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Análise experimental da geração de alternativas em decisões estratégicas não estruturadas; Experimental analysis of option generation in strategic and ill-structured decision making

Dacorso, Antonio Luis Rocha
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/02/2005 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.1%
A decisão estratégica é tipicamente não estruturada, no sentido de que não existe processo semelhante na memória da organização. Essa estruturação corresponde ao cenário exposto de forma clara, com suas questões, hipóteses e objetivos. A qualidade da decisão estratégica depende principalmente do processo e da competência daqueles que participam dela. Gerar alternativas criativas e viáveis é uma etapa fundamental do processo de tomada de decisão, responsável em grande parte pela qualidade almejada. Entretanto, as pesquisas sobre geração de alternativas têm indicado consistentemente que as pessoas não são eficientes nessa atividade. Buscando-se as explicações para esse fato surgiram lacunas na literatura que serviram de inspiração para o presente estudo. Qual a influência das heurísticas e da isolação entre as etapas convergente e divergente na geração de alternativas? Para explorar essas lacunas e conhecer o desempenho do administrador brasileiro ao gerar alternativas foi realizado um experimento com 174 alunos de cursos MBA, de 4 escolas da Grande São Paulo. O resultado desse experimento propiciou algumas conclusões interessantes como a confirmação do baixo desempenho em geração de alternativas. O desafio para preencher as lacunas observadas permanece e as hipóteses da pesquisa...

Análise da metodologia aplicada às tarifas de uso dos sistemas de distribuição para geradores - TUSDg.; Analysis of the methodology for the calculation of the distribution use of system charge for generation plants.

Soares, Bruno Franco
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/10/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.95%
A regulamentação do livre acesso aos sistemas de transmissão e distribuição possibilitou aos agentes do setor elétrico o direito à utilização dos sistemas elétricos mediante ressarcimento dos respectivos custos. O livre acesso é parte do processo de reestruturação do setor elétrico que visava ao atendimento da expansão da demanda de energia com a liberalização do mercado energético nacional, promovendo a competitividade entre os agentes. Com o livre acesso, surgiu a necessidade de desenvolver métodos eficientes de remuneração pelo uso dos sistemas de transmissão e distribuição, de modo a incentivar o acesso racional a essas redes, minimizando os custos com ampliações e otimizando a operação do sistema elétrico interligado (SIN) e das redes de distribuição. Nesse sentido, definiu-se uma metodologia para o cálculo das tarifas de uso dos sistemas de transmissão (TUST), que procura sinalizar o impacto individual causado pelos usuários na rede, enquanto que as tarifas de uso dos sistemas de distribuição (TUSD) foram definidas a partir dos Custos Marginais de Expansão para cada nível de tensão destes sistemas. Entretanto, a metodologia de TUSD implementada não se aplicava ao segmento geração, que passou a ser cobrado pelo menor valor do segmento consumo...

Uso de células fotovoltaicas de filmes finos para geração de energia elétrica em edifícios urbanos: estimativa  de potencial.; Use of photovoltaic cell thin films for electricity generation in municipal buildings estimate of potential.

Dutra Lacroix, Miguel Angel
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/04/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.11%
Nas últimas décadas, sistemas de suprimento de energia que utilizam recursos renováveis têm sido estudados e empregados como opção para o fornecimento de energia elétrica. Devido aos avanços da tecnologia fotovoltaica, associada à diminuição de custos e maior conhecimento de seu desempenho, os sistemas fotovoltaicos apresentam-se como uma opção tecnicamente promissora. Neste contexto, a energia solar fotovoltaica, que, além de gerar eletricidade de forma distribuída também vem ganhando cada vez mais espaço no mercado mundial. Esta tecnologia evita as emissões de gases poluentes e é uma fonte alternativa que diversifica a matriz energética. Para complemento da energia hidrelétrica é necessária uma fonte energética com várias características ecologicamente corretas, a energia solar fotovoltaica é uma dessas fontes, pois é limpa (não poluente), inesgotável, silenciosa, estática, distributiva, simples em sua operação, possui características modulares podendo-se integrar as edificações. Para viabilizar sua implantação nas edificações, vários países, inclusive o Brasil, também buscam soluções para o futuro, elaborando estudos para avaliar a eficácia dessa tecnologia. Adicionalmente, como a energia é cada vez mais necessária para o desenvolvimento humano...

Optimal Contract Pricing of Distributed Generation in Distribution Networks

Maria Lopez-Lezama, Jesus; Padilha-Feltrin, Antonio; Contreras, Javier; Ignacio Munoz, Jose
Fonte: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Publicador: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 128-136
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.91%
Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Processo FAPESP: 07/07041-3; This paper proposes a bilevel programming approach to determine the optimal contract price of dispatchable distributed generation (DG) units in distribution systems. Two different agents are considered in the model, namely, the distribution company (DisCo) and the owner of the DG. The former seeks the minimization of the payments incurred in attending the forecasted demand, while the latter seeks the maximization of his profit. To meet the expected demand, the DisCo has the option to purchase energy from any DG unit within its network and directly from the wholesale electricity market. A traditional distribution utility model with no competition among DG units is considered. The proposed model positions the DG owner in the outer optimization level and the DisCo in the inner one. This last optimization problem is substituted by its Karush-Kuhn-Tucker optimality conditions, turning the bilevel programming problem into an equivalent single-level nonlinear programming problem which is solved using commercially available software. Tests are performed in a modified IEEE 34-bus distribution network.

Proposta de implementação de uma arquitetura para a Internet de nova geração; An implementation proposal of a next generation internet architecture

Walter Wong
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/07/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.91%
A concepção original da arquitetura da Internet foi baseada em uma rede fixa e confiável. Hoje em dia, a Internet se tornou dinâmica e vulnerável aos ataques de segurança. Também não era prevista a necessidade de integração de tecnologias heterogêneas nem de ambientes sem fio. A arquitetura atual apresenta uma série de barreiras técnicas para prover estes serviços, sendo uma das maiores a sobrecarga semântica do Internet Protocol (IP). O endereço IP atua como localizador na camada de rede e como identificador na camada de transporte, impossibilitando novas funcionalidades como a mobilidade e abrindo brechas de segurança. Este trabalho apresenta uma proposta de implementação de uma arquitetura para Internet de nova geração para o provisionamento de novos serviços de forma natural e integrada para a Internet atual. A proposta de arquitetura de implementação oferece suporte à mobilidade, ao multihoming, à segurança, à integração de redes heterogêneas e às aplicações legadas através da introdução de uma nova camada de identificação na arquitetura atual. Esta nova camada tem por objetivo separar a identidade da localização e se tornar uma opção de comunicação para as redes heterogêneas. Mecanismos adicionais foram propostos para prover o suporte às funcionalidades da arquitetura...

Geração distribuída aplicada à edificações : edifícios de energia zero e o caso do laboratório de ensino da FEC-Unicamp; Distributed generation applied to buildings : net zero energy buildings and the case of the laboratory at FEC-Unicamp

Bruno Wilmer Fontes Lima
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/08/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.03%
O consumo de eletricidade no Brasil cresceu 47% na última década e estima-se que aumente outros 55,6% até 2020. A geração da maior parte da eletricidade no país é baseada no modelo de grandes usinas hidrelétricas, distantes dos centros de consumo, assim como a expansão da capacidade de geração para atender o aumento da demanda, mantendo as grandes perdas na transmissão e distribuição da eletricidade. Uma forma de reduzi-las é através do maior uso da geração distribuída, em que a eletricidade é gerada próxima ou no próprio local de consumo, como por exemplo, integrada a edificações. A partir da viabilização deste modelo de geração e dos edifícios eficientes, criou-se o conceito dos chamados Edifícios de Energia Zero (EEZ). EEZs são edifícios com baixas necessidades energéticas e que, ao longo do ano, geram toda a energia que consomem a partir de fontes renováveis de energia. Em 2010, as edificações foram responsáveis por 46,9% do consumo de eletricidade no Brasil e esta participação deve aumentar até o final da década. Dessa forma, um maior emprego da geração distribuída através de fontes renováveis em edificações e também de novos EEZs pode atender parte desta crescente demanda, e consequentemente...

Investment in Next Generation Networks and the Role of Regulation: A Real Option Approach

Gavosto, Andrea; Ponte, Guido; Scaglioni, Carla
Fonte: ISEG – Departamento de Economia Publicador: ISEG – Departamento de Economia
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em //2007 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.19%
The current regulatory debate in the telecommunications industry in Europe and elsewhere is dominated by the issue of if and how to regulate next generation networks (NGN) which operators plan to roll out in the near future. The crucial issue is whether an extension of current regulatory obligations onto future networks would hamper the investment by large European operators. The paper applies a real option model to explain the investment decision in next generation networks. One important result of the model is that regulation affects the investment decision only in the initial period when uncertainty is still very high. The real option model has been calibrated with parameters drawn from real data for a new entrant and from educated estimates for an established operator. Four different regulatory regimes and their impact on the timing of the investments have been simulated: a temporary regulatory holiday is shown to be an effective regulatory tool in order to induce immediate investments.

A different shape grammar approach for automatic design generation

Santos, F.; Esmerado, J.
Fonte: IRED Journals Publicador: IRED Journals
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.91%
This paper proposes a different approach for shape grammars where designs are exclusively generated through computations of symbols. This option has the advantage of supporting declarative knowledge and thus facilitates shape reasoning capabilities. Our approach also detached procedural knowledge from shape knowledge using procedural notions that capture sequences, alternatives and tests that should be applied during design process. This decision provides good modular specifications. Moreover, we follow a non-deterministic procedural perspective in the characterization of design processes. Its implementation supports exploratory automatic design generation. Differences between this approach and the conventional approach are discussed and a case study is explored.

Generation of hydrogen from chemical hydrides under pressure up to 70 Bar

Fernandes, Vitor R.; Esteves, A.; Ferreira, M. J. F.; Pinto, A. M. F. R.; Rangel, C. M.
Fonte: Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia Publicador: Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 29/04/2010 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.07%
Hydrogen production by sodium borohydride through hydrolysis in alkaline solutions has been extensively studied as a production/storage option. The potential application of this option is dependent on an easily controllable catalysed hydrolysis reaction at significant rates to comply with fuel cell feeding but also on the increase of the gravimetric density being of paramount importance, the design and implementation of compact and efficient reactors and the reaction characterization under pressure. In this work, hydrogen generation by the catalyzed hydrolysis of sodium borohydride was studied under pressure up to 70 bar with excellent results

Why we should talk about option generation in decision-making research

Kalis, Annemarie; Kaiser, Stefan; Mojzisch, Andreas
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/08/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.24%
Most empirical studies on decision-making start from a set of given options for action. However, in everyday life there is usually no one asking you to choose between A, B, and C. Recently, the question how people come up with options has been receiving growing attention. However, so far there has been neither a systematic attempt to define the construct of “option” nor an attempt to show why decision-making research really needs this construct. This paper aims to fill that void by developing definitions of “option” and “option generation” that can be used as a basis for decision-making research in a wide variety of decision-making settings, while clarifying how these notions relate to familiar psychological constructs. We conclude our analysis by arguing that there are indeed reasons to believe that option generation is an important and distinct aspect of human decision-making.

Option generation in decision making: ideation beyond memory retrieval

Del Missier, Fabio; Visentini, Mimì; Mäntylä, Timo
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/01/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
According to prescriptive decision theories, the generation of options for choice is a central aspect of decision making. A too narrow representation of the problem may indeed limit the opportunity to evaluate promising options. However, despite the theoretical and applied significance of this topic, the cognitive processes underlying option generation are still unclear. In particular, while a cued recall account of option generation emphasizes the role of memory and executive control, other theoretical proposals stress the importance of ideation processes based on various search and thinking processes. Unfortunately, relevant behavioral evidence on the cognitive processes underlying option generation is scattered and inconclusive. In order to reach a better understanding, we carried out an individual-differences study employing a wide array of cognitive predictors, including measures of episodic memory, semantic memory, cognitive control, and ideation fluency. The criterion tasks consisted of three different poorly-structured decision-making scenarios, and the participants were asked to generate options to solve these problems. The main criterion variable of the study was the number of valid options generated, but also the diversity and the quality of generated options were examined. The results showed that option generation fluency and diversity in the context of ill-structured decision making are supported by ideation ability even after taking into account the effects of individual differences in several other aspects of cognitive functioning. Thus...

Sele????o e express??o de caracteres componentes da apar??ncia e rendimento de tub??rculos na gera????o de pl??ntulas de batata; Selection and expression of trait components for appearance and yield of tubers in the potato seedling generation

CERIOLI, Murilo de Farias
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Agronomia; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Agronomia; UFPel; BR Publicador: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Agronomia; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Agronomia; UFPel; BR
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.03%
Improvements in methods of selection are extremely important for breeding programs because the market requires speed and efficiency in development new cultivars. In potato breeding, the elimination of genotypes with undesirable characteristics through early generation selection avoids that inferior genotypes be taken to the field. Selection for some traits in the seedling generation saves considerable resources and improves the quality of the population carried to the field. The aim of this study was to investigate in the seedling generation the influence of pot size on the expression of general appearance and yield of tubers and the selection efficiency. The study consisted of two generations of seedlings obtained from ten different crosses grown in the greenhouse in three different pot sizes during the autumn and spring. A first clonal generation was derived from autumn seedlings and planted in the field. Traits components of tuber appearance and yield were measured and trait correlations within seedling generation and between generations were determined. The results show that pot size influences trait expression and that early selection in the seedling generation is a viable option for many tuber appearance and yield component traits. Most traits are better expressed in large pots except skin roughness which showed more reticulated skin tubers in small pots. Skin roughness...

Support for Programmatic CDM Development for the National Program for Municipal Solid Waste in Morocco

Lahbabi, Abdelmourhit
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.15%
Carbon Finance Assist (CF-Assist) is a capacity building and technical assistance program established by the World Bank to help develop national capacities of developing countries on carbon finance and clean development mechanism (CDM) activities. The objective of the mission is to develop CDM Program of Activities (PoA), based on a programmatic approach for CDM Project Activities (CPA) in solid waste sector in Morocco. More specifically the assignment consists of the assessment and validation of the feasibility of a nationwide CDM PoA for the solid waste in Morocco and the development of a Program Idea Note (PIN) summarizing the results of the program assessment. Based on the information collected during the mission first phase, an assessment model of the biogas potential was developed for each targeted landfill. The PoA expected emissions reductions were then evaluated for two possible scenarios: an optimistic scenario assuming that all the eligible landfills will develop CDM under the program for both the biogas capture and electricity generation options and a more conservative scenario assuming gas flaring option only in most promising landfills.

Environmental Issues in the Power Sector : Long-Term Impacts and Policy Options for Karnataka

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.24%
This study of the long-term environmental impacts and policy options for power sector development in Karnataka, is one of a series undertaken by the Bank, in cooperation with the Government of India and state governments. It is a follow-up to the broader study Environmental Issues in the Power Sector (EIPS) (ESMAP/World Bank 1998), and the general methodology developed for EIPS, is used for this analysis. The study begins by evaluating the impacts of the baseline reform scenario, and then perturbs this scenario for the options examined, including a scenario of "stalled reform," to enable assessment of the costs and benefits of reform. Because Karnataka has already implemented significant reform measures, "no reform" (as used in the original 1998 EIPS study) is not a useful scenario. The critical insight of this study is that the damage costs of emissions from grid-based fossil plants are between one and two orders of magnitude smaller than those of captive and self-generation units, emissions from which are essentially uncontrolled...

Renewable energy and storage implementation in Naval Station Pearl Harbor; Renewable energy and storage implementation in Naval Station Pearl Harbor

Priester, Pete; Grusich, Anthony; Tortora, Paul
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.15%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The purpose of this project is to examine the feasibility and cost effectiveness of liquid air energy storage and microgrid options to meet power demand aboard Naval Station Pearl Harbor. This infrastructure serves multiple Navy objectives, including providing standalone power support to endure emergency situations, providing pierside power for Navy vessels, enhancing the Navy’s cost savings from the proposed utility scale West Loch solar PV project, and helping to meet the Navy’s and Hawaii’s renewable energy goals in accordance with Department of Defense mandates and Navy-stated objectives for energy self-sufficiency and the goals of the Hawaiian Clean Energy Initiative. The results indicate that, in grid-tied operation, a solar PV alone is the option with the highest financial net present value. Microturbines are the least-cost option to assure backup power in the event of a grid outage. The microgrid model in this study does not account for the possibility of using demand management to minimize power bills. Storage coupled with the proper control equipment and algorithms for demand management could improve its NPV by accounting for savings from arbitrage. This analysis will assist the Commander Navy Region Hawaii to determine specific actions to provide energy resiliency and self-sufficiency at Pearl Harbor.; The purpose of this project is to examine the feasibility and cost effectiveness of liquid air energy storage and microgrid options to meet power demand aboard Naval Station Pearl Harbor. This infrastructure serves multiple Navy objectives...

Development of Local Supply Chain : The Missing Link for Concentrated Solar Power Projects in India

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.14%
Amid the success of Solar Photovoltaic (PV) projects in India, Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technology also provides a compelling case for support by the government as among solar technologies; CSP is the only techno-economically viable option at present that provides a storage option for dispatchable and dependable solar energy. Furthermore, the conversion of solar to steam is a relatively high-efficiency process versus the conversion efficiency of PV. This process can effectively supplement fossil fuels and renewable fuel, such as biomass, and thus contribute to the overall energy security of the country. The specific objective of the study is to assess the potential of India's industries to set up a manufacturing base to produce CSP technology components and equipment. The study assesses competitive positioning and the potential of Indian companies in the manufacturing of important CSP components. Various analysis models were prepared for the analysis, and the details have been explained in the elaborated version of the report. The report also proposes an action plan to help develop this potential and evaluate the resulting economic benefits. This report includes the following activities: i) assessment of the competitive position of local industries to support the development of CSP technologies in India; ii) evaluation of short...

Market Power and Technological Bias: The Case of Electricity Generation

Twomey, Paul; Neuhoff, Karsten
Fonte: Universidade de Cambridge Publicador: Universidade de Cambridge
Formato: 295924 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
EN_GB
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.14%
It is difficult to elminated all market power in electricity markets and it is therefore frequently suggested that some market power should be tolerated: extra revenues contribute to fixed cost recovery,facilitate investment and increase security of supply. This suggestion implicitly assumes all generation technologiesbenefit equally from market power. We assess a mixture of conventional and intermittent generation, eg coal plants and wind power. If all output is sold in the spot market, then intermittent generation benefits less frommarket power than conventional generation. Forward contracts or option contracts reduce the levelof market power but bias against intermittent generators persists.

The Photovoltaic Crisis and the Demand-side Generation in Spain

Mir-Artigues, Pere
Fonte: Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge Publicador: Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge
Tipo: Working Paper; not applicable
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.98%
The RES-E promotion policy in Spain gave priority to the photovoltaic (henceforth, PV) ground-mounted installations. For years, the coupling of customer-side generation coupled with excess energy exports was never specifically considered. However, some months ago this option was suggested as a way to recover the Spain?s PV sector from the current moratorium on the RES-E policy. A decree draft on on-site generation was issued, its central point being the consideration of electricity exports as delayed consumption rights. But several barriers hinder its entry into force. Unfortunately, Spain could be losing an important opportunity for encouraging PV investments while retail grid parity is being reached. This working paper analyzes the different types of PV demand-side generation from the point of view of consumer-generators and evaluates the economic and technical features of the regulation proposed in Spain and to date still pending.

The Potential of Energy Storage Systems with Respect to Generation Adequacy and Economic Viability

Bradbury, Kyle Joseph
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.03%

Intermittent energy resources, including wind and solar power, continue to be rapidly added to the generation fleet domestically and abroad. The variable power of these resources introduces new levels of stochasticity into electric interconnections that must be continuously balanced in order to maintain system reliability. Energy storage systems (ESSs) offer one potential option to compensate for the intermittency of renewables. ESSs for long-term storage (1-hour or greater), aside from a few pumped hydroelectric installations, are not presently in widespread use in the U.S. The deployment of ESSs would be most likely driven by either the potential for a strong internal rate of return (IRR) on investment and through significant benefits to system reliability that independent system operators (ISOs) could incentivize.

To assess the potential of ESSs three objectives are addressed. (1) Evaluate the economic viability of energy storage for price arbitrage in real-time energy markets and determine system cost improvements for ESSs to become attractive investments. (2) Estimate the reliability impact of energy storage systems on the large-scale integration of intermittent generation. (3) Analyze the economic, environmental, and reliability tradeoffs associated with using energy storage in conjunction with stochastic generation.

First...

Distributed generation placement in radial distribution networks using a bat-inspired algorithm

Candelo-Becerra,John Edwin; Hernández-Riaño,Helman Enrique
Fonte: DYNA Publicador: DYNA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.95%
Distributed generation (DG) is an important issue for distribution networks due to the improvement in power losses, but the location and size of generators could be a difficult task for exact techniques. The metaheuristic techniques have become a better option to determine good solutions and in this paper the application of a bat-inspired algorithm (BA) to a problem of location and size of distributed generation in radial distribution systems is presented. A comparison between particle swarm optimization (PSO) and BA was made in the 33-node and 69-node test feeders, using as scenarios the change in active and reactive power, and the number of generators. PSO and BA found good results for small number and capacities of generators, but BA obtained better results for difficult problems and converged faster for all scenarios. The maximum active power injections to reduce power losses in the distribution networks were found for the five scenarios.