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Dependence of Barkhausen jump shape on microstructure in carbon steel

RODRIGUEZ, J. L.; PEREZ-BENITEZ, J. A.; CAPO-SANCHEZ, J.; Padovese, Linilson Rodrigues; BETANCOURT-RIERA, Re.
Fonte: SOC MEXICANA FISICA Publicador: SOC MEXICANA FISICA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.1%
The present work presents measurements of the Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) in commercial AISI/SAE 1005 steel samples for different grain sizes. The correlation between the shape of the MBN jump and the grain size is established. The results show the existence of types of MBN jumps. Also, the outcome shows that one of these types of MBN jumps become ""squarer"" with the decrease of grain size.

Nondestructive inspection of plastic deformation in commercial carbon steels using magnetic Barkhausen noise

RODRIGUEZ, J. L.; PEREZ-BENITEZ, J. A.; CAPO-SANCHEZ, J.; Padovese, Linilson Rodrigues; BETANCOURT-RIERA, Re.
Fonte: SOC MEXICANA FISICA Publicador: SOC MEXICANA FISICA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.33%
The present work shows measurements of the Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) in commercial AISI/SAE 1045 and ASTM 36 steel deformed samples. The correlation between the MBN root mean square, Barkhausen signal profile and MBN power spectrum with the plastic deformation is established. The results show that the power spectral density of the Barkhausen signal is more effective as nondestructive evaluator than root mean square of Barkhausen signal. The Outcomes also suggest the presence of unbalanced tensions between the surface and the bulk of sample due to the presence of plastic deformation.

A study of plastic deformation around a defect using the magnetic Barkhausen noise in ASTM 36 steel

PEREZ-BENITEZ, J. A.; CAPO-SANCHEZ, J.; ANGLADA-RIVERA, J.; Padovese, Linilson Rodrigues
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCI LTD Publicador: ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.1%
The present work presents the measurements of the magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN) in ASTM 36 steel samples around a pit under plastic deformation. The contour maps obtained from these Barkhausen noise measurements are compared with the finite element analysis of the ideal plastic deformation. Also, a parameter of the Barkhausen signal to detect the plastic deformation around the pit in ASTM 36 steel is obtained. Additionally to that, we propose another MBN parameter to estimate the pit width using the Barkhausen noise. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Estudo do reparo por soldagem de aços refratários do tipo HP utilizados em plantas de procesamento de petróleo

Junqueira, Diego Alonso Altamirano
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: 142 f.| il., tabs., grafs.
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.1%
Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Mecânica, Florianópolis, 2008.; Os aços refratários tipo HP são utilizados em unidades de refino e processamento de petróleo, em componentes tais como vasos de pressão, fornos de reforma e serpentinas de pirólise. Devido às elevadas temperaturas em que esses aços operam (até de 1050 ºC) operam (até de 1050 ºC) e ao contato com derivados do petróleo, tais materiais podem sofrer dano por vários mecanismos, dentre eles a carburização, oxidação e sensitização devido à soldagem e exposição a altas temperaturas em serviço, que podem fragilizar o material até o ponto de impossibilitar seu reparo. Neste trabalho foram estabelecidas diretrizes para o reparo por soldagem destes materiais no estado fragilizado. Para isto, foram realizados ensaios de soldabilidade em tubos envelhecidos com diversos graus de carburização, avaliados através de medidas da permeabilidade magnética. Os ensaios de soldabilidade foram realizados em três condições: a) tubo no estado original, com amanteigamento; b) tubo no estado original, soldagem normal; c) tubo submetido previamente a tratamento de solubilização a 1150 ºC. Nas soldas envelhecidas sem nenhum tratamento...

Nondestructive characterization of microstructures and determination of elastic properties in plain carbon steel using ultrasonic measurements

Vera Lúcia de Araújo Freitas; Victor Hugo C. de Albuquerque; Edgard de Macedo Silva; Antonio Almeida Silva; João Manuel Ribeiro da Silva Tavares
Fonte: Universidade do Porto Publicador: Universidade do Porto
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.27%
This paper presents a reliable and fast nondestructive characterization of microstructural and elastic properties of plain carbon steel, based on ultrasonic measurements for ultrasonic velocity and attenuation. Microstructures considered are: ferrite, pearlite, ferrite-pearlite and martensite. Ultrasonic velocities considered longitudinal and transverse waves and modulus of elasticity and modulus of shear were determined by correlations between them. In carbon steels, a lower value of ultrasonic velocity was observed for the martensite in relation to the other microstructures, while the opposite was observed in terms of ultrasonic attenuation. The results show that the use of ultrasonic measurements to obtain ultrasonic velocities and attenuations, in order to correlate them with the involved microstructures, as well as to determine the modulus of elasticity and modulus of shear, is very fast and reliable, permitting the characterization of nondestructive microstructural and elastic properties.

Estimation of the Plain High-Cycle Fatigue Propagation Resistance in Steels

Chapetti,Mirco D.
Fonte: ABM, ABC, ABPol Publicador: ABM, ABC, ABPol
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.1%
In this work a method to estimate the high cyclic fatigue propagation life of steel specimens under constant loading is presented. This method is based in experimental evidence that the fatigue limit represents the threshold stress for the propagation of nucleated cracks, so that both the fatigue limit and the fatigue resistance depend on the effective resistance of the microstructural barriers that have to be overcome by the nucleated cracks. It is proposed also, that in those cases where the number of cycles that is necessary for the nucleation of the cracks can be neglected, the fatigue crack propagation life can be taken as an estimation of the total fatigue life. The high cycle fatigue propagation life of a structural steel of the type JIS 10C is estimated.

Fracture Toughness (K1C) evaluation for dual phase medium carbon low alloy steels using circumferential notched tensile (CNT) specimens

Alaneme,Kenneth Kanayo
Fonte: ABM, ABC, ABPol Publicador: ABM, ABC, ABPol
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.33%
The fracture behavior of dual phase medium carbon low alloy steels produced using two different chemical compositions (A - 0.34C, 0.75Mn, 0.12Cr, 0.13Ni steel and B - 0.3C, 0.97Mn, 0.15Cr steel) was investigated using circumferential notched tensile (CNT) specimens. Intercritical treatments were performed on samples with composition A by 1) austenitizing at 860 °C for 1 hour cooling in air, then treating at 770 °C for 30 minutes before oil quenching; 2) austenitizing at 860 °C for 1 hour quenching in oil, then treating at 770 °C for 30 minutes before quenching in oil; and 3) austenitizing at 860 °C for 1 hour, super-cooling to 770 °C and then quenching in oil. Samples of composition B were subjected to intercritical treatment at temperatures of 740, 760, and 780 °C for 30 minutes, followed by quenching rapidly in oil. Tensile testing was then performed on specimens without notches and the CNT specimens. It was observed that the dual phase steel produced from procedure (2) yielded a fine distribution of ferrite and martensite which gave the best combination of tensile properties and fracture toughness for composition A while the dual phase structure produced by treating at 760 °C yielded the best combination of tensile properties and fracture toughness for composition B. The fracture toughness results evaluated from the test were found to be valid (in plain strain condition) and a high correlation between the fracture toughness and notch tensile strength was observed. The fracture toughness values were also found to be in close agreement with data available in literature.

Application of ANFIS for analytical modeling of tensile strength of functionally graded steels

Nazari,Ali
Fonte: ABM, ABC, ABPol Publicador: ABM, ABC, ABPol
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.66%
In the present study, the tensile strength of ferritic and austenitic functionally graded steels produced by electroslag remelting has been modeled. To produce functionally graded steels, two slices of plain carbon steel and austenitic stainless steels were spot welded and used as electroslag remelting electrode. Functionally graded steel containing graded layers of ferrite and austenite may be fabricated via diffusion of alloying elements during remelting stage. Vickers microhardness profile of the specimen has been obtained experimentally and modeled with adaptive network-based fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS). To build the model for graded ferritic and austenitic steels, training, testing and validation using respectively 174 and 120 experimental data were conducted. According to the input parameters, in the ANFIS model, the Vickers microhardness of each layer was predicted. A good fit equation which correlates the Vickers microhardness of each layer to its corresponding chemical composition was achieved by the optimized network for both ferritic and austenitic graded steels. Afterwards; the Vickers microhardness of each layer in functionally graded steels was related to the yield stress of the corresponding layer and by assuming Holloman relation for stress-strain curve of each layer...

Sinterability and microstructure evolution during sintering of ferrous powder mixtures

Demétrio,Kétner Bendo; Klein,Aloisio Nelmo; Schaeffer,Lirio; Consoni,Deise Rebelo; Martinelli,Antonio Eduardo; Bendo,Tatiana
Fonte: ABM, ABC, ABPol Publicador: ABM, ABC, ABPol
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.1%
The present work is focused on ferrous powder metallurgy and presents some results of a development of a suitable masteralloy for use as an additive to iron powder for the production of sintered steels. The masteralloy was produced by melting a powder mixture containing approximately Fe + 20% Ni + 20% Mn + 20% Si + 1% C (wt%), in order to obtain a cast billet that was converted into fine powder by crushing and milling. It was observed presence of SiC in the masteralloy after melting that is undesirable in the alloy. Si element should be introduced by using ferrosilicon. Sintered alloys with distinct contents of alloying elements were prepared by mixing the masteralloy powder to plain iron powder. Samples were produced by die compaction of the powder mixtures and sintering at 1200 °C in a differential dilatometer in order to record their linear dimensional behaviour during heating up and isothermal sintering, aiming at studying the sinterability of the compacts. Microstructure development during sintering was studied by SEM, XRD and microprobe analyses.

The formation of austenite in plain carbon steels at high heating rates

Huggins, Robert A. (Robert Alan), 1929-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: v, 25 leaves, [21] leaves of plates; 3226712 bytes; 3226471 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.1%
by Robert A. Huggins.; Thesis (Sc. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Metallurgy, 1954.; Vita.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 22-24).

Effects of Pb-17Li on the Tensile Properties of Steels

COEN Vittorio; ORECCHIA Luigi
Fonte: Centro Comum de Pesquisa da Comissão Européia Publicador: Centro Comum de Pesquisa da Comissão Européia
Tipo: Contributions to Conferences Formato: Printed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.45%
MOLTEN PB-17LI IS A CANDIDATE TRITIUM BREEDING MATERIAL TO BE USED IN CONJUN- CTION WITH STRUCTURAL MATERIALS SUCH AS STEELS. EXPERIMENTS HAVE BEEN CARRIED OUT IN ORDER TO VERIFY IF THERE IS AN L.M.E. EFFECT WHEN SOME OF THE CANDIDATE STRUCTURALS ARE USED IN PRESENCE OF PB-17LI. THE STEELS TESTED WERE: THE AISI 316 EUROPEAN REFERENCE STEEL FOR FUSION REACTOR RESEARCH, THE FERRITIC (MARTEN- SITIC) NET REFERENCE STEEL DIN 1.4914 AND THE J.R.C. ISPRA HIGH MANGANESE STEEL AMCR. TENSILE TESTS, AT VARIOUS STRAIN RATES, WERE ACCOMPLISHED IN PB-17LI AT 523 AND 573 K. AFTER THE EXPERIMENTS THE BROKEN SPECIMENS WERE SUBMITTED TO FRACTOGRAPHIC (S.E.M) AND METALLOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION (CROSS SECTIONS ALONG THE LENGTH OF THE RUPTURED SAMPLES). THE RESULTS ARE COMPARED TO SIMILAR TESTS CAR-RIED OUT IN VACUUM OR ARGON. SOME SAMPLES HAVE BEEN SUBMITTED TO CONSTANT LOA- DS, IN STATIC PB-17LI, UNDER VACUUM, FOR PERIODS OF 2500 H AT A TEMPERATURE OF 723 K. AFTER THE TESTS THE SPECIMENS WERE LONGITUDINALLY SECTIONED AND DIFFE- RENT CROSS SECTIONS MICROSCOPICALLY EXAMINED. THE STRESSED SAMPLES ARE COMPA- RED TO PLAIN SPECIMENS HEAT TREATED IN PB-17LI IN THE SAME EXPERIMENTAL CONDI- TIONS; NA-NOT AVAILABLE

Nuevos materiales tipo cermet de matriz Fe: estudio de la composición, microestructura y propiedades

Alvaredo Olmos, Paula
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.1%
En la industria de la fabricación de herramientas de corte el material más utilizado en los últimos años ha sido el carburo cementado o metal duro, WC‐Co; sin embargo, debido a su alto coste y a su toxicidad, en la actualidad existe un interés por buscar alternativas a su utilización. Los cermets base TiCN podrían ser una opción competitiva debido a su superioridad en propiedades como dureza y resistencia al desgaste y a la oxidación; no obstante los metales que se utilizan convencionalmente como matriz son Ni y Co, los cuales presentan los mismos problemas de coste y toxicidad. En este trabajo se propone la utilización de Fe como matriz metálica alternativa en cermets base TiCN, la desventaja que presenta la utilización de Fe es la baja mojabilidad sobre las partículas de TiCN durante la sinterización en fase líquida, lo que dificulta su procesado. En cermets convencionales de matriz Ni y Co, adiciones de elementos de aleación o compuestos como Cr, Mo, Mo₂C y WC pueden mejorar el procesado y propiedades de los cermets debido a cambios en la mojabilidad de la fase líquida. En este trabajo se propone estudiar si estos elementos o compuestos juegan el mismo papel cuando la matriz es Fe. Para ello se han elegido dos aceros comerciales como matriz base Fe: el acero inoxidable (grado 430) que contiene Cr y el acero rápido (grado M2) que contiene W...

From Sintered Iron to High Performance PM Steels

Torralba, José Manuel; Oro, Raquel; Campos, Mónica
Fonte: Trans Tech Publications Publicador: Trans Tech Publications
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/bookPart; info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceObject
Publicado em //2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.71%
Since low alloyed sintered steels were introduced in the market of the structural parts, we have followed the evolution of a material with poor mechanical properties and any uniformity (in the sense of reproducibility) to materials that today are produced with high reliability and performance. The working efficiency could be equivalent in many cases with the best wrought steel, and maintaining a good margin in terms of cost and competitively. In this paper a complete review of the topic is accomplished, from the early times when the first parts were made by plain iron or iron-carbon, going through the different alloying systems: Fe-Cu, Fe-P, Fe-Cu-Ni-Mo, and more recently Fe-Cr-Mo and Fe-Mn. The development in processing routes has been considered too. The main milestones in the field of new alloying systems have been: 1) the introduction of Cu in 60- 70‟s, 2) the new complex systems with Cu-Ni-Mo in the 80‟s and 3) the introduction of alloying elements with high oxygen affinity (in the late 90‟s). Regarding the milestones in processing could be considered: 1) the development of new mixing procedures, 2) the warm compaction and high velocity compaction, 3) the improvements in sintering control and high temperature sintering. Several decades of research and innovation...

Comportamiento en fatiga de componentes estructurales obtenidos mediante oxicorte, corte por plasma y corte por láser : comparativa y definición de curvas S-N de diseño

García Pemán, Tiberio
Fonte: Universidade de Cantabria Publicador: Universidade de Cantabria
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.1%
RESUMEN: Los procesos de corte térmico constituyen la tecnología más extendida para la fabricación de componentes demandados por un gran número de sectores, que incluyen entre otros la construcción de puentes y estructuras metálicas, industria naval, maquinaria de construcción y la industria del automóvil. Los mayores inconvenientes de estos procesos son las condiciones resultantes en la superficie de corte obtenida y los cambios microestructurales que aparecen en la región anexa al borde de corte, los cuales pueden afectar al comportamiento del componente en servicio, especialmente si está sometido a cargas cíclicas. En esta Tesis Doctoral se evalúa la influencia de los métodos de corte térmico en el comportamiento en fatiga de aceros estructurales y la idoneidad de las normativas actuales para el diseño en fatiga de componentes cortados térmicamente. Se han considerado dos geometrías con una importante presencia en las estructuras reales: bordes de corte rectos y orificios circulares, habiendo realizado un total de 300 ensayos de fatiga.; ABSTRACT: Most of steel components used by sectors such as bridge construction, naval industry, yellow goods or manufacturing industry, are primarily supplied by steel mills in standardized geometries (e.g....

Magnetic Barkhausen Noise Testing: Steel Grades and Stress Response

Alam-Samimi, ARASH
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.1%
Magnetic Barkhausen Noise emissions are discontinuous magnetization changes within ferromagnetic materials that have been subjected to changing applied magnetic fields. These emissions are sensitive to microstrutural variations and stress states of the material, which can adversely affect magnetic properties or structural integrity of engineering components. Therefore, magnetic Barkhausen noise has potential as a non-destructive testing technique for indirect materials evaluation. However, simultaneous dependence of Barkhausen noise emissions on metallurgical variables, physical features and stress state of the material complicates its data interpretation. The purpose of the present thesis was, therefore, to address these complexities by comparing Barkhausen noise signal characteristics from different ferromagnetic steel grades, all using the same measuring system under reproducible flux-controlled magnetization conditions. This is in contrast to the majority of literature Barkhausen noise investigations, which have focused on case studies using different probes and systems under unknown conditions of flux, which therefore limits their comparability. Various steel grades were tested, including transformer and electric motor laminates...

Enhanced Weld Penetrations In GTA Welding with Activating Fluxes Case studies: Plain Carbon & Stainless Steels, Titanium and Aluminum

RUCKERT, Guillaume; PERRY, Nicolas; SIRE, Stephane; MARYA, Surendar
Fonte: Arts et Métiers ParisTech Publicador: Arts et Métiers ParisTech
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.71%
Flux applications prior to the convention Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) is known to improve weld penetrations and improve process competitiveness. This paper summarizes the investigations on aluminum, plain carbon steels, stainless steels and titanium. The importance of flux composition, homogeneity and profile of its application are shown to be primordial in determining the weld depth to width ratio of weld pools. The mechanisms that lead to improved penetrations along with some industrial case studies are presented.

Influencia da taxa de resfriamento nas propriedades mecanicas e no micromecanismo de fratura de um aço microligado com niobio e titanio; The effect of cooling rate on the mechanical properties and fracture micromechanisms in a low carbon microalloyed niobium-titanium steel

Valdir Alves Guimarães
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/12/1997 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.45%
Nos últimos anos os aços ao carbono comuns têm sido substituídos pelos aços microligados em diversos tipos de aplicações como em estruturas navais, tubulações e em diversos componentes utilizados pela indústria automobilística. Atualmente, grandes esforços tem sido direcionados no sentido de se obter aços com microestruturas que proporcionem melhores combinações de resistência mecânica e tenacidade. O presente trabalho têm por objetivos estudar a influência da taxa de resfriamento, a partir da austenitização completa a 920º C e a partir da região intercrítica em duas temperaturas (710 e 770º C), nas propriedades mecânicas, microestrutura e no micromecanismo de fratura, do aço API 5L X65 microligado ao nióbio e titânio. Além disso, verificou-se também a influência da austêmpera na microestrutura e no comportamento mecânico. As propriedades mecânicas analisadas foram limite de resistência à tração ('sigma' IND. t), limite de escoamento ('sigma' IND. e), alongamento (A), dureza (HV) e tenacidade à fratura (deslocamento de abertura da ponta da trinca ('sigma' IND. m). Com a variação da taxa de resfriamento em diferentes rotas de tratamentos térmicos foram obtidas diversas microestruturas para o aço estudado...

Nondestructive inspection of plastic deformation in commercial carbon steels using magnetic Barkhausen noise

Rodriguez,J.L.; Perez-Benitez,J.A.; Capo-Sanchez,J; Padovese,L.R.; Betancourt-Riera,Re
Fonte: Sociedad Mexicana de Física Publicador: Sociedad Mexicana de Física
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.33%
The present work shows measurements of the Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) in commercial AISI/SAE 1045 and ASTM 36 steel deformed samples. The correlation between the MBN root mean square, Barkhausen signal profile and MBN power spectrum with the plastic deformation is established. The results show that the power spectral density of the Barkhausen signal is more effective as nondestructive evaluator than root mean square of Barkhausen signal. The outcomes also suggest the presence of unbalanced tensions between the surface and the bulk of sample due to the presence of plastic deformation.

Dependence of Barkhausen jump shape on microstructure in carbon steel

Rodriguez,J.L.; Perez-Benitez,J.A.; Capo-Sanchez,J; Padovese,L.R.; Betancourt-Riera,Re
Fonte: Sociedad Mexicana de Física Publicador: Sociedad Mexicana de Física
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.1%
The present work presents measurements of the Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) in commercial AISI/SAE 1005 steel samples for different grain sizes. The correlation between the shape of the MBN jump and the grain size is established. The results show the existence of types of MBN jumps. Also, the outcome shows that one of these types of MBN jumps become "squarer" with the decrease of grain size.

Influence of gadolinium on the microstructure and mechanical properties of steel and stainless steel

Khan,Z
Fonte: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Publicador: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.33%
Iron, in the form of steel and stainless steel, is the most commonly used metal in the world. Plain steels corrode and oxidize easily, while stainless steels exhibit improved corrosion and oxidation resistance. It has been found that rare earth metal (REM) additions, such as cerium and erbium, result in the improvement of the abovementioned properties in iron-containing compounds. Gadolinium is a REM, however, there is very little information available on the influence of gadolinium on the microstructure and mechanical properties of iron-containing compounds. Thus, the purpose of this research project was to determine the influence of gadolinium additions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of mild steel and 316 stainless steel. Ten alloys were produced for the purposes of this research. Five of the alloys had a base composition of mild steel while the remaining five had base composition of 316 stainless steel. The alloys for each of the base composition contained gadolinium additions of 0.1, 0.5, 1.2, and 5 weight per cent. The as-cast and the cold-rolled alloys were analysed. The alloys responded well to the cold-rolling with the exception of the 5 weight per cent gadolinium mild steel and stainless steel alloys. These alloys were extremely brittle and underwent a significant amount of cracking during the cold rolling process. A microstructural analysis of the alloys was conducted using a light optical microscope...