British Airways has carried out radiation monitoring in Concorde for more than 20 years and has used a heuristic model based on data quoted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to model radiation exposure in all longhaul fleets. From these data it has been calculated that no flight deck crew would exceed the control level of 6 mSv/y currently under consideration by regulatory authorities, which is three tenths of the occupational dose limit of 20 mSv/y recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The model suggested that less than 4% of cabin crew based in Tokyo flying only between London and Japan could reach or exceed the 6 mSv/y level, based on a predicted effective dose rate of 7 microSv/h. To validate this calculation a sampling measurement programme was carried out on nine round trips flown by a Boeing 747-400 between London and Tokyo. The radiation field was measured with dosimeters used for routine personal monitoring (thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) and polyallydiglycol carbonate neutron dosimeters). The limitations of the methodology are acknowledged, but the results indicate that the effective dose rate was 6 microSv/h which is consistent with the predicted effective dose rate of 7 microSv/h. This result...
Fonte: Institute of Electrical and Electronics EngineersPublicador: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Tipo: conferenceObject; bookPart
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Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works. A. Sánchez, S. Elvira, Á. de Castro, G. Gonzalez-de-Rivera, R. Ribalda, J. Garrido, "Low cost indoor ultrasonic positioning implemented in FPGA", 35th Annual Conference of IEEEIndustrial Electronics, 2009. IECON '09, Porto (Portugal), 2009, pp. 2709 - 2714; This paper presents a low cost indoor ultrasonic-based positioning system. This system allows the mobile nodes of a Wireless Sensor Network to know their location using radiofrequency and ultrasonics. To achieve this goal, a matrix of transmitting anchor points is installed whereas the mobile nodes receive these transmitted signals and estimate the time-of-flight of the ultrasonic signals. Using two time-of-flight measurements and trilateration equations, the location of the mobile nodes can be inferred in a 2-D space.
This report discusses the future of
Indonesia's public expenditures as it enters the 21st
century. It contributes to the discussion on
Indonesia's spending priorities for the years ahead.
These choices will impact the lives of Indonesians, and
their opportunities to grow richer and receive better
services. The report will contribute to Indonesia s next
five-year plan, the RPJM, which will take effect in January
2010. Indonesia has been one of the most successful
countries in reducing its debt-to-GDP ratio. Since 1999,
when debt levels reached over 90 percent of GDP, Indonesia
has reduced its debt levels to just above 30 percent of GDP
by the end of 2008. Education spending increased from 11
percent of total government spending in 2001 to 15 percent
in 2008. Chapter 1 discusses public spending from 2001 to
2009, including discretionary spending, key sectors,
subsidies and decentralization. Chapter 2 analyzes
Indonesia's economy in the current (2009) economic
downturn. Indonesia is in a position of relative economic
strength despite the impact of the global financial crisis.
This is largely thanks to its broad-based growth that has
avoided over-reliance on exports. The share of output that
Indonesia exports is the smallest of the major Southeast
Asian economies. Chapter 3 presents the future of
Indonesia's fiscal growth to 2015. Notwithstanding
noteworthy achievements over the past decade...
This Poverty and Social Impact Analysis
(PSIA) explores the distributional effects of a package of
fiscal reforms initiated by the Government of Jamaica and
supported by the World Bank under the programmatic fiscal
sustainability Development Policy Loan (DPL) series. The DPL
series supports improved budget and debt management in order
to reduce the debt overhang and create additional fiscal
space for productive public spending, including social
expenditures. The PSIA discusses the poverty and
distributional impacts of the prior actions supported under
the DPL, with a particular focus on two reform actions
likely to have the most significant impacts: (1) tax reform
and (2) public sector reform, focusing on rationalization of
public bodies. The report offers both quantitative and
qualitative assessments of the potential poverty and
distributional effects of these policy changes. The report
is structured as follows: section two analyzes the expected
impact of changes in tax policy; section three investigates
the potential impacts of public bodies'
The hypothesis that Neanderthals exploited birds for the use of their feathers or claws as personal ornaments in symbolic behaviour is revolutionary as it assigns unprecedented cognitive abilities to these hominins. This inference, however, is based on modest faunal samples and thus may not represent a regular or systematic behaviour. Here we address this issue by looking for evidence of such behaviour across a large temporal and geographical framework. Our analyses try to answer four main questions: 1) does a Neanderthal to raptor-corvid connection exist at a large scale, thus avoiding associations that might be regarded as local in space or time?; 2) did Middle (associated with Neanderthals) and Upper Palaeolithic (associated with modern humans) sites contain a greater range of these species than Late Pleistocene paleontological sites?; 3) is there a taphonomic association between Neanderthals and corvids-raptors at Middle Palaeolithic sites on Gibraltar, specifically Gorham's, Vanguard and Ibex Caves? and; 4) was the extraction of wing feathers a local phenomenon exclusive to the Neanderthals at these sites or was it a geographically wider phenomenon?. We compiled a database of 1699 Pleistocene Palearctic sites based on fossil bird sites. We also compiled a taphonomical database from the Middle Palaeolithic assemblages of Gibraltar. We establish a clear...
Pitch, roll, and yaw moments can be developed by deflecting
and changing the geometry of control surfaces. In this paper,
smart flight control surfaces are designed using multi-node
microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) to displace control
surfaces and change the surface geometry. These MEMS
augment translational motion microstructures (actuators-sensors),
controlling/signal processing integrated circuits (ICs), radiating
energy devices and antennas. The desired pitch, roll, and yaw
moments are produced, drag can be reduced, and unsteady
aerodynamic flows are controlled by smart flight control surfaces.
That is, we achieve aerodynamic moment and active flow control
capabilities. The major objective here is to report fundamental
and applied research in design of smart flight control surfaces
with MEMS-based actuator-sensor-IC arrays controlled by
hierarchical distributed systems. We demonstrate the feasibility
and effectiveness of the application of smart flight control surfaces
for coordinated longitudinal and lateral vehicle control.; Copyright 2002 IEEE.
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this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective
works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists...
Since the launch of the first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1 in 1957, the outer space arena has evolved to include non-state entities, which are becoming serious participants in outer space activities themselves, including venturing into the space tourism market. Although space tourism is still in its infancy, it is estimated that the number of space tourists will substantially increase within the next few years. As space tourist activities increase, accidents will inevitably occur, which will give rise to legal questions relating to the duty of states to rescue space tourists in distress, and the liability for damages. This contribution points out that the current outer space treaty regime, which focuses on the use of outer space by states, is to a large extent outdated and that it cannot adequately deal with the unique legal challenges presented by the rapidly developing space tourism industry. This situation is exacerbated by the fact that the outer space legal framework is very fragmented -consisting of treaties, UN principles and guidelines, regional regulations and intergovernmental agreements, as well as national guidelines and legislation. In order to ensure that space tourism is indeed to the benefit of all mankind, it is imperative that clear international legal rules relating to space tourism be formulated...