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The phonological and visual basis of developmental dyslexia in Brazilian Portuguese reading children

Germano, Giseli D.; Reilhac, Caroline; Capellini, Simone Aparecida; Valdois, Sylviane
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 11
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.71%
Evidence from opaque languages suggests that visual attention processing abilities in addition to phonological skills may act as cognitive underpinnings of developmental dyslexia. We explored the role of these two cognitive abilities on reading fluency in Brazilian Portuguese, a more transparent orthography than French or English. Sixty-six children with developmental dyslexia and normal Brazilian Portuguese children participated. They were administered three tasks of phonological skills (phoneme identification, phoneme, and syllable blending) and three visual tasks (a letter global report task and two non-verbal tasks of visual closure and visual constancy). Results show that Brazilian Portuguese children with developmental dyslexia are impaired not only in phonological processing but further in visual processing. The phonological and visual processing abilities significantly and independently contribute to reading fluency in the whole population. Last, different cognitively homogeneous subtypes can be identified in the Brazilian Portuguese population of children with developmental dyslexia. Two subsets of children with developmental dyslexia were identified as having a single cognitive disorder, phonological or visual; another group exhibited a double deficit and a few children showed no visual or phonological disorder. Thus the current findings extend previous data from more opaque orthographies as French and English...

Phonological processing in individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; Processamento fonológico em indivíduos com transtorno de déficit de atenção e hiperatividade

Alves, Luciana Mendonça; Souza, Helma Tamára Vieira de; Souza, Vanessa Oliveira de; Lodi, Débora Fraga; Ferreira, Maria do Carmo Mangelli; Siqueira, Cláudia Machado; Celeste, Leticia Correa
Fonte: CEFAC - SAÚDE E EDUCAÇÃO Publicador: CEFAC - SAÚDE E EDUCAÇÃO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR; ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.63%
Objetivo: analisar e descrever o desempenho das habilidades dos componentes do processamento fonológico nos sujeitos com Transtorno do Déficit de Atenção e Hiperatividade (TDA/H). Métodos: trata-se de estudo descritivo analítico dos dados de avaliação das habilidades do processamento fonológico de 45 sujeitos, com idade entre 7 e 16 anos, com diagnóstico multiprofissional de TDA/H. Os dados foram obtidos pela análise dos prontuários dos sujeitos avaliados pelo Laboratório de Estudo dos Transtornos de Aprendizagem (LETRA) do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), nos anos de 2008 a 2011. Os resultados analisados incluem a prova de Consciência Fonológica proposta pela bateria de testes BELEC, prova de Nomeação Seriada Rápida (RAN) e Memória Auditiva. Duas variáveis foram consideradas nesta análise: idade e presença ou não de comorbidades associadas. O teste aplicado para caracterização da amostra foi o não paramétrico de Mann Whitney. Resultados: os grupos tendem a se diferenciarem ao se analisar a variável idade, nas provas de consciência fonológica e RAN. Quando a variável comorbidade foi analisada, a consciência fonológica é a mais influenciada pela presença de comorbidades. Na habilidade de memória fonológica...

Avaliação do processamento fonológico : estudo exploratório de tradução e adaptação do Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP) para crianças portuguesas com e sem dislexia.

Simas, Ana Isabel
Fonte: Universidade Técnica de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade Técnica de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2013 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.4%
Mestrado em Reabilitação Psicomotora; Esta investigação subordina-se à temática da avaliação do Processamento Fonológico, que tem sido desenhado como uma das principais causas de dificuldade na leitura (Albuquerque, 2003; Wagner, Torgesen & Rashotte, 1999). A presente investigação é um estudo exploratório que visa a tradução e adaptação do instrumento de avaliação intitulado Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP) para crianças portuguesas, da autoria de Wagner, Torgesen e Rashotte (1999). Por outro lado, é também objetivo da presente investigação apurar se existem diferenças significativas entre as crianças com e sem dificuldades de leitura ao nível do Processamento Fonológico, nos seguintes domínios: Consciência Fonológica, Memória Fonológica e Nomeação Rápida. Este estudo foi realizado com dois grupos de crianças: um grupo com Dislexia, constituído por 21 crianças, com uma média de idade de dez anos e dois meses, e a um grupo sem Dislexia, constituído por 30 crianças, com uma média de idade de dez anos e quatro meses. Ambos os grupos encontravam-se entre o 2º e o 7º ano de escolaridade. Os resultados deste estudo apontam para a necessidade de uma nova aplicação deste instrumento...

Avaliação do processamento fonológico : estudo exploratório de tradução e adaptação do Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP) para a população portuguesa.

Santos, Regina da Conceição Fernandes Nunes dos
Fonte: Universidade Técnica de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade Técnica de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2013 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.4%
Mestrado em Reabilitação Psicomotora; Antes de aprenderem a ler, as crianças devem apresentar alguns pré-requisitos que lhes possibilitem essa aprendizagem sem interferências. Assim, o presente estudo visa analisar essas competências que se podem resumir em três competências essenciais: a consciência fonológica, a memória fonológica e a nomeação rápida. Estes componentes fazem parte do processamento fonológico que antecede e acompanha o processo da leitura. Para avaliar estes três componentes, decidiu-se fazer um estudo exploratório de adaptação do teste americano CTOPP (Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing) à população portuguesa (para os subtestes que contêm palavras), a que se deu o nome de Teste de Avaliação do Processamento Fonológico, contando, para esse efeito, com uma amostra de 38 crianças, frequentadoras do ensino pré-primário, com idades compreendidas entre os 5 e os 6 anos de idade. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir acerca da validade do teste em estudo, mais especificamente da validade dos seus subtestes constituintes adaptados. Para isso, procedeu-se à eliminação de alguns itens menos relevantes para o estudo, no caso dos subtestes adaptados. Para os subtestes iguais ao original a amostra das crianças de 5 anos apresentou mais dificuldades comparativamente com as crianças com 6 anos...

What does rapid naming tell us about dyslexia?

Araújo, Susana; Faísca, Luís; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Reis, Alexandra
Fonte: Universidad del Rosario Publicador: Universidad del Rosario
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.64%
This article summarizes some of the important fin - dings from research evaluating the relationship between poor rapid naming and impaired reading performance. Substantial evidence shows that dyslexic readers have problems with rapid naming of visual items. Early re - search assumed that this was a consequence of phono - logical processing deficits, but recent findings suggest that non-phonological processes may lie at the root of the association between slow naming speed and poor reading. The hypothesis that rapid naming reflects an independent core deficit in dyslexia is supported by the main findings: (1) some dyslexics are characterized by rapid naming difficulties but intact phonological skills; (2) evidence for an independent association between rapid naming and reading competence in the dyslexic readers, when the effect of phonological skills was con - trolled; (3) rapid naming and phonological processing measures are not reliably correlated. Recent research also reveals greater predictive power of rapid naming, in particular the inter-item pause time, for high-frequency word reading compared to pseudoword reading in de - velopmental dyslexia. Altogether, the results are more consistent with the view that a phonological component alone cannot account for the rapid naming performance in dyslexia. Rather...

Patterns of cerebral activation during lexical and phonological reading in Portuguese

Senaha,M.L.H.; Martin,M.G.M.; Amaro Jr.,E.; Campi,C.; Caramelli,P.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.62%
According to the concepts of cognitive neuropsychology, there are two principal routes of reading processing: a lexical route, in which global reading of words occurs and a phonological route, responsible for the conversion of the graphemes into their respective phonemes. In the present study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the patterns of cerebral activation in lexical and phonological reading by 13 healthy women with a formal educational level greater than 11 years. Participants were submitted to a silent reading task containing three types of stimuli: real words (irregular and foreign words), nonwords and illegitimate graphic stimuli. An increased number of activated voxels were identified by fMRI in the word reading (lexical processing) than in the nonword reading (phonological processing) task. In word reading, activation was greater than for nonwords in the following areas: superior, middle and inferior frontal gyri, and bilateral superior temporal gyrus, right cerebellum and the left precentral gyrus, as indicated by fMRI. In the reading of nonwords, the activation was predominant in the right cerebellum and in the left superior temporal gyrus. The results of the present study suggest the existence of differences in the patterns of cerebral activation during lexical and phonological reading...

Predictors of letter knowledge in children growing in poverty

Diuk,Beatriz; Ferroni,Marina
Fonte: Curso de Pós-Graduação em Psicologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Curso de Pós-Graduação em Psicologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.58%
This study examined the influence of phonological processing abilities on letter knowledge and letter learning in 1st grade children growing in poverty. At the beginning of the school year, 59 first graders were evaluated with tests measuring phonological awareness, phonological memory and rapid naming. Letter knowledge was assessed at the beginning and at the end of the year. All phonological processing abilities predicted letter knowledge at time 1, with phonological awareness producing the largest effect. However, only phonological memory predicted additional letter learning during the school year, once initial letter knowledge was taken into account.

Phonological processing deficits as a universal model for dyslexia: evidence from different orthographies

Navas,Ana Luiza Gomes Pinto; Ferraz,Érica de Cássia; Borges,Juliana Postigo Amorina
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Fonoaudiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Fonoaudiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.58%
PURPOSE: To verify the universal nature of the phonological processing deficit hypothesis for dyslexia, since the most influential studies on the topic were conducted in children or adults speakers of English. RESEARCH STRATEGY: A systematic review was designed, conducted and analyzed using PubMed, Science Direct, and SciELO databases. SELECTION CRITERIA: The literature search was conducted using the terms "phonological processing" AND "dyslexia" in publications of the last ten years (2004-2014). DATA ANALYSIS: Following screening of (a) titles and abstracts and (b) full papers, 187 articles were identified as meeting the pre-established inclusion criteria. RESULTS: The phonological processing deficit hypothesis was explored in studies involving several languages. More importantly, we identify studies in all types of writing systems such as ideographic, syllabic and logographic, as well as alphabetic orthography, with different levels of orthography-phonology consistency. CONCLUSION: The phonological processing hypothesis was considered as a valid explanation to dyslexia, in a wide variety of spoken languages and writing systems.

Manipulation of Length and Lexicality Localizes the Functional Neuroanatomy of Phonological Processing in Adult Readers

Church, Jessica A.; Balota, David A.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.62%
In a previous study of single word reading, regions in the left supramarginal gyrus and left angular gyrus showed positive BOLD activity in children but significantly less activity in adults for high-frequency words. This developmental decrease may reflect decreased reliance on phonological processing for familiar stimuli in adults. Therefore, in the present study, variables thought to influence phonological demand (string length and lexicality) were manipulated. Length and lexicality effects in the brain were explored using both ROI and whole-brain approaches. In the ROI analysis, the supramarginal and angular regions from the previous study were applied to this study. The supramarginal region showed a significant positive effect of length, consistent with a role in phonological processing, whereas the angular region showed only negative deflections from baseline with a strong effect of lexicality and other weaker effects. At the whole-brain level, varying effects of length and lexicality and their interactions were observed in 85 regions throughout the brain. The application of hierarchical clustering analysis to the BOLD time course data derived from these regions revealed seven clusters, with potentially revealing anatomical locations. Of note...

Early and Sustained Supramarginal Gyrus Contributions to Phonological Processing

Sliwinska, Magdalena W.; Khadilkar, Manali; Campbell-Ratcliffe, Jonathon; Quevenco, Frances; Devlin, Joseph T.
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/05/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.66%
Reading is a difficult task that, at a minimum, requires recognizing a visual stimulus and linking it with its corresponding sound and meaning. Neurologically, this involves an anatomically distributed set of brain regions cooperating to solve the problem. It has been hypothesized that the supramarginal gyrus (SMG) contributes preferentially to phonological aspects of word processing and thus plays an important role in visual word recognition. Here, we used chronometric transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate the functional specificity and timing of SMG involvement in reading visually presented words. Participants performed tasks designed to focus on either the phonological, semantic, or visual aspects of written words while double pulses of TMS (delivered 40 ms apart) were used to temporarily interfere with neural information processing in the left SMG at five different time windows. Stimulation at 80/120, 120/160, and 160/200 ms post-stimulus onset significantly slowed subjects’ reaction times in the phonological task. This inhibitory effect was specific to the phonological condition, with no effect of TMS in the semantic or visual tasks, consistent with claims that SMG contributes preferentially to phonological aspects of word processing. The fact that the effect began within 80–120 ms of the onset of the stimulus and continued for approximately 100 ms...

Neural Dynamics of Phonological Processing in the Dorsal Auditory Stream

Liebenthal, Einat; Sabri, Merav; Beardsley, Scott A.; Mangalathu-Arumana, Jain; Desai, Anjali
Fonte: Society for Neuroscience Publicador: Society for Neuroscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/09/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.58%
Neuroanatomical models hypothesize a role for the dorsal auditory pathway in phonological processing as a feedforward efferent system (Davis and Johnsrude, 2007; Rauschecker and Scott, 2009; Hickok et al., 2011). But the functional organization of the pathway, in terms of time course of interactions between auditory, somatosensory, and motor regions, and the hemispheric lateralization pattern is largely unknown. Here, ambiguous duplex syllables, with elements presented dichotically at varying interaural asynchronies, were used to parametrically modulate phonological processing and associated neural activity in the human dorsal auditory stream. Subjects performed syllable and chirp identification tasks, while event-related potentials and functional magnetic resonance images were concurrently collected. Joint independent component analysis was applied to fuse the neuroimaging data and study the neural dynamics of brain regions involved in phonological processing with high spatiotemporal resolution. Results revealed a highly interactive neural network associated with phonological processing, composed of functional fields in posterior temporal gyrus (pSTG), inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and ventral central sulcus (vCS) that were engaged early and almost simultaneously (at 80–100 ms)...

A Model of Phonological Processing, Language, and Reading for Students with Mild Intellectual Disability

Barker, R. Michael; Sevcik, Rose A.; Morris, Robin D.; Romski, MaryAnn
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.59%
Little is known about the relationships between phonological processing, language, and reading in children with intellectual disability (ID). We examined the structure of phonological processing in 294 school-aged children with mild ID and the relationships between its components and expressive and receptive language and reading skills using structural equation modeling. Phonological processing consisted of two distinct but correlated latent abilities: phonological awareness and naming speed. Phonological awareness had strong relationships with expressive and receptive language and reading skills. Naming speed had moderate relationships with these variables. Results suggest that children with ID bring the same skills to the task of learning to read as children with typical development, highlighting that phonologically based reading instruction should be considered a viable approach.

Phonological processing in first-degree relatives of individuals with autism: An fMRI study

Wilson, Lisa B.; Tregellas, Jason R.; Slason, Erin; Pasko, Bryce E.; Hepburn, Susan; Rojas, Donald C.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.72%
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex neurodevelopmental disorders. Twin studies have provided heritability estimates as high as 90% for idiopathic ASD. Further evidence for the spectrum’s heritability is provided by the presence of the broad autism phenotype (BAP) in unaffected first-degree relatives. Language ability, specifically phonological processing, is proposed to be a core BAP trait. To date, however, no functional neuroimaging investigations of phonological processing in relatives of individuals with ASD have been undertaken. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in parents of children with ASD utilizing a priming task probing implicit phonological processing. In our condition that placed heavier demands on phonological recoding, parents exhibited greater hemodynamic responses than controls in a network of cortical regions involved in phonological processing. Across conditions, parents exhibited enhanced priming-induced response suppression suggesting compensatory neural processing. A nonword repetition test used in previous studies of relatives was also administered. Correlations between this measure and our functional measures also suggested compensatory processing in parents. Regions exhibiting atypical responses in parents included regions previously implicated in the spectrum’s language impairments and found to exhibit structural abnormalities in a parent study. These results suggest a possible neurobiological substrate of the phonological deficits proposed to be a core BAP trait. However...

Reading performance is predicted by more than phonological processing

Kibby, Michelle Y.; Lee, Sylvia E.; Dyer, Sarah M.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/09/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.72%
We compared three phonological processing components (phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming and phonological memory), verbal working memory, and attention control in terms of how well they predict the various aspects of reading: word recognition, pseudoword decoding, fluency and comprehension, in a mixed sample of 182 children ages 8–12 years. Participants displayed a wide range of reading ability and attention control. Multiple regression was used to determine how well the phonological processing components, verbal working memory, and attention control predict reading performance. All equations were highly significant. Phonological memory predicted word identification and decoding. In addition, phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming predicted every aspect of reading assessed, supporting the notion that phonological processing is a core contributor to reading ability. Nonetheless, phonological processing was not the only predictor of reading performance. Verbal working memory predicted fluency, decoding and comprehension, and attention control predicted fluency. Based upon our results, when using Baddeley’s model of working memory it appears that the phonological loop contributes to basic reading ability...

Efectos de un programa de intervención en el lenguaje sobre el desarrollo del léxico y del procesamiento fonológico en escolares de Educación Infantil con Trastorno Específico del Lenguaje; Effects of a language intervention programme on the deve¬lopment of lexis and phonological processing in childhood education pupils with specific language impairments

Moreno Santana, Ana María; Axpe Caballero, Mª Angeles; Acosta Rodríguez, Vïctor Manuel
Fonte: Universidade de Múrcia Publicador: Universidade de Múrcia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.47%
Este estudio muestra algunos resultados de una investigación realizada con escolares con Trastorno Específico del Lenguaje (TEL). El propósito de la misma fue diseñar un programa de intervención basado en los principios de la educación inclusiva, que apoyara el desarrollo del lenguaje y el acceso a la lectura de un grupo de seis escolares de Educación Infantil identificados como TEL. Su aplicación tuvo lugar en los Colegios a los que acudían los niños, combinándose una fase en el aula habitual con otra en el aula de logopedia. En el desarrollo del mismo participaron de forma colaborativa logopedas del grupo de investigación y las profesoras de los niños. En este trabajo mostramos los efectos del programa en las dimensiones relativas al desarrollo del léxico y del procesamiento fonológico. Los análisis de contraste de la evaluación inicial y final reflejan avances significativos en prácticamente todas las variables analizadas.; This study presents some of the results of a research study on Specific Language Impairment (SLI) pupils. Our aim was to design an intervention programme based on inclusive education principles, which could support both language development and access to reading of a sample. The sample used was made up of six SLI children who had been diagnosed with the help of language and cognitive tests. Implementation was carried out in the pupils´ schools during regular classroom hours as well during remedial classes. In this study we show the effects of the programme on lexical development and phonological processes. The contrast between pre and post-tests was analysed for variables such as lexis...

Processamento fonológico, leitura e escrita em crianças com dislexia do desenvolvimento e crianças com transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade; Phonological processing, reading, writing in children with developmental dyslexia and children with attention déficit hyperactivity disorder

Tais de Lima Ferreira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/07/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.62%
O objetivo geral deste estudo foi verificar o processamento fonológico, leitura e escrita em crianças com dislexia do desenvolvimento e em crianças com transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade. O objetivo específico foi comparar o desempenho de processamento fonológico, leitura, escrita entre a dislexia do desenvolvimento e o transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade e levantar quais os aspectos diferenciam os sujeitos entre si. Participaram 51 crianças, de ambos os gêneros, com idades entre 8 e 14 anos, divididas em três grupos: GDD ¿ 17 crianças com o diagnóstico de Dislexia do Desenvolvimento; GTH ¿ 17 crianças com o diagnóstico de Transtorno do Déficit de Atenção e Hiperatividade; GC ¿ 17 crianças sem dificuldades de aprendizagem ou atencionais. As crianças de GDD e GTH foram avaliadas no Ambulatório de Neuro-Dificuldades de Aprendizagem do Hospital de Clínicas/UNICAMP e as crianças do GC foram avaliadas em duas escolas públicas na cidade de São Carlos (SP). Foram realizadas avaliações individuais utilizando os instrumentos: Instrumento de Avaliação Sequencial (CONFIAS), Prova de Nomeação Automática Rápida (RAN), Protocolo de Avaliação de Memória de Trabalho (PMT), Prova de Nível de Leitura...

Propiedades psicométricas de la Prueba de Procesamiento Fonológico “PROFON” en niños de 4 a 7 años de edad; Psychometric properties of the Phonological Processing Test “PROFON” in children from 4- to 7-years-old; Propriedades psicométricas da Prova de Processamento Fonológico “PROFON” em crianças de 4 a 7 anos de idade

Flórez Romero, Rita; Castro Martínez, Jaime; Arias Velandia, Nicolás
Fonte: Universidade do Rosário Publicador: Universidade do Rosário
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/09/2011 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.63%
Este estudio exploró las propiedades psicométricas de la Prueba de Procesamiento Fonológico de Lara, Serra, Aguilar y Flórez (2005) en una muestra de 478 niños de 4 a 7 años de edad en Bogotá y Chía en varios niveles socioeconómicos. Se analizó con pruebas de dificultad, discriminación, matriz de relaciones tetracóricas, coeficiente Alfa de Cronbach y análisis de componentes principales con rotación varimax para validez de constructo. Los resultados mostraron, en conciencia fonológica, un buen rendimiento menos en cuatro ítems, correspondencia del análisis de factores con la división es subescalas y niveles, y alta confiabilidad con bajo nivel de discriminación en la subescala de memoria fonológica. Los resultados se discutieron con base en los componentes de la habilidad de procesamiento fonológico.; This study explored the psychometric properties of the Phonological Processing Test (Lara, Serra, Aguilar & Flórez, 2005) in a 478 children from 4- to 7-years-old sample in bogotá and Chía, from different socioeconomic levels. This test was analyzed with difficult test, discrimination test, tetrachoric relation matrix, Alfa of Cronbach coefficient and main components analysis with varimax rotation for construct validity. Results showed...

Cortical Dynamics of Acoustic and Phonological Processing in Speech Perception

Zhang, Linjun; Xi, Jie; Xu, Guoqing; Shu, Hua; Wang, Xiaoyi; Li, Ping
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/06/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.7%
In speech perception, a functional hierarchy has been proposed by recent functional neuroimaging studies: Core auditory areas on the dorsal plane of superior temporal gyrus (STG) are sensitive to basic acoustic characteristics, whereas downstream regions, specifically the left superior temporal sulcus (STS) and middle temporal gyrus (MTG) ventral to Heschl's gyrus (HG) are responsive to abstract phonological features. What is unclear so far is the relationship between the dorsal and ventral processes, especially with regard to whether low-level acoustic processing is modulated by high-level phonological processing. To address the issue, we assessed sensitivity of core auditory and downstream regions to acoustic and phonological variations by using within- and across-category lexical tonal continua with equal physical intervals. We found that relative to within-category variation, across-category variation elicited stronger activation in the left middle MTG (mMTG), apparently reflecting the abstract phonological representations. At the same time, activation in the core auditory region decreased, resulting from the top-down influences of phonological processing. These results support a hierarchical organization of the ventral acoustic-phonological processing stream...

Effectiveness of a Phonological Awareness Training for Arabic Disabled Reading Children : Insights on Metalinguistic Benefits

Layes, Smail; Lalonde, Robert; Rebai, Mohamed
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.51%
We examined the effects of a phonological awareness (PA) training program on word reading and pseudo-word decoding in dyslexic children reading the Arabic language (n=10; age mean= 129.74 months) in comparison to normal readers (n=10; age mean= 126.90 months) from grades 4 and 5. Particular attention was paid to phonological training of two metalinguistic reading related skills: morphological awareness (MA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN), underscored as main predictive metalinguistic factors in Arabic dyslexia (Layes, Lalonde, Mecheri, Rebaï, 2015). The PA training program focused on phoneme/syllable identification, phoneme matching, and word segmentation. The results indicate that the dyslexic group performed significantly better in all post-training measurements, increasing reading, phonological processing, and metalinguistic related skills, which indicates a strong relationship between these variables. The normal group only improved in MA production. These findings are discussed in terms of metalinguistic insights of reading gained through training in phonological awareness.; Es van examinar els efectes d'un programa d'entrenament de consciència fonològica en la lectura de paraules i descodificació pseudo-paraules en nens dislèxics llegeixen la llengua àrab (n = 10; edat mitjana = 129...

Temporal processing and reading disability

Share, David; Jorm, Anthony F; Maclean, Rod; Matthews, Russell
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publishers Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.66%
The present investigation examined the hypothesis that early auditory temporal processing deficits cause later specific reading disability by impairing phonological processing (Farmer & Klein 1995; Tallal 1980, 1984). Temporal processing ability at school entry was examined using Tallal's Repetition Test in a large unselected sample of over 500 children followed over subsequent years. Although our data confirmed the presence of certain non-speech auditory processing deficits in children later classified as specific reading-disabled, many findings were clearly at odds with a causal interpretation of this relationship. (1) Reading-disabled (RD) children were impaired at school entry on the subtest with long inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs) but not the critical short-ISI subtest. (2) RD children were not inferior to reading-age (RA) controls. (3) A subgroup of RD children with evidence of temporal deficits were no less proficient on later phonological or reading measures than RD children with no evidence of early temporal impairment. (4) Although there was a reliable concurrent correlation between temporal deficits and phonological awareness at school entry (suggesting a possible common cause explanation), early temporal deficits did not predict later phonological impairment...