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## Limite vertical à soberania dos Estados: fronteira entre espaço aéreo e ultraterrestre; The vertical limit to state sovereignty: tha frontier between air space and over space

Bittencourt Neto, Olavo de Oliveira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
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A presente tese de doutorado objetiva estudar a problemática da extensão vertical da soberania estatal, acima da superfície terrestre, baseada na compreensão do território do Estado como espaço tridimensional. Se não há risco de conflito de jurisdição no sentido do subsolo, o mesmo não pode ser dito em relação ao espaço aéreo que, a partir de determinada altitude, até o momento não definida, dá lugar ao espaço ultraterrestre. De acordo com a Convenção de Chicago, de 1944, os Estados exercem soberania absoluta e exclusiva sobre a coluna de ar que se ergue acima de seus territórios. Por sua vez, o Tratado do Espaço, de 1967, dispõe que o espaço ultraterrestre não pode ser objeto de apropriação nacional por qualquer meio. Não obstante, a fronteira que distingue estes dois regimes jurídicos imiscíveis, após mais de 40 anos de discussões diplomáticas, continua em debate. No âmbito do Comitê das Nações Unidas para Uso Pacífico do Espaço (COPUOS), verificam-se duas teses em relação ao tema: a primeira, do grupo de países que recebeu a denominação de espacialistas, defende a demarcação de fronteira entre território aéreo e ultraterrestre, de forma clara, com base em critérios científicos ou acordados de comum acordo; a outra...

## Outer Space Medicine and Relevant Ongoing Biomedical Research

Douglas, William R.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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An update of outer space medicine is given emphasizing main areas such as cardiopulmonary responses, vestibular functions, physiology, weightlessness, ecosystems, and radiation. A prospective view is also presented on the medical problems resulting from various hazards of outer space and planetary missions. Although an outgrowth of aviation and environmental medicine, this relatively new, special branch of medicine is currently undergoing an unprecedented rise as a vital modern specialty. The aims of the United States, Russia, and the nations of Europe in space research are shown to be in accord in learning how to live and work in space when confronted with the unique factors of zero gravity, cosmic radiation, and magnetic variations.

## “Where Do Auditory Hallucinations Come From?”—A Brain Morphometry Study of Schizophrenia Patients With Inner or Outer Space Hallucinations

Plaze, Marion; Paillère-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Penttilä, Jani; Januel, Dominique; de Beaurepaire, Renaud; Bellivier, Franck; Andoh, Jamila; Galinowski, André; Gallarda, Thierry; Artiges, Eric; Olié, Jean-Pierre; Mangin, Jean-François; Martinot, Jean-
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Auditory verbal hallucinations are a cardinal symptom of schizophrenia. Bleuler and Kraepelin distinguished 2 main classes of hallucinations: hallucinations heard outside the head (outer space, or external, hallucinations) and hallucinations heard inside the head (inner space, or internal, hallucinations). This distinction has been confirmed by recent phenomenological studies that identified 3 independent dimensions in auditory hallucinations: language complexity, self-other misattribution, and spatial location. Brain imaging studies in schizophrenia patients with auditory hallucinations have already investigated language complexity and self-other misattribution, but the neural substrate of hallucination spatial location remains unknown. Magnetic resonance images of 45 right-handed patients with schizophrenia and persistent auditory hallucinations and 20 healthy right-handed subjects were acquired. Two homogeneous subgroups of patients were defined based on the hallucination spatial location: patients with only outer space hallucinations (N = 12) and patients with only inner space hallucinations (N = 15). Between-group differences were then assessed using 2 complementary brain morphometry approaches: voxel-based morphometry and sulcus-based morphometry. Convergent anatomical differences were detected between the patient subgroups in the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ). In comparison to healthy subjects...

## Exposure of phototrophs to 548 days in low Earth orbit: microbial selection pressures in outer space and on early earth

Cockell, Charles S; Rettberg, Petra; Rabbow, Elke; Olsson-Francis, Karen
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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An epilithic microbial community was launched into low Earth orbit, and exposed to conditions in outer space for 548 days on the European Space Agency EXPOSE-E facility outside the International Space Station. The natural phototroph biofilm was augmented with akinetes of Anabaena cylindrica and vegetative cells of Nostoc commune and Chroococcidiopsis. In space-exposed dark controls, two algae (Chlorella and Rosenvingiella spp.), a cyanobacterium (Gloeocapsa sp.) and two bacteria associated with the natural community survived. Of the augmented organisms, cells of A. cylindrica and Chroococcidiopsis survived, but no cells of N. commune. Only cells of Chroococcidiopsis were cultured from samples exposed to the unattenuated extraterrestrial ultraviolet (UV) spectrum (>110 nm or 200 nm). Raman spectroscopy and bright-field microscopy showed that under these conditions the surface cells were bleached and their carotenoids were destroyed, although cell morphology was preserved. These experiments demonstrate that outer space can act as a selection pressure on the composition of microbial communities. The results obtained from samples exposed to >200 nm UV (simulating the putative worst-case UV exposure on the early Earth) demonstrate the potential for epilithic colonization of land masses during that time...

## Asymmetry of Outer Space of a free product

Syrigos, Dionysios
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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For every free product decomposition $G = G_{1} \ast ...\ast G_{q} \ast F_{r}$ of a group of finite Kurosh rank $G$, where $F_r$ is a finitely generated free group, we can associate some (relative) outer space $\mathcal{O}$. We study the asymmetry of the Lipschitz metric $d_R$ on the (relative) Outer space $\mathcal{O}$. More specifically, we generalise the construction of Algom-Kfir and Bestvina, introducing an (asymmetric) Finsler norm $\|\cdot\|^{L}$ that induces $d_R$. Let's denote by $Out(G, \mathcal{O})$ the outer automorphisms of $G$ that preserve the set of conjugacy classes of $G_i$'s. Then there is an $Out(G, \mathcal{O})$-invariant function $\Psi : \mathcal{O} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ such that when $\| \cdot \|^{L}$ is corrected by $d \Psi$, the resulting norm is quasisymmetric. As an application, we prove that if we restrict $d_R$ to the $\epsilon$-thick part of the relative Outer space for some $\epsilon >0$, is quasi-symmetric . Finally, we generalise for IWIP automorphisms of a free product a theorem of Handel and Mosher, which states that there is a uniform bound which depends only on the group, on the ratio of the relative expansion factors of any IWIP $\phi \in Out(F_n)$ and its inverse.; Comment: 28 pages, 2 figures. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1408.0544 by other authors

## Wireless Transfer of Electricity in Outer Space

Bolonkin, Alexander
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Author offers conclusions from his research of a revolutionary new idea - transferring electric energy in the hard vacuum of outer space wirelessly, using a plasma power cord as an electric cable (wire). He shows that a certain minimal electric currency creates a compressed force that supports the plasma cable in the compacted form. A large energy can be transferred hundreds of millions of kilometers by this method. The required mass of the plasma cable is only hundreds of grams. He computed the macroprojects: transference of hundreds kilowatts of energy to Earth Space Station, transferring energy to the Moon or back, transferring energy to a spaceship at distance 100 million of kilometers, the transfer energy to Mars when one is located at opposed side of the distant Sun, transfer colossal energy from one of Earth's continents to another continent (for example, between Europe-USA) wirelessly-using Earth ionosphere as cable, using Earth as gigantic storage of electric energy, using the plasma ring as huge MagSail for moving of spaceships. He also demonstrates that electric currency in a plasma cord can accelerate or brake spacecraft and space apparatus.; Comment: 16 pages, 14 figures, Version 2: Minor chandes. Vertion 1 was presented on 4 January 2007

## Boundary of the Relative Outer Space

Meucci, Erika
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Let $\mathcal{A} = {A_1, ..., A_k}$ be a system of free factors of $F_n$. The group of relative automorphisms $\mathrm{Aut}(F_n; \mathcal{A})$ is the group given by the automorphisms of $F_n$ that restricted to each $A_i$ are conjugations by elements in $F_n$. The group of relative outer automorphisms is defined as $\mathrm{Out}(F_n; \mathcal{A}) = \mathrm{Aut}(F_n; \mathcal{A}) / \mathrm{Inn}(F_n)$, where $\mathrm{Inn (F_n)$ is the normal subgroup of $\mathrm{Aut}(F_n)$ given by all the inner automorphisms. This group acts on the relative outer space $\mathrm{CV}_n(\mathcal{A})$. We prove that the dimension of the boundary of the relative outer space is $\mathrm{dim}(\mathrm{CV}_n(\mathcal{A}))-1$.; Comment: 13 pages, 1 figure

## Relative twisting in Outer space

Clay, Matt; Pettet, Alexandra
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Subsurface projection has become indispensable in studying the geometry of the mapping class group and the curve complex of a surface. When the subsurface is an annulus, this projection is sometimes called relative twisting. We give two alternate versions of relative twisting for the outer automorphism group of a free group. We use this to describe sufficient conditions for when a folding path enters the thin part of Culler-Vogtmann's Outer space. As an application of our condition, we produce a sequence of fully irreducible outer automorphisms whose axes in Outer space travel through graphs with arbitrarily short cycles; we also describe the asymptotic behavior of their translation lengths.; Comment: updated version, incorporates referee comments

## The horoboundary of outer space, and growth under random automorphisms

Horbez, Camille
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We show that the horoboundary of outer space for the Lipschitz metric is a quotient of Culler and Morgan's classical boundary, two trees being identified whenever their translation length functions are homothetic in restriction to the set of primitive elements of $F_N$. We identify the set of Busemann points with the set of trees with dense orbits. We also investigate a few properties of the horoboundary of outer space for the backward Lipschitz metric, and show in particular that it is infinite-dimensional when $N\ge 3$. We then use our description of the horoboundary of outer space to derive an analogue of a theorem of Furstenberg--Kifer and Hennion for random products of outer automorphisms of $F_N$, that estimates possible growth rates of conjugacy classes of elements of $F_N$ under such products.; Comment: 48 pages, 5 figures

## Asymmetry of Outer Space

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We study the asymmetry of the Lipschitz metric d on Outer space. We introduce an (asymmetric) Finsler norm that induces d. There is an Out(F_n)-invariant potential \Psi on Outer space such that when the Lipschitz norm is corrected by the derivative of \Psi, the resulting norm is quasisymmetric. As an application, we give new proofs of two theorems of Handel-Mosher, that the Lipschitz metric is quasi-symmetric when restricted to a thick part of Outer space, and that there is a uniform bound, depending only on the rank, on the ratio of logs of growth rates of any irreducible outer automorphism f in Out(F_n) and its inverse.; Comment: 15 pages, accepted to Geometriae Dedicata, omitted the comment about the potential function in rank 2 being equal to injrad (because it was false)

## Contributions of the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs to the International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI)

Haubold, H. J.; Gadimova, S.; Balogh, W.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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In 2010, the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space began consideration of a new agenda item under a three-year work plan on the International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI). The main objectives of ISWI are to contribute to the development of the scientific insight necessary to improve understanding and forecasting capabilities of space weather as well as to education and public outreach. The United Nations Programme on Space Applications, implemented by the Office for Outer Space Affairs, is implementing ISWI in the framework of its United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI), a long-term effort, launched in 1991, for the development of basic space science and for international and regional cooperation in this field on a worldwide basis, particularly in developing countries. UNBSSI encompassed a series of workshops, held from 1991 to 2004, which addressed the status of basic space science in Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Western Asia. As a result several small astronomical research facilities have been inaugurated and education programmes at the university level were established. Between 2005 and 2009, the UNBSSI activities were dedicated to promoting activities related to the International Heliophysical Year 2007 (IHY)...

## Sphere paths in outer space

Horbez, Camille
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We give estimates on the length of paths defined in the sphere model of outer space using a surgery process, and show that they make definite progress in some sense when they remain in some thick part of outer space. To do so, we relate the Lipschitz metric on outer space to a notion of intersection numbers.; Comment: 27 pages, 5 figures ; statement of the result slightly modified, a mistake in the proof is corrected ; accepted in Algebraic and Geometric Topology

## Proposal for a United Nations Basic Space Technology Initiative

Balogh, W. R.; Haubold, H. J.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The United Nations Programme on Space Applications, implemented by the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, promotes the benefits of space-based solutions for sustainable economic and social development. The Programme assists Member States of the United Nations to establish indigenous capacities for the use of space technology and its applications. In the past the Programme has primarily been focusing on the use of space applications and on basic space science activities. However, in recent years there has been a strong interest in a growing number of space-using countries to build space technology capacities, for example, the ability to develop and operate small satellites. In reaction to this development, the United Nations in cooperation with the International Academy of Astronautics has been organizing annual workshops on small satellites in the service of developing countries. Space technology related issues have also been addressed as part of various other activities of the Programme on Space Applications. Building on these experiences, the Office for Outer Space Affairs is now considering the launch of a new initiative, preliminarily titled the United Nations Basic Space Technology Initiative (UNBSTI), to promote basic space technology development. The initiative would be implemented in the framework of the Programme on Space Applications and its aim would be to help building sustainable capacities for basic space technology education and development...

## Axes in Outer Space

Handel, Michael; Mosher, Lee
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We develop a notion of axis in the Culler--Vogtmann outer space X_r of a finite rank free group F_r, with respect to the action of a nongeometric, fully irreducible outer automorphism phi. Unlike the situation of a loxodromic isometry acting on hyperbolic space, or a pseudo-Anosov mapping class acting on Teichmuller space, X_r has no natural metric, and phi seems not to have a single natural axis. Instead our axes for phi, while not unique, fit into an axis bundle'' A_phi with nice topological properties: A_phi is a closed subset of X_r proper homotopy equivalent to a line, it is invariant under phi, the two ends of A_phi limit on the repeller and attractor of the source--sink action of phi on compactified outer space, and A_phi depends naturally on the repeller and attractor. We propose various definitions for A_phi, each motivated in different ways by train track theory or by properties of axes in Teichmuller space, and we prove their equivalence.; Comment: 96 pages. Version 2: The example of Section 3.4 has been corrected, and now has an even more interesting ideal Whitehead graph

## The actions of $Out(F_k)$ on the boundary of Outer space and on the space of currents: minimal sets and equivariant incompatibility

Kapovich, Ilya; Lustig, Martin
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We prove that for $k\ge 5$ there does not exist a continuous map $\partial CV(F_k)\to\mathbb PCurr(F_k)$ that is either $Out(F_k)$-equivariant or $Out(F_k)$-anti-equivariant. Here $\partial CV(F_k)$ is the "length-function" boundary of Culler-Vogtmann's Outer space $CV(F_k)$, and $\mathbb PCurr(F_k)$ is the space of projectivized geodesic currents for $F_{k}$. We also prove that, if $k\ge 3$, for the action of $Out(F_k)$ on $\mathbb PCurr(F_{k})$ and for the diagonal action of $Out(F_k)$ on the product space $\partial CV(F_k)\times \mathbb PCurr(F_k)$ there exist unique non-empty minimal closed $Out(F_k)$-invariant sets. Our results imply that for $k\ge 3$ any continuous $Out(F_k)$-equivariant embedding of $CV(F_k)$ into $\mathbb PCurr(F_k)$ (such as the Patterson-Sullivan embedding) produces a new compactification of Outer space, different from the usual "length-function" compactification $\bar{CV(F_k)}=CV(F_k)\cup \partial CV(F_k)$.

## Ergodic decompositions for folding and unfolding paths in Outer space

Namazi, Hossein; Pettet, Alexandra; Reynolds, Patrick
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We relate ergodic-theoretic properties of a very small tree or lamination to the behavior of folding and unfolding paths in Outer space that approximate it, and we obtain a criterion for unique ergodicity in both cases. Our main result is that non-unique ergodicity gives rise to a transverse decomposition of the folding/unfolding path. It follows that non-unique ergodicity leads to distortion when projecting to the complex of free factors, and we give two applications of this fact. First, we show that if a subgroup $H$ of $Out(\FN)$ quasi-isometrically embeds into the complex of free factors via the orbit map, then the limit set of $H$ in the boundary of Outer space consists of trees that are uniquely ergodic and have uniquely ergodic dual lamination. Second, we describe the Poisson boundary for random walks coming from distributions with finite first moment with respect to the word metric on $Out(\FN)$: almost every sample path converges to a tree that is uniquely ergodic and that has a uniquely ergodic dual lamination, and the corresponding hitting measure on the boundary of Outer space is the Poisson boundary. This improves a recent result of Horbez. We also obtain sublinear tracking of sample paths with Lipschitz geodesic rays.; Comment: 52 pp

## The Metric Completion of Outer Space

Algom-Kfir, Yael
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We develop the theory of a metric completion of an asymmetric metric space. We characterize the points on the boundary of Outer Space that are in the metric completion of Outer Space with the Lipschitz metric. We prove that the simplicial completion, the subset of the completion consisting of simplicial tree actions, is homeomorphic to the free splitting complex. We use this to give a new proof of a theorem by Francaviglia and Martino that the isometry group of Outer Space is homeomorphic to $\text{Out}(F_n)$ for $n \geq 3$ and equal to $\text{PSL}(2,\mathbb{Z})$ for $n=2$.; Comment: revised section on completion of asymmetric metrics

## Architectures of Aliveness: Building Beyond Gravity

Boucher, Marie-Pier
Tipo: Dissertação
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In the context of today's global mobility, information, bodies and goods are circulating across the globe, and even further into outer space. However, we face a paradox: the more we move, the more we become sedentary. The modes of transportation that enable our global mobility are working against us, insidiously dwindling our psycho-physical mobility. Globalization is thus not the world becoming bigger (or too big), but the world becoming immobile. Taking the body as the central non-place of political space, Architectures of Aliveness: Building Beyond Gravity interrogates the possibility of inhabiting circulation as a pragmatic form of resistance to the contemporary immobilization of life. In an era in which bodies and goods are ever more constantly in global circulation, architectures of aliveness ask, what would an experience of weightlessness do for us?

Biotechnology serves as the current dominant model for enlivening architecture and the mobility of its inhabitants. Architectures of aliveness invert the inquiry to look instead at outer space's modules of inhabitation. In questioning the possibility of making circulation inhabitable --as opposed to only inhabiting what is stationary--architectures of aliveness problematize architecture as a form of biomedia production in order to examine its capacity to impact psychic and bodily modalities toward an intensification of health. Problematized synchretically within life's mental and physical polarization...

## Exploring the relationship between outer space and world politics: English School and regime theory perspectives.

Stuart, Jill
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf