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The search for social validation and the sexual behavior of people living with HIV in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: understanding the role of treatment optimism in context

Kerrigan, Deanna; Bastos, Francisco In??cio Pinkusfeld Monteiro; Malta, Monica Siqueira; Cunha, Claudia Carneiro da; Pilotto, Jose Henrique da Silva; Strathdee, Steffanie Anne
Fonte: Elsevier Ltd. Publicador: Elsevier Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.19%
The primary aim of this qualitative study was to explore the in???uence of HIV treatment optimism on the sexual behavior of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) at public health clinics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We also explored the psycho-social dynamics of participants??? sexual relationships in order to understand more broadly how these factors in???uence the sexual behavior of PLWHA and how they shape HAARTrelated beliefs. Twenty-three semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with three groups: heterosexual women, heterosexual men and men who have sex with men living with HIV who reported being sexually active in the last year and were currently receiving HAART. We found that the availability of HAART was conceptualized as a rationale for unsafe sex among a minority of study participants and that this was more common among men than among women. Speci???c examples of treatment optimism appeared to be employed as a means to avoid acknowledging how deeper psychosocial issues may have been in???uencing participant???s sexual behavior. Most participants??? sexual behavior appeared largely to be a product of their desire for social validation and linked to feelings of shame and denial...

Afectos, optimismo disposicional e optimismo irrealista: estudo de caso cisco Portugal

Tomaz, Cátia Daniela Silva Antunes
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2012 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.42%
Projecto de Mestrado em Gestão / Classificação JEL: M1 - Business Administration (M12 - Personnel Management; Executive Compensation); M5 - Personnel Economics (M51 - Firm Employment Decisions; Promotions); J2 - Demand and Supply of Labor (J24 - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity); Para gerir é preciso decidir e numa empresa, normalmente, os colaboradores têm de decidir perante as mais variadas situações com um grau maior ou menor de risco e complexidade, possuindo mais ou menos conhecimento sobre elas. O nosso problema centra-se numa vertente mais psicológica, mais concretamente na maneira como os indivíduos se sentem e de como esses sentimentos, mais especificamente os Afectos, podem influenciar as suas expectativas em relação ao futuro. Neste sentido, estudámos não só as variáveis Afectos (Positivo e Negativo), Optimismo Disposicional e Optimismo Irrealista per si, mas também a relação entre os Afectos e o Optimismo e ainda a relação dos Afectos e do Optimismo com algumas variáveis preditoras: sexo, tipo de função (chefia ou não) e categoria profissional (sales&services e support&operations). Tendo em conta os resultados obtidos, os colaboradores da Cisco Portugal da nossa amostra possuem mais Afecto Positivo do que Afecto Negativo...

Effects of a psychological inoculation video on helplessness-hopelessness and implicit optimism levels in breast cancer patients

Gomes, Ana Neto Branquinho Assis
Fonte: ISPA - Instituto Universitário Publicador: ISPA - Instituto Universitário
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.32%
Dissertação de Mestrado em Psicobiologia apresentada ao ISPA - Instituto Universitário; Helplessness-hopelessness (HH) and optimism are psychological variables which have been suggested as influential factors regarding survival rates and prognosis in cancer patients. Psychological inoculation (PI) is a cognitive method that uses the consecutive rejection of challenging sentences as a tool to destroy cognitive barriers. This study aimed to understand whether the exposure to a video simulating a PI session was able to increase implicit optimism levels and lower HH levels in breast cancer patients, when compared to the effects of a video simulating a supportive listening (SL) session. The sample for this study was composed of 83 Portuguese breast cancer patients. At baseline HH levels were assessed using the Portuguese version of the mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer scale, whereas implicit optimism levels were assessed through word puzzle tasks. Participants were then randomly assigned to be exposed to either a video simulating a PI session or a video simulating a SL session. HH and implicit optimism levels were assessed again after the intervention. Results showed that the PI video had a significant effect in increasing implicit optimism levels in the intervention group...

Optimism, self-esteem and personality: adaptation and validation of the Brazilian Version Of The Revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R)

Bastianello,Micheline Roat; Pacico,Juliana Cerentini; Hutz,Claudio Simon
Fonte: Universidade de São Francisco, Programa de Pós-Graduação Stricto Sensu em Psicologia Publicador: Universidade de São Francisco, Programa de Pós-Graduação Stricto Sensu em Psicologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.26%
Optimism can be defined in terms of positive and negative expectations regarding future life events. The aims of this study were to adapt and validate the Revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R) for the Brazilian population, verify its psychometric characteristics, assess whether there are gender differences, and verify its relationships with self-esteem and personality. The participants were 844 university students from two public universities in the southern of Brazil, which answered the following tests: LOT-R, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Baterial Fatorial de Personalidade (BFP). Factor analysis extracted a single factor, corroborating the findings of the original scale and indicating that optimism and pessimism are probably polar opposites of a single continuum. The results showed positive correlation between self-esteem and optimism in life orientation, and negative correlation between optimism and neuroticism. In conclusion, the Brazilian version of the LOT-R is an instrument that presents appropriate psychometric characteristics and that is ready for use in the Brazilian population.

Optimism of health care workers during a disaster: a review of the literature

Boldor, Noga; Bar-Dayan, Yosefa; Rosenbloom, Tova; Shemer, Joshua; Bar-Dayan, Yaron
Fonte: Co-Action Publishing Publicador: Co-Action Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/01/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.42%
Optimism has several orientations. One such outlook is a general tendency to regard the world as a positive place, accepting difficulties as mere challenges instead of impassable barriers. Among health care workers, optimism improves their level of functioning, their patients’ satisfaction, and their therapeutic results. Optimistic staff members report feeling less pressure, use fewer avoidance strategies, focus on practical problem solutions, seek social support, and have more trust in people and organizations. The aim of this article is to provide a review of the literature concerning the role of optimism, both in daily life and in crisis situations. An attempt was made to find the linkage between optimism among health care workers during disasters and their active response, with special emphasis on the relationship between optimism and knowledge, feelings or behavior. Based on the literature, optimism was found to be helpful both in daily medical work and in cases of medical emergencies. Optimism was also revealed one of the key components of resilience and self-efficacy. Therefore, it is recommended to consider strengthening the optimism through initiative programs. Obtaining optimism can be included in toolkit preparedness for health care workers in order to confront the complications in the aftermath of disaster. These programs...

The association of greater dispositional optimism with less endogenous pain facilitation is indirectly transmitted through lower levels of pain catastrophizing

Goodin, Burel R.; Glover, Toni L.; Sotolongo, Adriana; King, Christopher D.; Sibille, Kimberly T.; Herbert, Matthew S.; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Sanden, Shelley H.; Staud, Roland; Redden, David T.; Bradley, Laurence A.; Fillingim, Roger B.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.42%
Dispositional optimism has been shown to beneficially influence various experimental and clinical pain experiences. One possibility that may account for decreased pain sensitivity among individuals who report greater dispositional optimism is less use of maladaptive coping strategies like pain catastrophizing, a negative cognitive/affective response to pain. An association between dispositional optimism and conditioned pain modulation (CPM), a measure of endogenous pain inhibition, has previously been reported. However, it remains to be determined whether dispositional optimism is also associated with temporal summation (TS), a measure of endogenous pain facilitation. The current study examined whether pain catastrophizing mediated the association between dispositional optimism and TS among 140 older, community-dwelling adults with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Individuals completed measures of dispositional optimism and pain catastrophizing. TS was then assessed using a tailored heat pain stimulus on the forearm. Greater dispositional optimism was significantly related to lower levels of pain catastrophizing and TS. Bootstrapped confidence intervals revealed that less pain catastrophizing was a significant mediator of the relation between greater dispositional optimism and diminished TS. These findings support the primary role of personality characteristics such as dispositional optimism in the modulation of pain outcomes by abatement of endogenous pain facilitation and less use of catastrophizing.

HIV treatment optimism and its predictors among young adults in southern Malawi

Yeatman, Sara; Dovel, Kathryn; Conroy, Amy; Namadingo, Hazel
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.42%
This study measures HIV treatment optimism and its predictors in a representative sample of young adults in southern Malawi. In 2010, 1,275 women and 470 men between the ages of 16 and 26 were asked about their exposure to people on antiretroviral therapy (ART), sexual risk behavior, HIV status, and beliefs about ART. We used confirmatory factor analysis to develop a four-item scale of the belief that HIV is a less serious health threat due to ART (reduced-severity optimism) and used a single measure to capture belief in the reduced infectivity of HIV due to ART (reduced-susceptibility optimism). Overall, respondents reported low levels of HIV treatment optimism. Being female and using ART were the largest predictors of both types of treatment optimism. We found a non-linear relationship between exposure to people on ART and reduced-severity optimism. People who knew someone on ART but did not discuss it with them had lower levels of reduced-severity optimism than people who did not know anyone on ART and people who regularly discussed treatment with someone on ART. In multivariate regression models, HIV treatment optimism was positively associated with all measures of sexual risk behavior among men but negatively associated with unprotected sex with a non-primary partner among women. Our findings suggest that the spread of ART in Malawi has not led to widespread HIV treatment optimism. This may reflect the relatively recent spread of ART...

Optimism and mental imagery: A possible cognitive marker to promote well-being?

Blackwell, Simon E.; Rius-Ottenheim, Nathaly; Schulte-van Maaren, Yvonne W.M.; Carlier, Ingrid V.E.; Middelkoop, Victor D.; Zitman, Frans G.; Spinhoven, Philip; Holmes, Emily A.; Giltay, Erik J.
Fonte: Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press Publicador: Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/03/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.42%
Optimism is associated with a range of benefits not only for general well-being, but also for mental and physical health. The development of psychological interventions to boost optimism derived from cognitive science would have the potential to provide significant public health benefits, yet cognitive markers of optimism are little understood. The current study aimed to take a first step in this direction by identifying a cognitive marker for optimism that could provide a modifiable target for innovative interventions. In particular we predicted that the ability to generate vivid positive mental imagery of the future would be associated with dispositional optimism. A community sample of 237 participants completed a survey comprising measures of mental imagery and optimism, and socio-demographic information. Vividness of positive future imagery was significantly associated with optimism, even when adjusting for socio-demographic factors and everyday imagery use. The ability to generate vivid mental imagery of positive future events may provide a modifiable cognitive marker of optimism. Boosting positive future imagery could provide a cognitive target for treatment innovations to promote optimism, with implications for mental health and even physical well-being.

Optimism and the Boundaryless Career: The Role of Developmental Relationships

Higgins, Monica C.; Dobrow, Shasa; Roloff, Kate
Fonte: John Wiley & Sons Publicador: John Wiley & Sons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.42%
This research explores an important psychological capacity in the current boundaryless career environment—optimism. Optimism has been associated with flexibility and adaptability amidst stressful situations (Shifren & Hooker, 1995), which, we argue here may be particularly useful in the current unpredictable career environment. We explore the relationship between optimism and the structure and quality of individuals‘ developmental networks in a sample of young adults. Analyses are based upon a 10-year longitudinal study (1996-2006) of a cohort of 136 individuals who graduated from business school in 1996. Cross-sectional analyses show that the amount of psychosocial support received by individuals, but not career support, is positively associated with optimism. Then, considering the longer-term nature of help-giving, longitudinal relational data suggest that the greater one‘s early-career psychosocial and career support, the greater one‘s optimism many years hence. In addition, we examined how the rate of change in developmental network support over time is associated with optimism. Findings show that increasing amounts of career and psychosocial support over time were associated with greater optimism later in career. Implications for future research on the boundaryless career...

Career optimism: the roles of contextual support and career decision-making self-efficacy

Garcia, Patrick Raymund James M.; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D.; Bordia, Prashant; Bordia, Sarbari; Roxas, Rachel Edita O.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.09%
Drawing from the social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986), we examined the role of parental support, teacher support, and career decision-making self-efficacy as sources of career optimism. We tested our proposed model using 235 computer science majors from a large university in the Philippines. Surveys were conducted over two measurement periods (1 year apart). Results revealed that Time 1 parental and teacher support were positively associated with Time 2 career optimism. Furthermore, we found that these direct relationships were fully mediated by Time 1 career decision-making self-efficacy. These results remained significant even after controlling for neuroticism and past performance. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.; This research was supported by the Australian Research Council grant (DP130104138) awarded to the second, third, and fourth authors. (Restubog, S. L. D.;Bordia, P. and Bordia, S.)

Optimism in child development: conceptual issues and methodological approaches.

Farrall, Edwina M.
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2008
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.48%
Past research into optimism and pessimism has tended to view these constructs as polar opposites of a fixed personality trait that function in mutually exclusive ways. In the field of child development in particular, this has led to theory-driven work that not only accepts this dichotomy but also uses it to drive and explicate larger issues of resilience and vulnerability. The current thesis challenges the assumptions underpinning this conceptual framework, and, through the use of divergent methodologies, seeks to establish children’s optimism as a dynamic and adaptive process with predictive value during the developmental period. In the first two studies, predictors and correlates of putative dispositional optimism and pessimism in children and adolescents were examined. A significant age-related decline in optimism was found, but importantly a degree of functional independence between optimism and pessimism was also observed. The third study elicited more specific optimistic expectancies using a vignette methodology. This was seen to share some congruence with the earlier measures of dispositional optimism, but the study also elucidated some of the parameters and realism constraining children’s optimism. Again an age-related decline in optimism was demonstrated that was distinct from any associated changes in pessimism. The fourth and final study involved a pilot examination of the dimensionality of the optimism construct...

Social support and optimism in relation to the oral health of young adults

Brennan, D.; Spencer, A.
Fonte: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc Inc Publicador: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.51%
BACKGROUND: Psychosocial factors largely external to the individual—such as social support and those that are inherently dispositional, like optimism—may both play a role in determining oral health outcomes and serve to buffer the effect of each other. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess associations of social support and optimism on oral health. METHOD: In 2005–2006, n=1,859 persons around 30 years old were surveyed to collect data on social support, optimism, oral health-related quality of life, and caries experience. RESULTS: Unadjusted analyses found high social support associated (P<0.05) with fewer (mean±SE) decayed teeth(0.6±0.1) and less negative impact on quality of life (2.7± 0.2) compared to low support (1.0±0.2 and 4.5±0.4 respectively). High optimism was associated with fewer missing teeth (2.1±0.2) and less negative impact on quality of life (2.1±0.2) compared to low optimism (2.9±0.2 and 3.8±0.2, respectively). Multivariate regressions adjusted for dental visiting, toothbrushing, sex, income, work status and education showed social support and optimism had (P<0.05) negative associations with missing teeth (β=−1.0) and caries experience (β=−1.5) for high support/high optimism compared to low support/low optimism. All three non-reference combinations of support/optimism showed negative associations(β=−1.6 to −2.4) with impact of problems compared to low support/low optimism. CONCLUSIONS: Social support and optimism were associated with oral health. Impact of dental problems showed buffering of high support when optimism was low...

Is it age…or society? : aging stereotypes and older people’s use of comparative optimism towards health

Marques, Sibila Fernandes Magalhães
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.19%
A Dissertation presented in partial fulfillment of the Requirements for the degree of Doctor in Social and Organizational Psychology Specialty in Social Psychology / Código do PsycINFO: Social Psychology – 3000 Social Perception & Cognition – 3040 Promotion & Maintenance of Health & Wellness - 3365; Existem diversas evidências de que, tal como como os indvíduos de outros grupos etários, as pessoas idosas também utilizam estratégias de optimismo comparativo (Renner, Knoll, & Schwarzer, 2000). O uso destas estratégias parece influenciar aspectos tão cruciais como as taxas de hospitalização e a taxa de mortalidade num futuro próximo (Bailis, Chipperfield, & Perry, 2005). Nesta dissertação assumimos uma perspectiva claramente psicossocial e pretendemos explorar o papel que a activação automática dos estereótipos de envelhecimento tem na utilização, por parte das pessoas idosas, de estratégias de optimismo comparativo relativamente à doença. Para atingir este objectivo, realizámos oito estudos. O conjunto dos resultados destes estudos revelam o seguinte padrão: tal como noutros países, o estereótipo português de pessoas idosas contém tanto traços positivos (i.e., sábios) como negativos (i.e....

A prospective study of the effects of optimism on adolescent health risks

Patton, G.; Tollit, M.; Romaniuk, H.; Spence, S.; Sheffield, J.; Sawyer, M.
Fonte: American Academy of Pediatrics Publicador: American Academy of Pediatrics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.32%
CONTEXT: The promotion of optimism has been widely advocated for children and adolescents, but epidemiologic data to support this approach are scant. METHODS: This was a 3-wave longitudinal study of health and social development in younger adolescents from 3 Australian states. The 5634 student participants, initially aged 12 to 14 years, were assessed for optimistic thinking style, emotional problems, substance use, and antisocial behaviors. RESULTS: Cross-sectional associations between optimism and each of the study outcomes were strongly protective but tended to differ according to gender in extent. In prospective analyses of the onset of new cases of each study outcome, protective associations were weaker. Those in the highest optimism quartile had risks for depressive symptoms that were reduced by almost half (odds ratio: 0.54 [95% confidence interval: 0.42–0.70]) compared with those in the lowest category. No effect was seen in prevention of anxiety symptoms after adjustment for other aspects of psychological style. In predicting the onset of heavy substance use and antisocial behavior, high optimism had modest protective effects. CONCLUSIONS: Optimistic thinking style is somewhat protective against adolescent health risks; the clearest effects are seen against depressive symptoms. Promoting optimism along with other aspects of psychological and emotional style has a role in mental health promotion that is likely to be enhanced if an intervention also addresses risk and protective factors in an adolescent's social context.; George C. Patton...

Comparative optimism about falling amongst community-dwelling older South Australians: a mixed methods approach.

Dollard, Joanne
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2009
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.36%
People aged ≥65 years (older people) have a higher chance of falling than other age groups. However, based on qualitative research, older people do not believe that falls prevention information and strategies have personal relevance. This suggests that older people believe that falls are more likely to happen to other older people than themselves, that is, they might be comparatively optimistic about their chance of falling. It is important to understand comparative optimism about falling as it is a consistent reason given by older people for not participating in falls prevention activity. This thesis used a mixed methods design with a sequential strategy to investigate community-dwelling older people's comparative optimism about falling. Three studies were undertaken, using semi-structured interviews, cognitive interviews and telephone interviews to collect data. The semi-structured interview study, guided by the tenets of grounded theory, aimed to develop an explanation of why older people might be comparatively optimistic. A sampling frame (age, sex and direct and indirect history of falling) was used to guide recruiting respondents. Older people (N = 9) were interviewed about their chance and other older people's chance of falling. Interviews were analysed using the constant comparison method. The cognitive interview study investigated potential problems in survey items in order to refine them for the telephone interview study. Items were developed to measure older people's comparative optimism about falling. Older people (N = 13) were cognitively interviewed...

Optimism on quality of life in Portuguese chronic patients: moderator/mediator?

Vilhena, E.; Pais-Ribeiro, J.; Silva, I.; Pedro, L.; Meneses, R.; Cardoso, H.; Martins-Silva, A.; Mendonça, D.
Fonte: Associação Médica Brasileira Publicador: Associação Médica Brasileira
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.39%
OBJECTIVE: optimism is an important variable that has consistently been shown to affect adjustment to quality of life in chronic diseases. This study aims to clarify if dispositional optimism exerts a moderating or a mediating influence on the personality traits-quality of life association, in Portuguese chronic patients. METHODS: multiple regression models were used to test the moderation and mediation effects of dispositional optimism in quality of life. A sample of 729 patients was recruited in Portugal's main hospitals and completed self-reported questionnaires assessing socio-demographic and clinical variables, personality, dispositional optimism, quality of life (QoL) and subjective well-being (SWB). RESULTS: the results of the regression models showed that dispositional optimism did not moderate the relationships between personality traits and quality of life. After controlling for gender, age, education level and severity of disease perception, the effects of personality traits on QoL and in SWB were mediated by dispositional optimism (partially and completely), except for the links between neuroticism/openness to experience and physical health. CONCLUSION: dispositional optimism is more likely to play a mediating...

Optimism on quality of life in Portuguese chronic patients: moderator/mediator?

Vilhena, Estela; Pais-Ribeiro, José Luís; Silva, Isabel; Pedro, Luísa; Meneses, Rute; Cardoso, Helena; Martins-da-Silva, António; Mendonça, Denisa
Fonte: Associação Médica Brasileira Publicador: Associação Médica Brasileira
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2014 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.39%
Objetivo: o otimismo tem sido demonstrado como uma variável importante no ajustamento da qualidade de vida de pessoas com doenças crônicas. O estudo tem como objetivo verificar se o otimismo exerce um efeito moderador ou mediador entre os traços de personalidade e a qualidade de vida, em portugueses com doenças crônicas. Métodos: os modelos de regressão linear múltipla foram usados para avaliar o efeito de moderação e mediação do otimismo na qualidade de vida. A amostra, constituída por 729 doentes, recrutados nos principais hospitais de Portugal responderam a questionários de autorresposta avaliando questões sócio-demográficas e clínicas, personalidade, otimismo disposicional, qualidade de vida e bem-estar subjetivo. Resultados: os resultados encontrados mostraram que o otimismo disposicional não exerce um papel moderador entre os traços de personalidade e a qualidade de vida. Controlando por idade, sexo, nível de escolaridade e percepção da severidade da doença, o efeito dos traços de personalidade na qualidade de vida e no bem-estar subjetivo foi mediado pelo otimismo (parcial e total), expecto para as associações, neuroticismo/abertura à experiência e à saúde física. Conclusão: o otimismo disposicional exerce apenas um papel mediador entre os traços de personalidade e qualidade de vida...

Objective quality of life, optimism, and social-juridical variables, as predictive ones of the subjective quality of life in disarmed Colombian persons; Calidad de vida objetiva, optimismo y variables socio-jurídicas,

Velasco Salamanca, Ruth Marcela; Londoño Pérez, Constanza
Fonte: Universidade do Rosário Publicador: Universidade do Rosário
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/04/2011 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.09%
The goal of this research was to identify predic- tive psychosocial factors of the subjective quality of life in a group of 60 people, with ages between 19 and 57, from both sexes, included in the program of demobilization and social inclusion of the Pro- grama de la Alta Consejería para la Reintegración Social y Económica de Personas y Grupos Alzados en Armas en Colombia. this research was a predic- tive correlational descriptive study. the Question- naire of optimism/Pessimism was used to assess the optimist or pessimist trend, and, for assess the quality of life, these strategies were combined: a home visit to value the objective quality of life, the Analogous scale of subjective Quality of Life to value satisfaction and well-being, and a general format to collect socio-demographic and juridical information. Results show that some variables as perceived health, optimism, educational level, re- ligious believes, objective quality of life, type of demobilization and years spent in the armed group operating outside the law, are associated to better levels of perceived quality of life. The findings and limitations of the study are discussed.  ; La presente investigación tenía por objetivo identificar los factores psicosociales predictivos de la calidad de vida subjetiva en un grupo de 60 personas entre 19 y 57 años de ambos sexos...

Optimism on quality of life in Portuguese chronic patients: moderator/mediator?

Vilhena,Estela; Pais-Ribeiro,José; Silva,Isabel; Pedro,Luísa; Meneses,Rute F.; Cardoso,Helena; Silva,António Martins da; Mendonça,Denisa
Fonte: Associação Médica Brasileira Publicador: Associação Médica Brasileira
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.39%
Objective: optimism is an important variable that has consistently been shown to affect adjustment to quality of life in chronic diseases. This study aims to clarify if dispositional optimism exerts a moderating or a mediating influence on the personality traits-quality of life association, in Portuguese chronic patients. Methods: multiple regression models were used to test the moderation and mediation effects of dispositional optimism in quality of life. A sample of 729 patients was recruited in Portugal's main hospitals and completed self-reported questionnaires assessing socio-demographic and clinical variables, personality, dispositional optimism, quality of life (QoL) and subjective well-being (SWB). Results: the results of the regression models showed that dispositional optimism did not moderate the relationships between personality traits and quality of life. After controlling for gender, age, education level and severity of disease perception, the effects of personality traits on QoL and in SWB were mediated by dispositional optimism (partially and completely), except for the links between neuroticism/openness to experience and physical health. Conclusion: dispositional optimism is more likely to play a mediating...

Unrealistically Optimistic Consumers: a Selective Hypothesis Testing Account for Optimism in Predictions of Future Behavior

Tanner, Robin James
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 473692 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em 21/04/2008 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.45%
Individuals tend to make unrealistically optimistic self assessments about themselves and their future behavior. While little studied in marketing, unrealistic optimism by consumers may have negative consequences for both marketers and consumers. This dissertation proposes and explores a selective hypothesis testing view of unrealistic optimism. Specifically, I propose that consumers adopt the tentative hypothesis that they will behave in an ideal fashion when predicting their future behavior. They then selectively test this hypothesis by accessing information consistent with it, with the ultimate consequence being unrealistically optimistic predictions of future behavior. To validate this theory I use the following experimental paradigm. I have individuals first provide an idealized estimate for the behavior of interest (e.g., In an ideal world, how often would you exercise next week?) and then provide a second estimate (e.g., How often will you exercise next week?). The idea here is that by making the idealized nature of the ideal behavior salient consumers will be less likely to test a hypothesis of ideal behavior when subsequently providing an estimate. In a series of ten studies, I find that prior consideration of idealistic performance does indeed temper optimism in subsequent self-assessments (henceforth post-ideal estimates). Specifically...