Página 1 dos resultados de 1140 itens digitais encontrados em 0.014 segundos

Computer aided automatic detection of malignant lesions in diffuse optical mammography

Busch, David R.; Guo, Wensheng; Choe, Regine; Durduran, Turgut; Feldman, Michael D.; Mies, Carolyn; Rosen, Mark A.; Schnall, Mitchell D.; Czerniecki, Brian J.; Tchou, Julia; DeMichele, Angela; Putt, Mary E.; Yodh, Arjun G.
Fonte: American Association of Physicists in Medicine Publicador: American Association of Physicists in Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.91%
Purpose: Computer aided detection (CAD) data analysis procedures are introduced and applied to derive composite diffuse optical tomography (DOT) signatures of malignancy in human breast tissue. In contrast to previous optical mammography analysis schemes, the new statistical approach utilizes optical property distributions across multiple subjects and across the many voxels of each subject. The methodology is tested in a population of 35 biopsy-confirmed malignant lesions.

Synthesis of Tapered CdS Nanobelts and CdSe Nanowires with Good Optical Property by Hydrogen-Assisted Thermal Evaporation

Wang, Min; Fei, GuangTao
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/07/2009 EN
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45.92%
The tapered CdS nanobelts and CdSe nanowires were prepared by hydrogen-assisted thermal evaporation method. Different supersaturation leads to two different kinds of 1D nanostructures. The PL measurements recorded from the as-prepared tapered CdS nanobelts and CdSe nanowires show only a bandgap emission with relatively narrow full-width half maximum, which means that they possess good optical property. The as-synthesized high-quality tapered CdS nanobelts and CdSe nanowires may be excellent building blocks for photonic devices.

Effect of optical property estimation accuracy on tomographic bioluminescence imaging: simulation of a combined optical–PET (OPET) system

Alexandrakis, George; Rannou, Fernando R; Chatziioannou, Arion F
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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46.08%
Inevitable discrepancies between the mouse tissue optical properties assumed by an experimenter and the actual physiological values may affect the tomographic localization of bioluminescent sources. In a previous work, the simplifying assumption of optically homogeneous tissues led to inaccurate localization of deep sources. Improved results may be obtained if a mouse anatomical map is provided by a high-resolution imaging modality and optical properties are assigned to segmented tissues. In this work, the feasibility of this approach was explored by simulating the effect of different magnitude optical property errors on the image formation process of a combined optical–PET system. Some comparisons were made with corresponding simulations using higher spatial resolution data that are typically attainable by CCD cameras. In addition, simulation results provided insights on some of the experimental conditions that could lead to poor localization of bioluminescent sources. They also provided a rough guide on how accurately tissue optical properties need to be known in order to achieve correct localization of point sources with increasing tissue depth under low background noise conditions.

Target detection and quantification using a hybrid hand-held diffuse optical tomography and photoacoustic tomography system

Kumavor, Patrick D.; Xu, Chen; Aguirre, Andres; Gamelin, John; Ardeshirpour, Yasaman; Tavakoli, Behnoosh; Zanganeh, Saeid; Alqasemi, Umar; Yang, Yi; Zhu, Quing
Fonte: Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Publicador: Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
We present a photoacoustic tomography-guided diffuse optical tomography approach using a hand-held probe for detection and characterization of deeply-seated targets embedded in a turbid medium. Diffuse optical tomography guided by coregistered ultrasound, MRI, and x ray has demonstrated a great clinical potential to overcome lesion location uncertainty and to improve light quantification accuracy. However, due to the different contrast mechanisms, some lesions may not be detectable by a nonoptical modality but yet have high optical contrast. Photoacoustic tomography utilizes a short-pulsed laser beam to diffusively penetrate into tissue. Upon absorption of the light by the target, photoacoustic waves are generated and used to reconstruct, at ultrasound resolution, the optical absorption distribution that reveals optical contrast. However, the robustness of optical property quantification of targets by photoacoustic tomography is complicated because of the wide range of ultrasound transducer sensitivity, the orientation and shape of the targets relative to the ultrasound array, and the uniformity of the laser beam. We show in this paper that the relative optical absorption map provided by photoacoustic tomography can potentially guide the diffuse optical tomography to accurately reconstruct target absorption maps.

Influences of tissue absorption and scattering on diffuse correlation spectroscopy blood flow measurements

Irwin, Daniel; Dong, Lixin; Shang, Yu; Cheng, Ran; Kudrimoti, Mahesh; Stevens, Scott D.; Yu, Guoqiang
Fonte: Optical Society of America Publicador: Optical Society of America
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/06/2011 EN
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46.08%
In this study we evaluate the influences of optical property assumptions on near-infrared diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) flow index measurements. The optical properties, absorption coefficient (µa) and reduced scattering coefficient (µs′), are independently varied using liquid phantoms and measured concurrently with the flow index using a hybrid optical system combining a dual-wavelength DCS flow device with a commercial frequency-domain tissue-oximeter. DCS flow indices are calculated at two wavelengths (785 and 830 nm) using measured µa and µs′ or assumed constant µa and µs′. Inaccurate µs′ assumptions resulted in much greater flow index errors than inaccurate µa. Underestimated/overestimated µs′ from −35%/+175% lead to flow index errors of +110%/−80%, whereas underestimated/overestimated µa from −40%/+150% lead to −20%/+40%, regardless of the wavelengths used. Examination of a clinical study involving human head and neck tumors indicates up to +280% flow index errors resulted from inter-patient optical property variations. These findings suggest that studies involving significant µa and µs′ changes should concurrently measure flow index and optical properties for accurate extraction of blood flow information.

Method for depth-resolved quantitation of optical properties in layered media using spatially modulated quantitative spectroscopy

Saager, Rolf B.; Truong, Alex; Cuccia, David J.; Durkin, Anthony J.
Fonte: Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Publicador: Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.91%
We have demonstrated that spatially modulated quantitative spectroscopy (SMoQS) is capable of extracting absolute optical properties from homogeneous tissue simulating phantoms that span both the visible and near-infrared wavelength regimes. However, biological tissue, such as skin, is highly structured, presenting challenges to quantitative spectroscopic techniques based on homogeneous models. In order to more accurately address the challenges associated with skin, we present a method for depth-resolved optical property quantitation based on a two layer model. Layered Monte Carlo simulations and layered tissue simulating phantoms are used to determine the efficacy and accuracy of SMoQS to quantify layer specific optical properties of layered media. Initial results from both the simulation and experiment show that this empirical method is capable of determining top layer thickness within tens of microns across a physiological range for skin. Layer specific chromophore concentration can be determined to <±10% the actual values, on average, whereas bulk quantitation in either visible or near infrared spectroscopic regimes significantly underestimates the layer specific chromophore concentration and can be confounded by top layer thickness.

Nanofluid optical property characterization: towards efficient direct absorption solar collectors

Taylor, Robert A; Phelan, Patrick E; Otanicar, Todd P; Adrian, Ronald; Prasher, Ravi
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/03/2011 EN
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45.92%
Suspensions of nanoparticles (i.e., particles with diameters < 100 nm) in liquids, termed nanofluids, show remarkable thermal and optical property changes from the base liquid at low particle loadings. Recent studies also indicate that selected nanofluids may improve the efficiency of direct absorption solar thermal collectors. To determine the effectiveness of nanofluids in solar applications, their ability to convert light energy to thermal energy must be known. That is, their absorption of the solar spectrum must be established. Accordingly, this study compares model predictions to spectroscopic measurements of extinction coefficients over wavelengths that are important for solar energy (0.25 to 2.5 μm). A simple addition of the base fluid and nanoparticle extinction coefficients is applied as an approximation of the effective nanofluid extinction coefficient. Comparisons with measured extinction coefficients reveal that the approximation works well with water-based nanofluids containing graphite nanoparticles but less well with metallic nanoparticles and/or oil-based fluids. For the materials used in this study, over 95% of incoming sunlight can be absorbed (in a nanofluid thickness ≥10 cm) with extremely low nanoparticle volume fractions - less than 1 × 10-5...

Feasibility of optical coherence elastography measurements of shear wave propagation in homogeneous tissue equivalent phantoms

Razani, Marjan; Mariampillai, Adrian; Sun, Cuiru; Luk, Timothy W. H.; Yang, Victor X. D.; Kolios, Michael C.
Fonte: Optical Society of America Publicador: Optical Society of America
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/04/2012 EN
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45.91%
In this work, we explored the potential of measuring shear wave propagation using optical coherence elastography (OCE) based on a swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. Shear waves were generated using a 20 MHz piezoelectric transducer (circular element 8.5 mm diameter) transmitting sine-wave bursts of 400 μs, synchronized with the OCT swept source wavelength sweep. The acoustic radiation force (ARF) was applied to two gelatin phantoms (differing in gelatin concentration by weight, 8% vs. 14%). Differential OCT phase maps, measured with and without the ARF, demonstrate microscopic displacement generated by shear wave propagation in these phantoms of different stiffness. We present preliminary results of OCT derived shear wave propagation velocity and modulus, and compare these results to rheometer measurements. The results demonstrate the feasibility of shear wave OCE (SW-OCE) for high-resolution microscopic homogeneous tissue mechanical property characterization.

Multimodal optical studies of single and clustered colloidal quantum dots for the long-term optical property evaluation of quantum dot-based molecular imaging phantoms

Kang, HyeongGon; Clarke, Matthew L.; Lacerda, Silvia H. De Paoli; Karim, Alamgir; Pease, Leonard F.; Hwang, Jeeseong
Fonte: Optical Society of America Publicador: Optical Society of America
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/05/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
Understanding the optical properties of clustered quantum dots (QDs) is essential to the design of QD-based optical phantoms for molecular imaging. Single and clustered core/shell colloidal QDs of dimers, trimers, and tetramers are self-assembled, separated, and preferentially collected using electrospray differential mobility analysis (ES-DMA) with electrostatic deposition. Multimodal optical characterization and analysis of their dynamical photoluminescence (PL) properties enables the long-term evaluation of the physicochemical and optical properties of QDs in a single or a clustered state. A multimodal time-correlated spectroscopic confocal microscope capable of simultaneously measuring the time evolution of PL intensity fluctuation, PL lifetime, and emission spectra reveals the long-term dynamic optical properties of interacting QDs in individual dimeric clusters of QDs. This new method will benefit research into the quantitative interpretation of fluorescence intensity and lifetime results in QD-based molecular imaging techniques. The process of photooxidation leads to coupling of the QDs in a dimer, leading to unique optical properties when compared to an isolated QD. These results guide the design and evaluation of QD-based phantom materials for the validation of the PL measurements for quantitative molecular imaging of biological samples labeled with QD probes.

Optical property measurements establish the feasibility of photodynamic therapy as a minimally invasive intervention for tumors of the kidney

Baran, Timothy M.; Wilson, Jeremy D.; Mitra, Soumya; Yao, Jorge L.; Messing, Edward M.; Waldman, David L.; Foster, Thomas H.
Fonte: Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers Publicador: Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.93%
We measured the optical properties of freshly excised kidneys with renal parenchymal tumors to assess the feasibility of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in these patients. Kidneys were collected from 16 patients during surgical nephrectomies. Spatially resolved, white light, steady-state diffuse reflectance measurements were performed on normal and neoplastic tissue identified by a pathologist. Reflectance data were fit using a radiative transport model to obtain absorption (μa) and transport scattering coefficients (μs′), which define a characteristic light propagation distance, δ. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of light propagation from cylindrical diffusing fibers were run using the optical properties extracted from each of the kidneys. Interpretable spectra were obtained from 14 kidneys. Optical properties of human renal cancers exhibit significant inter-lesion heterogeneity. For all diagnoses, however, there is a trend toward increased light penetration at longer wavelengths. For renal cell carcinomas (RCC), mean values of δ increase from 1.28 to 2.78 mm as the PDT treatment wavelength is increased from 630 to 780 nm. MC simulations of light propagation from interstitial optical fibers show that fluence distribution in tumors is significantly improved at 780 versus 630 nm. Our results support the feasibility of PDT in selected renal cancer patients...

Determination of optical properties by interstitial white light spectroscopy using a custom fiber optic probe

Baran, Timothy M.; Fenn, Michael C.; Foster, Thomas H.
Fonte: Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers Publicador: Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.91%
We demonstrate interstitial recovery of absorption and scattering coefficients using a custom optical probe and a Monte Carlo (MC)–based recovery algorithm. The probe consists of six side-firing spectroscopy fibers contained in a 1.1-mm outer diameter cladding, with each fiber having a different axial and angular position on the probe. Broadband white light is delivered by one of the fibers and is detected steady-state by the remaining fibers. These spatially and spectrally resolved data are analyzed using a MC-based fitting algorithm in order to extract the local optical properties. The technique was verified in tissue-simulating phantoms consisting of Intralipid-20% as a scatterer and either manganese meso-tetra (4-sulfanatophenyl) porphine or intact human erythrocytes as an absorber. Absorption coefficients were recovered with a mean error of 9% and scattering coefficients were recovered with a mean error of 19%, whereas the hemoglobin oxygen saturation was recovered with a mean error of 12%. These results demonstrate the feasibility of optical property recovery for situations in which surface-contact spectroscopy is not a possibility, and where only a single probe can be inserted into the tissue.

Rapid replication and facile modulation of subwavelength antireflective polymer film using injection nanomolding and optical property of multilayer coatings

Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Peng, Cheng-Chang; Huang, Chieh-Tse
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/10/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.92%
A rapid, cost-effective and high-throughput process for nanotexturing subwavelength structures with high uniformity using the polycarbonate (PC) is realized via injection nanomolding. The process enables the precise control of nanohole array (NHA) surface topography (nanohole depth, diameter, and periodicity) over large areas thereby presenting a highly versatile platform for fabricating substrates with user-defined, functional performance. Specifically, the optical property of the PC substrates were systematically characterized and tuned through the modulation of the depths of NHA. The aspect ratio submicron holes can be easily modulated and experimentally proven by simply adjusting the molding temperature. The nanotextured depths were reliably fabricated in the range of 200 to 400 nm with a period of approximately 700 nm. The fabricated PC films can reduce the reflectivity from an original bare film of 10.2% and 8.9% to 1.4% and 2.1% with 400-nm depth of nanoholes at the wavelength of 400 and 550 nm, respectively. Compared with conventional moth-like nanostructures with nanopillar arrays with heights adjustable only by an etching process, this paper proposes a facile route with submicron holes to achieve a similar antireflective function...

Reliable recovery of the optical properties of multi-layer turbid media by iteratively using a layered diffusion model at multiple source-detector separations

Liao, Yu-Kai; Tseng, Sheng-Hao
Fonte: Optical Society of America Publicador: Optical Society of America
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/02/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
Accurately determining the optical properties of multi-layer turbid media using a layered diffusion model is often a difficult task and could be an ill-posed problem. In this study, an iterative algorithm was proposed for solving such problems. This algorithm employed a layered diffusion model to calculate the optical properties of a layered sample at several source-detector separations (SDSs). The optical properties determined at various SDSs were mutually referenced to complete one round of iteration and the optical properties were gradually revised in further iterations until a set of stable optical properties was obtained. We evaluated the performance of the proposed method using frequency domain Monte Carlo simulations and found that the method could robustly recover the layered sample properties with various layer thickness and optical property settings. It is expected that this algorithm can work with photon transport models in frequency and time domain for various applications, such as determination of subcutaneous fat or muscle optical properties and monitoring the hemodynamics of muscle.

Optical coherence tomography detection of shear wave propagation in inhomogeneous tissue equivalent phantoms and ex-vivo carotid artery samples

Razani, Marjan; Luk, Timothy W.H.; Mariampillai, Adrian; Siegler, Peter; Kiehl, Tim-Rasmus; Kolios, Michael C.; Yang, Victor X.D.
Fonte: Optical Society of America Publicador: Optical Society of America
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/02/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.91%
In this work, we explored the potential of measuring shear wave propagation using optical coherence elastography (OCE) in an inhomogeneous phantom and carotid artery samples based on a swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. Shear waves were generated using a piezoelectric transducer transmitting sine-wave bursts of 400 μs duration, applying acoustic radiation force (ARF) to inhomogeneous phantoms and carotid artery samples, synchronized with a swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) imaging system. The phantoms were composed of gelatin and titanium dioxide whereas the carotid artery samples were embedded in gel. Differential OCT phase maps, measured with and without the ARF, detected the microscopic displacement generated by shear wave propagation in these phantoms and samples of different stiffness. We present the technique for calculating tissue mechanical properties by propagating shear waves in inhomogeneous tissue equivalent phantoms and carotid artery samples using the ARF of an ultrasound transducer, and measuring the shear wave speed and its associated properties in the different layers with OCT phase maps. This method lays the foundation for future in-vitro and in-vivo studies of mechanical property measurements of biological tissues such as vascular tissues...

Shape-parameterized diffuse optical tomography holds promise for sensitivity enhancement of fluorescence molecular tomography

Wu, Linhui; Wan, Wenbo; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Zhongxing; Li, Jiao; Zhang, Limin; Zhao, Huijuan; Gao, Feng
Fonte: Optical Society of America Publicador: Optical Society of America
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/09/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.93%
A fundamental approach to enhancing the sensitivity of the fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) is to incorporate diffuse optical tomography (DOT) to modify the light propagation modeling. However, the traditional voxel-based DOT has been involving a severely ill-posed inverse problem and cannot retrieve the optical property distributions with the acceptable quantitative accuracy and spatial resolution. Although, with the aid of an anatomical imaging modality, the structural-prior-based DOT method with either the hard- or soft-prior scheme holds promise for in vivo acquiring the optical background of tissues, the low robustness of the hard-prior scheme to the segmentation error and inferior performance of the soft-prior one in the quantitative accuracy limit its further application. We propose in this paper a shape-parameterized DOT method for not only effectively determining the regional optical properties but potentially achieving reasonable structural amelioration, lending itself to FMT for comparably improved recovery of fluorescence distribution.

Ex vivo investigation of tissue optical properties using an optical fibre sensor

Warncke, Dennis
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; ul_theses_dissertations
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.98%
peer-reviewed; Biomedical research has become a strong growing sector in recent years. Moreover the interdisciplinary background involves novel possibilities and measurement techniques. Light propagation in turbid media like human tissue is a central aspect to many medical and biomedical applications. This is a very complex process and depends on parameters, which are called optical properties. The spatial distribution of light is determined by those optical properties. A major difficulty in this field can be explained by the forward and inverse problem. There are several theories and approximations that are used to describe the propagation of light in scattering media. Those approaches are often applied to get qualitative results that can be helpful in fields like laser surgery, photodynamic therapy and diagnostic purposes. This thesis presents the development of an optical fibre based system that uses diffuse reflectance data to determine the optical properties of tissue. The optical properties obtained are intended to be used as indicators in the characterization of burn wounds. Since the absorption of light by tissue has a minimum in the therapeutic window, which is situated in the visible to near-infrared region (600-1000 nm)...

The Effects of Multi-exciton Interactions on Optical Cavity Emission

Qi, XIAODONG
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
This thesis presents a theoretical study of the collective effects of a large number of photon emitters coupled to optical cavities. The ensemble effects are accounted for by considering both the light emitting and scattering by the photon emitters. It suggests that, to correctly estimate the emitters ensemble coupled cavity mode, it is necessary to consider the existence of the excited excitons ensemble and optical pumps. This thesis shows that optical pumps can excite more excitons and scattering channels as pumping power increases. The change in exciton population can lead to comprehensive spectral behaviors by changing the cavity spectral shapes, bandwidth and resonance positions, through the inhomogeneous broadening and frequencies repulsion effects of collective emissions. The existence of the exciton ensemble can also enhance optical coupling effects between target excitons and the cavity mode. The target exciton, which has a relatively large coupling strength and is close to the cavity peak, can affect the properties of the background dipoles and their coupling to the cavity. All these collective effects are sensitive to the number, the resonances distribution, and the optical properties of the background excitons in the frequency domain and the property of the target exciton...

Optical Characterization of Ge-As-Se Glasses Containing High Content of Germanium

Zha, Congji; Luther-Davies, Barry; Wang, Rongping; Smith, Anita; Prasad, Amrita; Jarvis, Ruth; Madden, Steve; Rode, Andrei V
Fonte: Conference Organising Committee Publicador: Conference Organising Committee
Tipo: Conference paper
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.96%
Optical properties of chalcogenide glasses, GexAS ySe100-x-y (33≤ × ≤39 and 12≤ y ≤16) were studied by using Raman, UV-Vis-IR and PDS spectroscopic techniques, and the relationships between structure, composition and optical property were discuss

Photonic MOS Based on "Optical Property Inversion"

Lu, Zhaolin; Shi, Kaifeng
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/04/2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.02%
Most dielectric materials have very weak electro-optic properties, whereas the optical properties of some plasmonic materials may be greatly tuned, especially around their plasma frequency, where dielectric constant is transiting between positive ("dielectric state") and negative ("metallic state") values. In this report, we will review some of our recent work on electro-optical modulation and introduce a new concept, photonic MOS based on "optical property inversion". This concept may provide inspiration for the development of nanophotonic devices. Some of the material was adapted from unfunded NSF proposals.; Comment: 19 pages, 5 figures

Exploiting Optical Contrasts for Cervical Precancer Diagnosis via Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy

Chang, Vivide Tuan Chyan
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2010
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.98%

Among women worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer with an incidence rate of 15.3 per 100,000 and a mortality rate of 7.8 per 100,000 women. This is largely attributed to the lack of infrastructure and resources in the developing countries to support the organized screening and diagnostic programs that are available to women in developed nations. Hence, there is a critical global need for a screening and diagnostic paradigm that is effective in low-resource settings. Various strategies are described to design an optical spectroscopic sensor capable of collecting reliable diffuse reflectance data to extract quantitative optical contrasts for cervical cancer screening and diagnosis.

A scalable Monte Carlo based optical toolbox can be used to extract absorption and scattering contrasts from diffuse reflectance acquired in the cervix in vivo. [Total Hb] was shown to increase significantly in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2+), clinically the most important tissue grade to identify, compared to normal and low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 1). Scattering was not significantly decreased in CIN 2+ versus normal and CIN 1, but was significantly decreased in CIN relative to normal cervical tissues.

Immunohistochemistry via anti-CD34...