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Distonias oromandibulares

Reis, Ana Filipa Moreira
Fonte: [s.n.] Publicador: [s.n.]
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2014 POR
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Projeto de Pós-Graduação/Dissertação apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Medicina Dentária; As distonias oromandibulares (DOM) são desordens neuromusculares raras que consistem em espasmos prolongados derivados de contrações dos músculos da cavidade oral e da mandíbula. Os músculos envolvidos podem ser os da mastigação, os da expressão facial ou até mesmo os da língua. Atualmente a fisiopatologia ainda não é clara e não existe tratamento que a elimine. Contudo, para a maioria das distonias focais, como é o caso da distonia oromandibular, os tratamentos variam entre a utilização de fármacos pela via sistémica e através de injeções de toxina botulínica aplicadas localmente. Esta revisão bibliográfica narrativa teve como objetivo principal identificar as características clinicas da DOM e diferenciá-la de patologias com manifestações clínicas sobreponíveis. Desta forma poderá realizar-se uma anamenese eficiente que permita ao Médico Dentista detetar fatores desencadeantes e, principalmente, ajudar a manter uma boa qualidade de vida aos doentes com DOM. Para a sua realização utilizaram-se as seguintes palavras- chave: : “dystonia”...

Hiperglicemia no infarto agudo do miocárdio: correlações fisiopatológicas; Hyperglycemia during acute myocardial infarction: pathophysiology correlations

Ladeira, Renata Teixeira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/01/2009 PT
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Introdução- A hiperglicemia (HG), durante o infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM), está associada com aumento de mortalidade hospitalar em pacientes diabéticos e não diabéticos. Entretanto, não é conhecido o mecanismo responsável por esta associação. Assim estudou-se, simultaneamente, a correlação entre a glicemia e marcadores bioquímicos relacionados ao sistema neuro-humoral de estresse, metabolismo glicídico e lipídico, sistema de coagulação e inflamatório. Métodos- 80 pacientes foram incluídos consecutiva e prospectivamente. Foram realizadas duas coletas de sangue, a primeira com 24h a 48h do início dos sintomas do IAM (fase aguda) e a segunda após 3 meses do IAM (fase crônica), sempre com 12h de jejum. Foram analisados os seguintes parâmetros: glicose, cortisol, noradrenalina, hemoglobina glicada (HbA1c), insulina, LDL minimamente modificada eletronegativa, ácidos graxos livres (AGL), adiponectina, factor VII da coagulação, fibrinogênio, inibidor do ativação do plasminogênio tipo 1, proteína C reativa ultra-sensível (PCRus), colesterol total (c) e frações e triglicérides. Nas correlações univariadas entre glicemia e as variáveis contínuas empregou-se o teste de correlação de Pearson. As análises multivariadas foram feitas através de regressão logística (variáveis qualitativas) e modelo linear generalizado (quando as variáveis independentes incluídas foram quantitativas e nominais). Resultados- Na fase aguda...

Involvement of the atrial natriuretic peptide in cardiovascular pathophysiology and its relationship with exercise

De Almeida, Júlio C.; Alves, Clodoaldo L.; Abreu, Luiz Carlos de; Sato, Monica A.; Fonseca, Fernando L.; De Mello Monteiro, Carlos B.; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M.; MacEdo, Hugo; Tavares, Carlos M.; Herrero, Dafne; Rodrigues, Luciano M.R.; Valenti, Vitor En
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Revisão
ENG
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In this minireview we describe the involvement of the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in cardiovascular pathophysiology and exercise. The ANP has a broad homeostatic role and exerts complex effects on the cardio-circulatory hemodynamics, it is produced by the left atrium and has a key role in regulating sodium and water balance in mammals and humans. The dominant stimulus for its release is atrial wall tension, commonly caused by exercise. The ANP is involved in the process of lipolysis through a cGMP signaling pathway and, as a consequence, reducing blood pressure by decreasing the sensitivity of vascular smooth muscle to the action of vasoconstrictors and regulate fluid balance. The increase of this hormone is associated with better survival in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). This minireview provides new evidence based on recent studies related to the beneficial effects of exercise in patients with cardiovascular disease, focusing on the ANP. © 2012 de Almeida et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Factores alimentares e nutricionais implicados na fisiopatologia da enxaqueca : monografia : dietary and nutritional factors implicated in the pathophysiology of migraine

Oliveira, Margarida Martins
Fonte: Porto : edição de autor Publicador: Porto : edição de autor
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 2 vols.(tese + relatório); 30 cm
POR
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Resumo da tese: A Enxaqueca é uma doença neurovascular crónica caracterizada por ataques de cefaleia episódicos e incapacitantes com sintomas autonómicos associados. Os mecanismos relacionados com a sua fisiopatologia ainda não estão completamente esclarecidos, mas a inflamação neurogénica e a vasodilatação das artérias meníngeas parecem ser os principais responsáveis pela dor na Enxaqueca. A Enxaqueca tem uma elevada prevalência na nossa sociedade, bem como, um elevado impacto socio-económico e individual devido a debilidade física, a transtornos afectivos, a uma acentuada redução da capacidade de atenção e de aprendizagem na escola/emprego, a absentismo escolar/laboral e a procura de serviços médicos. Indivíduos susceptíveis podem sofrer um ataque de Enxaqueca após a ingestão de determinados alimentos. Estes alimentos contêm certas substâncias químicas que influenciam a fisiopatologia da Enxaqueca em uma ou mais fases do ataque. Esta monografia constitui uma revisão da literatura científica no que respeita á relação entre nutrição e fisiopatologia da Enxaqueca. Mais especificamente, foi objectivo deste trabalho investigar se factores alimentares e nutricionais são capazes de desencadear a Enxaqueca e se a modulação nutricional selectiva tem efeitos profiláticos no tratamento desta patologia. De facto...

Cluster headache attacks in a woman previously struck by lightning: pathophysiology of the latent period

Valença,Marcelo Moraes; Silva,Wilson Farias da; Andrade-Valença,Luciana Patrízia A.; Bordini,Carlos A.; Speciali,José Geraldo
Fonte: Academia Brasileira de Neurologia - ABNEURO Publicador: Academia Brasileira de Neurologia - ABNEURO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2007 EN
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BACKGROUND: Cases of patients who developed cluster headache-like symptoms after different putative causes have been reported, indicating a direct relationship between brain lesion and this particular type of headache. Long term, delayed, neurological sequelae after lightning have also been described. CASE REPORT: We describe the case of a woman who, at the age of 10, was struck by lightning. Six years later she developed cluster headache-like attacks. CONCLUSION: We hypothesize that a relationship between the lightning and the cluster headache-like episodes observed in our patient. This case study may have helped throw some light into the still unknown pathophysiology of this particular type of primary headache.

Pathophysiology of visceral pain

Cervero,Fernando
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira para o Estudo da Dor Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira para o Estudo da Dor
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2014 EN
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BACKGROUNDS AND OBJECTIVES: Visceral pain shows many pathophysiological properties that make this form of pain unique, not only because of the clinical properties of the sensation but also because the neurobiological mechanisms that mediate the sensory process. This study aimed at reviewing the pathophysiology of visceral pain. CONTENTS: The activation and sensitization of visceral nociceptors are heavily influenced by the secretory and motor properties of the microenvironment where the sensory receptors are located. In some cases, epithelial cells can play a direct role in the activation of primary sensory neurons. Subclinical alterations of the visceral epithelium can contribute to enhanced visceral sensitivity. Central hypersensitivity induced by visceral activation can be caused by mobilization of AMPA receptors from the cytosol to the membrane of nociceptive neurons. In addition, functional pain syndromes, such as the Irritable Bowel Syndrome, could be triggered or maintained by hormonal alterations, particularly those involving sex hormones such as estrogen. CONCLUSION: The neurobiological mechanisms that mediate visceral pain are sufficiently unique to preclude interpreting visceral pain conditions purely as a direct extrapolation of what we know about somatic pain. The functional properties of visceral nociceptors are different from those of their somatic counterparts and the microenvironment where visceral nociceptors are located...

Perioperative cardiac events in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery: a review of the magnitude of the problem, the pathophysiology of the events and methods to estimate and communicate risk

Devereaux, P.J.; Goldman, Lee; Cook, Deborah J.; Gilbert, Ken; Leslie, Kate; Guyatt, Gordon H.
Fonte: Canadian Medical Association Publicador: Canadian Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/09/2005 EN
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THIS IS THE FIRST OF 2 ARTICLES EVALUATING cardiac events in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. In this article, we review the magnitude of the problem, the pathophysiology of these events, approaches to risk assessment and communication of risk. The number of patients undergoing noncardiac surgery worldwide is growing, and annually 500 000 to 900 000 of these patients experience perioperative cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) or nonfatal cardiac arrest. Although the evidence is limited, a substantial proportion of fatal perioperative MIs may not share the same pathophysiology as nonoperative MIs. A clearer understanding of the pathophysiology is needed to direct future research evaluating prophylactic, acute and long-term interventions. Researchers have developed tools to facilitate the estimation of perioperative cardiac risk. Studies suggest that the Lee index is the most accurate generic perioperative cardiac risk index. The limitations of the studies evaluating the ability of noninvasive cardiac tests to predict perioperative cardiac risk reveals considerable uncertainty as to the role of these popular tests. Similarly, there is uncertainty as to the predictive accuracy of the American College of Cardiology / American Heart Association algorithm for cardiac risk assessment. Patients are likely to benefit from improved estimation and communication of cardiac risk because the majority of noncardiac surgeries are elective and accurate risk estimation is important to allow informed patient and physician decision-making.

Pathophysiology of the thalassemias. The Albion Walter Hewlett Award presentation.

Schrier, S L
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1997 EN
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The Albion Walter Hewlett Award (named for Professor of Medicine and Chair of the Stanford Department of Medicine 1916-1925) recognizes a role model, accomplished in discovery of the biological sciences and at the same time a consummate and compassionate physician. In introductory remarks, Dr. Stanley L. Schrier, Professor of Medicine (Hematology), the tenth recipient of the Award, indicated that the person so identified is no longer a viable model in academic medicine. The loss of this sort of person is serious because this appropriately trained physician-investigator was uniquely positioned to study pathophysiology, defined as the processes by which disordered biology produces disease. He used his own studies on the clinical manifestations of the thalassemias to clarify what he meant by pathophysiology. Thus he and his colleagues first defined membrane material properties of alpha and beta thalassemic RBC membranes and the states of hydration of alpha and beta thalassemic RBC and found them to be strikingly divergent. The biochemical counterparts of these alterations proved to be the accumulation of the excess unmatched partially oxidized globin chains on the membrane skeleton. In vitro studies with chemical oxidants selectively oxidized alpha and beta globin chains which then attached to the RBC membrane skeleton and reproduced the membrane material properties characteristic of beta and alpha thalassemia respectively. Many of these alterations had occurred prior to the reticulocyte stage so that pursuit of pathophysiology shifted to studies of marrow erythroid precursors...

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF DEPRESSION: DO WE HAVE ANY SOLID EVIDENCE OF INTEREST TO CLINICIANS?

HASLER, GREGOR
Fonte: Masson Italy Publicador: Masson Italy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2010 EN
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Due to the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of major depressive disorder, it has been difficult to elucidate its pathophysiology. Current neurobiological theories with the most valid empirical foundation and the highest clinical relevance are reviewed with respect to their strengths and weaknesses. The selected theories are based on studies investigating psychosocial stress and stress hormones, neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), neurocircuitry, neurotrophic factors, and circadian rhythms. Because all theories of depression apply to only some types of depressed patients but not others, and because depressive pathophysiology may vary considerably across the course of illness, the current extant knowledge argues against a unified hypothesis of depression. As a consequence, antidepressant treatments, including psychological and biological approaches, should be tailored for individual patients and disease states. Individual depression hypotheses based on neurobiological knowledge are discussed in terms of their interest to both clinicians in daily practice and clinical researchers developing novel therapies.

Pathophysiology in Mountain Yellow-Legged Frogs (Rana muscosa) during a Chytridiomycosis Outbreak

Voyles, Jamie; Vredenburg, Vance T.; Tunstall, Tate S.; Parker, John M.; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Rosenblum, Erica Bree
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/04/2012 EN
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The disease chytridiomycosis is responsible for declines and extirpations of amphibians worldwide. Chytridiomycosis is caused by a fungal pathogen (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) that infects amphibian skin. Although we have a basic understanding of the pathophysiology from laboratory experiments, many mechanistic details remain unresolved and it is unknown if disease development is similar in wild amphibian populations. To gain a better understanding of chytridiomycosis pathophysiology in wild amphibian populations, we collected blood biochemistry measurements during an outbreak in mountain yellow-legged frogs (Rana muscosa) in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. We found that pathogen load is associated with disruptions in fluid and electrolyte balance, yet is not associated with fluctuations acid-base balance. These findings enhance our knowledge of the pathophysiology of this disease and indicate that disease development is consistent across multiple species and in both laboratory and natural conditions. We recommend integrating an understanding of chytridiomycosis pathophysiology with mitigation practices to improve amphibian conservation.

Recent Advances in the Pathophysiology and Treatment of Gastroparesis

Oh, Jung Hwan; Pasricha, Pankaj J
Fonte: Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility Publicador: Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Gastroparesis is a clinical disorder characterized by upper gastrointestinal symptoms related with delayed gastric emptying of solids and liquids in the absence of mechanical obstruction. Diabetes mellitus has been the most common cause of gastroparesis and idiopathic gastroparesis also accounts for a third of all chronic cases. The most important mechanisms of gastroparesis, as understood to date, are loss of expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and loss of the interstitial cells of Cajal. However, the pathogenesis of gastroparesis is poorly understood. There have been several studies on specific molecules related to the pathogenesis of gastroparesis. Additionally, the Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium of the National Institutes of Health has achieved several promising results regarding the pathophysiology of gastroparesis. As the progress in the pathophysiology of gastroparesis has been made, a promising new drug therapy has been found. The pathophysiology and drug therapy of gastroparesis are focused in this review. Until now, the real-world medication options for treatment of gastroparesis are limited. However, it is expected to be substantially improved as the pathophysiology of gastroparesis is elucidated.

The role of Ca2+ in the pathophysiology of pancreatitis

Gerasimenko, Julia V; Gerasimenko, Oleg V; Petersen, Ole H
Fonte: Blackwell publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Acute pancreatitis is a human disease in which the pancreatic pro-enzymes, packaged into the zymogen granules of acinar cells, become activated and cause autodigestion. The main causes of pancreatitis are alcohol abuse and biliary disease. A considerable body of evidence indicates that the primary event initiating the disease process is the excessive release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores, followed by excessive entry of Ca2+ from the interstitial fluid. However, Ca2+ release and subsequent entry are also precisely the processes that control the physiological secretion of digestive enzymes in response to stimulation via the vagal nerve or the hormone cholecystokinin. The spatial and temporal Ca2+ signal patterns in physiology and pathology, as well as the contributions from different organelles in the different situations, are therefore critical issues. There has recently been significant progress in our understanding of both physiological stimulus–secretion coupling and the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis. Very recently, a promising potential therapeutic development has occurred with the demonstration that the blockade of Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ currents in pancreatic acinar cells offers remarkable protection against Ca2+ overload...

Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy: the path to consensus on pathophysiology

Tawil, Rabi; van der Maarel, Silvère M; Tapscott, Stephen J
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/06/2014 EN
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Although the pathophysiology of facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) has been controversial over the last decades, progress in recent years has led to a model that incorporates these decades of findings and is gaining general acceptance in the FSHD research community. Here we review how the contributions from many labs over many years led to an understanding of a fundamentally new mechanism of human disease. FSHD is caused by inefficient repeat-mediated epigenetic repression of the D4Z4 macrosatellite repeat array on chromosome 4, resulting in the variegated expression of the DUX4 retrogene, encoding a double-homeobox transcription factor, in skeletal muscle. Normally expressed in the testis and epigenetically repressed in somatic tissues, DUX4 expression in skeletal muscle induces expression of many germline, stem cell, and other genes that might account for the pathophysiology of FSHD. Although some disagreements regarding the details of mechanisms remain in the field, the coalescing agreement on a central model of pathophysiology represents a pivot-point in FSHD research, transitioning the field from discovery-oriented studies to translational studies aimed at developing therapies based on a sound model of disease pathophysiology.

Advances in the pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia and related podocyte injury

Craici, Iasmina M.; Wagner, Steven J.; Weissgerber, Tracey L.; Grande, Joseph P.; Garovic, Vesna D.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Pre-eclampsia is a pregnancy-specific hypertensive disorder that may lead to serious maternal and fetal complications. It is a multisystem disease that is commonly, but not always, accompanied by proteinuria. Its cause(s) remain unknown, and delivery remains the only definitive treatment. It is increasingly recognized that many pathophysiological processes contribute to this syndrome, with different signaling pathways converging at the point of systemic endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, and proteinuria. Different animal models of pre-eclampsia have proven utility for specific aspects of pre-eclampsia research, and offer insights into pathophysiology and treatment possibilities. Therapeutic interventions that specifically target these pathways may optimize pre-eclampsia management and may improve fetal and maternal outcomes. In addition, recent findings regarding placental, endothelial, and podocyte pathophysiology in pre-eclampsia provide unique and exciting possibilities for improved diagnostic accuracy. Emerging evidence suggests that testing for urinary podocytes or their markers may facilitate the prediction and diagnosis of pre-eclampsia. In this review, we explore recent research regarding placental, endothelial, and podocyte pathophysiology. We further discuss new signaling and genetic pathways that may contribute to pre-eclampsia pathophysiology...

BE.450 Molecular and Cellular Pathophysiology, Spring 2005; Molecular and Cellular Pathophysiology

Schauer, David
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
EN-US
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This courses focuses on the fundamentals of tissue and organ response to injury from a molecular and cellular perspective. There is a special emphasis on disease states that bridge infection, inflammation, immunity, and cancer. The systems approach to pathophysiology includes lectures, critical evaluation of recent scientific papers, and student projects and presentations. This term, we focus on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), chronic-active hepatitis, and hepatitis virus infections. In addition to lectures, students work in teams to critically evaluate and present primary scientific papers.

Pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy of gastroparesis: current and future perspectives

Stevens, J.; Jones, K.; Rayner, C.; Horowitz, M.
Fonte: Ashley Publications Ltd. Publicador: Ashley Publications Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
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INTRODUCTION: Gastroparesis is an important clinical disorder characterised by delayed gastric emptying in the absence of mechanical outlet obstruction. Idiopathic, diabetes and postsurgical causes represent the most common aetiologies. The condition commonly manifests as upper gastrointestinal symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, postprandial fullness, early satiety, abdominal pain and bloating. AREAS COVERED: This paper provides a review of the prevalence, pathophysiology and clinical features associated with gastroparesis, with a particular focus on current pharmacological management options and novel and emerging therapies. A literature search was undertaken using the search terms: gastroparesis, diabetic gastroparesis, idiopathic gastroparesis, gastric emptying, prokinetic, metoclopramide, domperidone, erythromycin, motilin, alemcinal, KC11458, mitemcinal, ghrelin, TZP-101, TZP-102, RM-131, tegaserod, prucalopride, naronapride, velusetrag, levosulpiride, itopride, botulinum toxin, gastric electrical stimulation, Enterra. EXPERT OPINION: Strategies for the management of gastroparesis include correction of malnutrition, dehydration and electrolyte imbalance, relief of symptoms by appropriate use of prokinetic and antiemetic agents and...

Aplicação de um método ativo de ensino-aprendizagem no integrado de fisiopatologia e farmacologia III; Implementation of an active learning method in the integrated discipline of pathophysiology and pharmacology III

Castro, Douglas Gomes Meneses Sevilha
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/11/2014 PT
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Desde a abertura dos primeiros cursos de farmácia no Brasil, a estrutura curricular sofreu inúmeras alterações com vistas à adequação do curso com as necessidades locais. Após a homologação das Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais de Farmácia de 2002, passou a ficar mais urgente a necessidade do desenvolvimento de habilidades e atitudes pelos farmacêuticos, não apenas o acúmulo de conhecimento técnico. Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar as variáveis envolvidas na organização e estruturação do Integrado de Fisiopatologia e Farmacologia III, uma disciplina central na formação dos farmacêuticos da Universidade de São Paulo, incluindo a investigação dos fatores que influenciam no processo de aprendizagem dos alunos, bem como a aplicação de um método ativo de ensino-aprendizagem neste integrado e, por fim, realizar uma avaliação comparativa entre a opinião dos alunos com relação aos dois métodos. Observou-se resposta positiva estatisticamente significativa dos alunos em favor do método ativo contra o método tradicional em todos os aspectos avaliados, incluindo todos os aspectos relacionados ao plano disciplinar, assim como o impacto no desenvolvimento de competências e auto avaliação dos alunos. Estes resultados sustentam a necessidade de aplicação de métodos nos quais os alunos sejam o centro do processo educacional e tenham responsabilidade sobre sua própria aprendizagem...

The pathophysiology of the coronary slow flow phenomenon

Turner, Stuart Peter
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2006
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The objective of this thesis is to investigate the pathophysiology of the coronary slow phenomenon (CSFP). The experimental work of this thesis has taken a 'bedside to benchtop' approach with clinical observations made in the second chapter guiding the application of basic research techniques in subsequent chapters. Chapter 1 ; The CSFP is a disorder of the coronary microcirculation ; hence chapter 1 specifically reviews the current understanding of this vascular territory and concludes with a summary of the clinical disorders affecting it, concentrating on the CSFP. Chapter 2 ; investigated the angiographic response of the CSFP to a calcium channel blocking agent with antianginal efficacy in this disorder ( mibefradil ). Mibefradil administration was associated with an acute improvement of coronary flow indices which occurred despite background vasodilator therapy with conventional calcium channel antagonists. Chapter 3 ; investigated the in vitro response of human microvessels to mibefradil in comparison to conventional calcium channel blockers. Mibefradil was found to be a more potent agent both in terms of vasodilatation and the prevention of vasoconstriction. Both findings support the clinical observations and point to its selective action on the calcium T channel subtype as a potential mechanism. Chapter 4 ; examined the expression of T type calcium channels at the level of the microvasculature and compared T channel expression in CSFP patients and controls. T channels were found to be expressed at two or more orders of magnitude greater than the L channels. No difference in T channel expression between patients and controls was found. Chapter 5 ; examined the vasomotor reactivity of isolated subcutaneous arterial microvessels to various vasoactive substances between controls and CSFP patients. CSFP patients were found to have a selective hyper reactivity to endothelin. Chapter 6 ; examined plasma endothelin levels in CSFP patients and controls and the relationship between endothelin levels and angina frequency in the CSFP cohort. A small but statistically significant elevation of endothelin-1 was present in patients with the CSFP. A positive association between plasma endothelin fluctuation and angina frequency was also found in the CSFP cohort but not between absolute endothelin levels and angina symptoms.; Thesis (Ph.D.)-- The University of Adelaide...

An investigation into the pathophysiology of non-specific arm pain: an examination of the utility and reliability of quantitative electomyography

Calder, KRISTINA
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 1536182 bytes; application/pdf
EN; EN
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The wrist extensor muscles have been implicated in a work-related upper limb disorder referred to as non-specific arm pain (NSAP), which has an unknown pathophysiology. The primary objective of this thesis was to perform an electrophysiological evaluation of NSAP to gain a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiology. Secondary objectives were to determine the utility and reliability of the decomposition-based quantitative electromyography (DQEMG) system used to examine NSAP. The utility of the DQEMG system was first tested to determine whether physiological changes in muscles of healthy individuals performing low-level fatiguing contractions could be detected using this approach. Next, the reliability of the outcome variables produced through this system was tested on healthy individuals performing low-level non-fatiguing contractions. A case-control study was then performed using DQEMG to determine whether there were measurable changes in electrophysiological variables that suggest whether NSAP is myopathic or neuropathic in nature. Finally, the case control study was repeated using a less invasive approach of electrophysiological evaluation to determine if this method might be equally useful in determining the pathophysiology of NSAP. Results revealed DQEMG can be effectively and reliably used to detect changes in the physiological characteristics of motor units that accompany fatigue. Specifically...

Marcadores periféricos e a fisiopatologia do transtorno bipolar; Peripheral markers and the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder

Magalhães, Pedro V. S.; Fries, Gabriel R.; Kapczinski, Flávio
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina. Instituto de Psiquiatria Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina. Instituto de Psiquiatria
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2012 POR
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INTRODUÇÃO: O entendimento da fisiopatologia do transtorno bipolar vem tendo avanços consistentes nos últimos anos. Um enfoque na relação entre carga alostática e alterações sistêmicas vem tomando corpo, com o objetivo de se entender a frequente progressão da doença. Proeminentes entre os mediadores periféricos têm sido as moléculas que poderiam ser amplamente agrupadas em neurotrofinas, marcadores de estresse oxidativo e marcadores inflamatórios. OBJETIVO: Descrever achados recentes em relação à fisiopatologia sistêmica do transtorno bipolar, com enfoque especial em estudos brasileiros, tentando articular uma visão coerente do conhecimento atual do campo. MÉTODO: Revisão narrativa da literatura relacionada a neurotrofinas, estresse oxidativo e marcadores inflamatórios no transtorno bipolar. RESULTADOS: Diversas fontes de evidência, provenientes tanto de estudos pré-clínicos quanto clínicos, revelam consistentemente alterações sistêmicas no transtorno bipolar. Os achados são especialmente robustos em pacientes com múltiplos episódios. Nesses, alterações relacionadas a episódios de mania e depressão são notáveis em neurotrofinas e dano oxidativo a lipídeos. Um número menor de estudos mostra alterações no sistema imune...