas e da precariedade do sistema de planejamento e gestão dos aterros sanitários de algumas áreas da região, investigou-se a viabilidade técnica, econômica e ambiental do uso de lodo desaguado de Estação de Tratamento de Água (ETA) e de agregado miúdo reciclado do entulho na fabricação de elementos de alvenaria tipo concreto. Tais elementos da construção civil foram testados segundo as normas técnicas pertinentes da Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas, tanto aquelas referentes às propriedades físico-mecânicas quanto àquelas ambientais, considerando-se os períodos de fabricação e pós-consumo, quando ele virar entulho. Os lodos e entulhos afetam grandemente os ecossistemas onde são lançados. Com eles, como fonte alternativa de matéria-prima, produziram-se elementos de alvenaria, estruturais e de vedação, em diferentes proporções, que foram avaliados nas dimensões, à compressão simples e à absorção de água; também, os materiais foram avaliados ambientalmente. Os resultados mostraram que a umidade do lodo influenciou significativamente na qualidade dos tijolos tipo solo-cimento...

Utilização de extratos comerciais derivados de plantas em produtos cárneos : avaliação da atividade antioxidante; Plant-derived commercial extracts on meat products : study on the antioxidant activity

Camila de Souza Paglarini
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/04/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.06%
Os produtos cárneos são muito susceptíveis à oxidação lipídica, uma das principais reações de deterioração e a causa principal de sabor e odor desagradáveis, redução do valor nutricional e da vida útil, além da formação de compostos tóxicos. O consumo excessivo de produtos cárneos está relacionado com o aumento do risco de algumas doenças, tais como doenças cardiovasculares, câncer, hipertensão e obesidade e assim pesquisas vem sendo desenvolvidas para elaboração de produtos mais saudáveis, dentre os quais destacam-se aqueles com redução de aditivos sintéticos. Neste contexto, o objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a atividade antioxidante de extratos comerciais derivados de plantas em matéria-prima cárnea (carne de frango mecanicamente separada - CFMS) e em produto cárneo reestruturado elaborado com diferentes matérias-primas (carne bovina, suína, de frango e CFMS). As concentrações dos extratos naturais foram de 0,125, 0,25, 0,5 e 1,0%, m/m. Os extratos foram caracterizados quanto ao teor de compostos fenólicos, flavonóides totais, atividade antioxidante ORAC, DPPH e ABTS. A oxidação lipídica foi avaliada pela análise de substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico - TBARS. A matéria-prima cárnea foi avaliada crua em ambiente refrigerado (4 °C) nos dias 0...

A survey on the sanitary condition of commercial foods of plant origin sold in Brazil

NUNES, Bruno N.; CRUZ, Adriano G.; FARIA, Jose A. F.; ANA, Anderson S. Sant; SILVA, Ramon; MOURA, Mirian R. L.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCI LTD Publicador: ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46%
The objective of the study was to evaluate the hygienic conditions and practices of commercial foods of plant origin in establishments and street marketed by street vendors in cities in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Forty different sales points were evaluated (establishments that prepared and sold fruit juices and street vendors that commercialized fresh coconut water, sugarcane juice and orange juice) using a questionnaire with 12 items, divided into three blocks (salesmen/handlers, operations, installations). The results indicated that the activities related to the commerce of fruit beverages in the cities of Sao Goncalo and Rio de Janeiro required the elaboration of a set of actions by the Sanitary Vigilance Agency in order to improve the hygienic and sanitary level and minimize health risk to consumers. Important requirements in the legislation relevant to this type of food are still not followed; adequate packaging and storage of the raw material, obtaining the raw material from registered suppliers, hygiene of the handlers and adequate management of wastes produced during the activities in question are amongst the main items deserving attention. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

A validated capillary gas chromatography method for guaco (Mikania glomerata S.) quality control and rastreability: from plant biomass to phytomedicines

Bueno,Paula C. P.; Bastos,Jairo K.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.02%
This work describes a full validation of a capillary gas chromatography analytical methodology using internal standardization for the quantification of coumarin (1,2-benzopyrone) in guaco (Mikania glomerata Spreng - Asteraceae) products: syrup, plant and its extract, including the stability study of the phytomedicine. For the analysis, it was used an HP-5 capillary column (30 m x 0.32 mm x 0.25 µm), hydrogen at a flow rate of 1.8 mL/min and the increasing temperature gradient was: 100 ºC to 250 ºC, 15 ºC/min. The temperature of injector (split 1:20) and detector were kept at 250 ºC and 270 ºC, respectively. The retention times of the standards for the above conditions were 2.86 minutes for 1, 2, 3, 4-tetramethylbenzene, 4.45 min for piperonal (internal standards), and 5.36 minutes for coumarin. After extraction procedure, the recovery of coumarin determined for plant raw material was 101.6 %, while for syrup it was 100.8 %. Detection and quantification limits were 0.5 µg/mL and 1.5 µg/mL, respectively. Precision was determined for all samples and the results were lower than 2.5 %. The total amount of coumarin in plant raw material, its extract and syrup were 0.38% w/w, 1.33 mg/mL and 0.143 mg/mL, respectively.

Justicia pectoralis Jacq: , Acanthaceae: preparation and characterisation of the plant drug including chromatographic analysis by HPLC-PDA

Fonseca,Francisco N.; Silva,Aline Holanda; Leal,Luzia K. A. M.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
Justicia pectoralis Jacq., Acanthaceae, is a herb popularly known in Brazilian northeast as "chambá" and used in folk medicine for the treatment of respiratory tract conditions such as asthma, cough and bronchitis. This species is included in the National Register of Plants of Interest to the National Health System. The aim of the present study was to develop a protocol for the preparation of the plant drug from J. pectoralis and to characterise the plant drug for its use as a pharmaceutical raw material. The aerial parts of J. pectoralis, after drying chamber with forced air circulation (35 °C) for different periods of time (1-5 days), presented after one day a moisture content below the maximum allowed for plant drugs. The powder of the plant drug was classified as moderately coarse, and the total ashes content and the water- or ethanol-soluble extractives were determined. Analysis of hydroalcoholic (ethanol 20%) extract of J. pectoralis by high performance liquid chromatography-photo diode array (HPLC-PDA) determined the content of coumarin and umbelliferone (16.2 and 0.81 mg/g plant drug, respectively). The preparation conditions of the plant drug and the quality control parameters established for J. pectoralis in this study are of interest for the development of phytomedicines which use this active raw material.

Standardized production of Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb. by plant tissue culture

Victório,Cristiane Pimentel; Henriques,Anaize Borges; Tavares,Eliana Schwartz; Esquibel,Maria Apparecida; Lage,Celso Luiz Salgueiro
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Ceará Publicador: Universidade Federal do Ceará
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.84%
Exigencies as ethic plant raw material are part of the needs of modern phytotherapy. Micropropagation offers opportunities to obtain mass propagation of superior genotypes in short time. This study aimed to develop a protocol of direct and indirect organogenesis of Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb. Nodal segments from plantlets obtained by in vitro germination were subcultured in modified Murashige and Skoog medium added with different plant growth regulators: IAA (indole-3-acetic acid), IBA (indole-3-butyric acid), GA3 (3-giberelic acid) and KIN (kinetin). The highest proliferation rate was obtained using the combinations: IBA, KIN + GA3 (3.5 mg L-1) and IBA + KIN (2.4 mg L-1). Rooting was intensified after 40 days, reaching 100% for all media with indole-3-butyric acid. Addition of 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4D) provided the best results for production of friable calli. Acclimatization was 100% effective for plantlets cultured in control medium, with decrease in survival rate in grown plantlets from media added with growth regulators.

Plant Body Weight-Induced Secondary Growth in Arabidopsis and Its Transcription Phenotype Revealed by Whole-Transcriptome Profiling1[w]

Ko, Jae-Heung; Han, Kyung-Hwan; Park, Sunchung; Yang, Jaemo
Fonte: American Society of Plant Biologists Publicador: American Society of Plant Biologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.81%
Wood is an important raw material and environmentally cost-effective renewable source of energy. However, the molecular biology of wood formation (i.e. secondary growth) is surprisingly understudied. A novel experimental system was employed to study the molecular regulation of secondary xylem formation in Arabidopsis. First, we demonstrate that the weight carried by the stem is a primary signal for the induction of cambium differentiation and the plant hormone, auxin, is a downstream carrier of the signal for this process. We used Arabidopsis whole-transcriptome (23 K) GeneChip analysis to examine gene expression profile changes in the inflorescent stems treated for wood formation by cultural manipulation or artificial weight application. Many of the genes up-regulated in wood-forming stems had auxin responsive cis-acting elements in their promoter region, indicating auxin-mediated regulation of secondary growth. We identified 700 genes that were differentially expressed during the transition from primary growth to secondary growth. More than 40% of the genes that were up-regulated (>5×) were associated with signal transduction and transcriptional regulation. Biological significance of these regulatory genes is discussed in light of the induction and development of secondary xylem.

Hypericin and pseudohypericin concentrations of a valuable medicinal plant Hypericum perforatum L. are enhanced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

Zubek, Szymon; Mielcarek, Sebastian; Turnau, Katarzyna
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.85%
Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John’s-wort, Hypericaceae) is a valuable medicinal plant species cultivated for pharmaceutical purposes. Although the chemical composition and pharmacological activities of H. perforatum have been well studied, no data are available concerning the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on this important herb. A laboratory experiment was therefore conducted in order to test three AMF inocula on H. perforatum with a view to show whether AMF could influence plant vitality (biomass and photosynthetic activity) and the production of the most valuable secondary metabolites, namely anthraquinone derivatives (hypericin and pseudohypericin) as well as the prenylated phloroglucinol—hyperforin. The following treatments were prepared: (1) control—sterile soil without AMF inoculation, (2) Rhizophagus intraradices (syn. Glomus intraradices), (3) Funneliformis mosseae (syn. Glomus mosseae), and (4) an AMF Mix which contained: Funneliformis constrictum (syn. Glomus constrictum), Funneliformis geosporum (syn. Glomus geosporum), F. mosseae, and R. intraradices. The application of R. intraradices inoculum resulted in the highest mycorrhizal colonization, whereas the lowest values of mycorrhizal parameters were detected in the AMF Mix. There were no statistically significant differences in H. perforatum shoot mass in any of the treatments. However...

Desenvolvimento tecnológico e caracterização de extratos vegetais obtidos a partir das raízes de Piper umbellatum L. (Piperaceae); Technological development and characterization of plant extracts obtained from the roots of Piper umbellatum L. (Piperaceae)

Machado, Rúbia Darc
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas (FF); Faculdade Farmácia - FF (RG) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas (FF); Faculdade Farmácia - FF (RG)
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.95%
In this work, the impacts of the spray drying technique were evaluated over technological development of P. umbellatum root´s extracts besides assessing their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. The work was performed in three steps: A) processing and physicochemical characterization of the plant raw material; B) obtain and physicochemical characterization of the fluid extract and; C) assessment of the spray drying technique for obtaining dry extracts of P. umbellatum. The herbal drug and fluid extract were obtained and characterized by general Pharmacopeia methods. Dried extracts were obtained using Aerosil® (colloidal silicon dioxide) as adjuvant. Several physicochemical features were analyzed such as, drying air temperature, extract feed flow rate and adjuvant: plant extract ratio. Interaction of all these factors on the water activity (AW) of P. umbellatum dried extracts as well as the overall content of 4-NRC (T4-NRC) were determined by HPLC- PDA, in addition to its antioxidant activity (AAO). Response surface methodology (RSM) from a factorial design Box-Behnken was used to evaluate all together. Performance of the drying process and particles morphology were also assessed by scanning (SEM) electron microscopy. Moreover...

Methodology and tools for improving competence of a chemical plant characterized by a complex Supply Chain network

LEOFANTI, GUIDO
Fonte: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma Publicador: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.87%
Supply chain performance is strongly influenced by its design, chosen architecture, logistic network and types of finished product that made their marketplace. Sometimes environmental reasons like site location due to deals between government administration and companies may cause changes in logical design and hence increase logistic network complexity and become in a strategic Supply Chain constraint. Our case study addresses a geographic place of a chemical manufacturing plant inside its supply chain which the 86% of the domestic raw material suppliers, its unique distribution center and 100% of the plastic and metallic packaging suppliers are placed over 800 kilometers of distance. Starting from this restriction the research work consists in how redesign and rethink the architecture of the existing supply chain and optimize the processes inside the chemical plant trying to minimize the cost disadvantages related directly to the physical location of the factory. This research treats the selection of coordination and collaborative mechanisms between supply chain members, other company departments and outsourcing partners in order to create a collaborative coordinated model for optimization of this complex supply chain network. Besides this environment limitation...

From the raw material to the finished product : honey

Maurizio, Anna
Fonte: INRA - Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agronômica da França Publicador: INRA - Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agronômica da França
Tipo: Journal Article-postprint
EN; ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
This article is based on the paper read by Dr. Anna Maurizio at the Bee Research Association Conference on "Flower-bee relationship", help at the Kent Farm and Horticultural Institute at Sittingbourne on 27-29th July 1962. For over thirty years Dr. Maurizio has been engaged in research work on various problems in this field, including pollen analysis of honey, and also bee nutrition in relation to pollen consumption. For her lecture she chose a subject she is at present working on the effect on honey of the various processes the raw material undergoes : in the plant itself, in the bodies of the foraging bees and the house bees, in the cells of the comb, and in the vessel in which the honey is finally stored. Much of this work is so new that it is not yet widely known, and the publication of this paper will bring it within the reach of ùany more people than those who were fortunate enough to hear Dr. Maurizio's lecture.

TRY – A Global Database of Plant Traits

Kattge, J.; Díaz, S.; Lavorel, S.; Prentice, I. C.; Leadley, P.; Bönisch, G.; Garnier, E.; Westoby, M.; Reich, P. B.; Wright, I. J.; Cornelissen, J. H. C.; Violle, C.; Harrison, S. P.; Van Bodegom, P. M.; Reichstein, M.; Enquist, B. J.; Soudzilovskaia,
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.9%
Plant traits – the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs – determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from species richness to ecosystem functional diversity. Trait data thus represent the raw material for a wide range of research from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology to biogeography. Here we present the global database initiative named TRY, which has united a wide range of the plant trait research community worldwide and gained an unprecedented buy-in of trait data: so far 93 trait databases have been contributed. The data repository currently contains almost three million trait entries for 69 000 out of the world's 300 000 plant species, with a focus on 52 groups of traits characterizing the vegetative and regeneration stages of the plant life cycle, including growth, dispersal, establishment and persistence. A first data analysis shows that most plant traits are approximately log-normally distributed, with widely differing ranges of variation across traits. Most trait variation is between species (interspecific), but significant intraspecific variation is also documented...

A Comparison of Two Nicotiana attenuata Accessions Reveals Large Differences in Signaling Induced by Oral Secretions of the Specialist Herbivore Manduca sexta1[W][OA]

Wu, Jianqiang; Hettenhausen, Christian; Schuman, Meredith C.; Baldwin, Ian T.
Fonte: American Society of Plant Biologists Publicador: American Society of Plant Biologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.85%
Genetic variation within and among populations provides the raw material for evolution. Although many studies describe inter- and intraspecific variation of defensive metabolites, little is known about variation among plant populations within early signaling responses elicited by herbivory or by herbivore oral secretions (OS) introduced into wounds during feeding. In this study, we compare the OS-elicited early responses as well as the antiherbivore defensive metabolites in two accessions of the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata and show that, compared with an accession collected from Utah, an Arizona accession has lower herbivore-elicited activity of the salicylic acid-induced protein kinase, an important mitogen-activated protein kinase involved in herbivore resistance. These differences in salicylic acid-induced protein kinase activity were associated with substantially different levels of OS-elicited jasmonic acid, jasmonic acid-isoleucine conjugate, and ethylene bursts. Gene expression level polymorphism (ELP) determines phenotypic variation among populations, and we found the two accessions to have significantly different ELPs in the genes involved in early signaling responses to herbivory. In addition, we found differences between the Utah and the Arizona accessions in the concentrations of several secondary metabolites that contribute to N. attenuata's direct and indirect defenses. This study demonstrates significant natural variation in regulatory elements that mediate plant responses to herbivore attack...

Pyrolysis of secondary raw material from used frying oils

Billaud, Francis; Gornay, Julien; Coniglio, Lucie
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/09/2007
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
A totally green chemistry alternative that would lead both to energy production from renewable feedstocks and to solutions of parts of ecological problems related to waste disposals would be very attractive. Pyrolysis of used frying oils seems to be one option for this attractive alternative as we propose to demonstrate in this study. Since 2002, the whole production of waste edible oils (around 100 000 tons per year in France) must be collected and transformed into secondary raw material by specific companies. The general aim of the present work is to produce one of the following target sources of energy: (i) H2 for fuel cells, (ii) H2/CO in satisfactory ratios to produce biodiesel by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reaction, or (iii) hydrocarbon mixtures with high added value. Therefore, in this work, the conversion of a crude used frying oil, named VEGETAMIXOIL^(r); from Ecogras Company (France), was investigated (weight composition: C 73.6%; O 9.7%; H 12.2%). In support of our knowledge related to fatty acids and methyl esters, a laboratory pilot plant was built to study the pyrolysis of used frying oils. Effects of temperature (700-800 degrees C), residence time, addition of reaction initiator (H2O2) or inhibitor (thiophene), and diluent (water or nitrogen) were analysed with regard to the nature and amounts of pyrolysis products. Results led to the conclusion that the best operating conditions of pyrolysis are 800 degrees C with water as diluent...