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Antigen-presenting cells in draining lymph nodes of goats repeatedly infested by the Cayenne tick Amblyomma cajennense nymphs

MONTEIRO, Gaby Ermelindo Roberto; BECHARA, Gervasio Henrique; FRANZIN, Alessandra Maria; SANTOS, Isabel Kinney Ferreira de Miranda
Fonte: SPRINGER Publicador: SPRINGER
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.15%
Resistance to tick feeding has been previously shown to be an acquired, immunologically mediated phenomenon in goats, associated with cutaneous basophilia to nymphs of Amblyomma cajennense, the Cayenne tick, after repeated infestations. On the other hand, it is well known that antigen-presenting cells (APCs) play an important role in the host immune reaction to tick infestations. The most able APCs for Th cells are the well defined dendritic cells, mononuclear phagocytes and B-lymphocytes. Immunohistochemical analysis of draining lymph nodes of goats repeatedly infested with nymphs of the ixodid tick A. cajennense to search for APCs was done. Pre-scapular lymph nodes draining the tick attachment sites were collected 15 days after both the first and third infestations. Tick infestations resulted in increased number of CD21(+) B lymphocytes in lymph nodes after the tertiary infestation. However, the number of CD11b(+) and CD11c(+) cells were not altered after the successive infestations. Lower numbers of CD11c(+) cells had infiltrated lymph nodes responsible for draining the tick infested skin. These findings suggest that acquired immunity of goats against nymphs of A. cajennense is possibly established by B lymphocytes during the first infestation and that APCs may play a key role in this mechanism.; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico-CNPq; Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior-CAPES; European Commission[510561]

Nymphs of the genus Amblyomma (Acari: Ixodidae) of Brazil: descriptions, redescriptions, and identification key

MARTINS, Thiago F.; ONOFRIO, Valeria C.; BARROS-BATTESTI, Darci M.; LABRUNA, Marcelo B.
Fonte: ELSEVIER GMBH, URBAN & FISCHER VERLAG Publicador: ELSEVIER GMBH, URBAN & FISCHER VERLAG
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.05%
Together with the larval stage, the nymphal stage of ticks of the genus Amblyomma are the most aggressive ticks for humans entering areas inhabited by wildlife and some domestic animals in Brazil. However, due to the absence of morphological descriptions of the nymphal stage of most Brazilian Amblyomma species, plus the lack of an identification key, little or nothing is known about the life history of Amblyomma spp. nymphs in the country. In the present study, morphological description of the nymphal stage, illustrating important external characters through scanning electron microscopy, is provided for nymphs of 15 Amblyomma species that occur in Brazil, for which the nymphal stage had never been described: A. aureolatum, A. auricularium, A. calcaratum, A. coelebs, A. fuscum, A. humerale, A. incisum, A. latepunctatum, A. naponense, A. nodosum, A. ovate, A. pacae, A. pseudoconcolor, A. scalpturatum, A. varium. In addition, the nymphal stage of 12 Amblyomma species, which had been previously described, are redescribed: A. brasiliense, A. cajennense, A. dissimile, A. dubitatum, A. longirostre, A. oblongoguttatum, A. parked, A. parvum, A. romitii, A. rotundatum, A. tigrinum, A. triste. The descriptions and redescriptions totalized 27 species. Only 2 species (A. geayi...

Caracterização de isolados de Bacillus thuringiensis patogênicos à Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae); Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis isolates pathogenic to Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

Dorta, Sílvia de Oliveira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/01/2014 PT
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27.28%
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) é uma bactéria entomopatogênica encontrada em várias partes do mundo e tem a capacidade de produzir cristais durante a fase estacionária do crescimento. Esses cristais são toxinas compostas por proteínas ativas contra uma ampla variedade de fases imaturas de insetos. As toxinas do Bt têm sido usadas como bioinseticidas por décadas no controle de insetos das ordens Coleoptera, Lepidoptera e Diptera, e algumas toxinas já foram selecionadas como efetivas contra ácaros, nematoides e insetos sugadores de floema da ordem Hemiptera, como os afídeos. Recentemente, foi comprovada a patogenicidade de três isolados de Bt a outro inseto dessa ordem, o psilídeo Diaphorina citri. Esse psilídeo é vetor das bactérias Candidatus Liberibacter spp., agentes causais da principal doença dos citros: o Huanglongbing ou HLB. A descoberta da capacidade endofítica de Bt em plantas de diferentes espécies vegetais abriu perspectivas para novos estudos usando o Bt para controle de insetos sugadores, como a D. citri. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito patogênico de cada toxina Cry ou Cyt presente nestes três isolados através de isolados de Bt recombinantes expressando as toxinas individualmente. Foram montados bioensaios para confirmar a taxa de mortalidade causada por isolados de Bt contra ninfas de D. citri. Os bioensaios foram feitos usando cinco plantas de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) e dez ninfas de 3º ínstar de D. citri por planta...

Antigen-presenting cells in draining lymph nodes of goats repeatedly infested by the Cayenne tick Amblyomma cajennense nymphs

Roberto Monteiro, Gaby Ermelindo; Bechara, Gervasio Henrique; Franzin, Alessandra Maria; Ferreira de Miranda Santos, Isabel Kinney
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 63-69
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.15%
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Resistance to tick feeding has been previously shown to be an acquired, immunologically mediated phenomenon in goats, associated with cutaneous basophilia to nymphs of Amblyomma cajennense, the Cayenne tick, after repeated infestations. on the other hand, it is well known that antigen-presenting cells (APCs) play an important role in the host immune reaction to tick infestations. The most able APCs for Th cells are the well defined dendritic cells, mononuclear phagocytes and B-lymphocytes. Immunohistochemical analysis of draining lymph nodes of goats repeatedly infested with nymphs of the ixodid tick A. cajennense to search for APCs was done. Pre-scapular lymph nodes draining the tick attachment sites were collected 15 days after both the first and third infestations. Tick infestations resulted in increased number of CD21(+) B lymphocytes in lymph nodes after the tertiary infestation. However, the number of CD11b(+) and CD11c(+) cells were not altered after the successive infestations. Lower numbers of CD11c(+) cells had infiltrated lymph nodes responsible for draining the tick infested skin. These findings suggest that acquired immunity of goats against nymphs of A. cajennense is possibly established by B lymphocytes during the first infestation and that APCs may play a key role in this mechanism.

Guinea Pigs Develop Cutaneous Basophilia after Repeated Infestations by Nymphs of the Tick Amblyomma triste

Otavio, Flavio S.; Bechara, Gervasio Henrique; Sparagano, OAE; Maillard, JC; Figueroa, JV
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Publicador: Blackwell Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 226-229
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.28%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); This study investigated the development of resistance in guinea pigs to nymphs of Amblyomma triste ticks after repeated infestations. Guinea pigs were infested thrice, at 30-day intervals, with 30 nymphs of A. triste per animal per infestation. Acquisition of resistance was evaluated by determining: nymph yielding rate, engorgement period, and weight. Skin biopsies of tick bite sites were collected at 24, 48, and 96 h after tick attachment for inflammatory cell counts. Engorged nymphs weighed 5.53 mg +/- 1.9 in re-infested hosts (56.6% less than in primary infestation) and took 6.9 days +/- 2.16 to feed in the third infestation (14.5% more than in the first infestation). Guinea pigs yielded 78% +/- 7.2 of nymphs in the re-infestation (11.6% less than in the primary infestation). In addition, a marked increase in basophil influx was observed from the first infestation onward; 69% of infiltrated cells were basophils in re-infested hosts 24 h after tick attachment. No basophils were seen at this time in primary infested animals. That number increased to 84.7% 48 h post attachment in re-infested hosts (73.2% more than in the primary infested ones) and decreased markedly 96 h post attachment in both groups (2.6% and 1% of basophils in the third and first infestation...

Sexual distinction between 5th instar nymphs of six species of Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae)

Rosa, João Aristeu da; Barata, José Maria Soares; Barelli, Nilso; Santos, Jair Licio Ferreira; Belda Neto, Francisco Miguel
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 257-264
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.22%
The aim of this paper is to present the analysis of sexual morphological differences observed in 5th instar nymphs of the following species: Panstrongylus megistus; Rhodnius neglectus; Triatoma brasiliensis; T. infestans; T. matogrosensis and T. tibiamaculata. Male and female nymphs were examined and photographed with a Scanning Electron Microscope. The 9th segment dimensions of dorsal and ventral faces were determined through a Profile Projector. Results and statistical analysis showed significant differences: the 9th sternite is significantly broader in male than female nymphs, while in five species; tergites in female nymphs are broad and in male are narrow.

Morphological characterization of the nymphs rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae). Description of the testes, integument, malpighian tubules, and midgut on the detachment day

de Oliveira, Patricia Rosa; Calligaris, Izabela Braggiao; Roma, Gislaine Cristina; Bechara, Gervasio Henrique; Camargo Mathias, Maria Izabel
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 727-736
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.05%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Processo FAPESP: 10/50827-0; This study presents the morpho-histological and histochemical characterization of the testes, integument, Malpighian tubules, and midgut of engorged Rhipicephalus sanguineus nymphs on the detachment day, showing the morphological and physiological characteristics to this phase in the life cycle of these individuals. The testis is constituted by germinative cells (only spermatogonia) with large, round-shaped and strongly stained nuclei which are organized into cysts by a thin layer of somatic cells. The integument consists of a cuticle subdivided into epicuticle (lipoprotein) and procuticle (glycoproteic), and a layer of epithelial cells which present glycolipoprotein elements. The procuticle presents two distinct regions: the exocuticle (next to the epicuticle) and the endocuticle (next to the epithelial layer). The Malpighian tubules present a simple epithelium with small flat and/or cubic cells, which form its wall and delimitates a lumen full of lipoprotein material. The midgut consists of an epithelial wall formed by two types of digestive cells, spent cells and empty digest cells...

SEXUAL DISTINCTION BETWEEN 5TH INSTAR NYMPHS OF 6 SPECIES OF TRIATOMINAE (HEMIPTERA, REDUVIIDAE)

Darosa, J. A.; Barata, JMS; Barelli, N.; Santos, JLF; Neto, FMB
Fonte: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 257-264
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.22%
The aim of this paper is to present the analysis of sexual morphological differences observed in 5th instar nymphs of the following species: Panstrongylus megistus; Rhodnius neglectus; Triatoma brasiliensis; T. infestans; T. matogrossensis and T. tibiamaculata. Male and female nymphs were examined and photographed with a Scanning Electron Microscope. The 9th segment dimensions of dorsal and ventral faces were determined through a Profile Projector. Results and statistical analysis showed significant differences: the 9th sternite is significantly broader in male than in female nymphs, while in five species, tergites in female nymphs are broad and in male are narrow.

Nymphs in foraging populations of Coptotermes gestroi (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

Albino, Erica; Costa-Leonardo, Ana Maria
Fonte: Brill Academic Publishers Publicador: Brill Academic Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 427-439
ENG
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27.28%
Food searching activity by subterranean termites involves workers, soldiers and nymphs. The present study was carried out for elucidating aspects of nymph foraging behavior in Brazil where the species Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann, 1896) is exotic. Monitoring was conducted through making regular collections from seven different colonies for a period of 22 months, which exhibited the production of forager nymphs all year round. A biometric study was conducted to determine the instars of the forager nymphs collected. The identification of male and female nymphs was also conducted for establishing the sex proportion, which was slightly male-biased. From the 533 forager nymphs collected, 34 were from the 3rd instar, 280 from the 4th instar and 219 from 5th instar. The results suggest that 3rd instar nymphs were not too active in the foraging activities because they were collected only in one colony and in an insignificant quantity. (C) Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2011.

Distribuição espacial de Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) e sua relação com a expansão do greening em laranjeira Valência, utilizando geoestatística

Leal, Renata Moreira
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: viii, 97 f. : il.
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.32%
Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Pós-graduação em Agronomia (Produção Vegetal) - FCAV; O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar a distribuição espacial de ninfas e adultos de D. citri e sua relação com a expansão do greening em duas áreas cultivadas com laranjeiras, uma de quatro e outra de 12 anos de idade, de uma propriedade agrícola localizada no município de Matão-SP, utilizando geoestatística. Para determinar o número de psilídeos adultos, de ninfas e de plantas com greening foram realizadas avaliações periódicas no período de dezembro/2005 a novembro/2007. Realizou-se uma análise descritiva dos dados e, para verificar a distribuição espacial de adultos e ninfas de D. citri e das plantas com greening, utilizou-se a metodologia geoestatística, ajustando semivariogramas e criando mapas através de interpolação por krigagem. A maior incidência de adultos e ninfas de D. citri ocorreu no período de primavera e verão. A área com plantas de quatro anos de idade apresentou maior incidência de adultos e ninfas de D. citri quando comparada com a área com plantas de 12 anos de idade. A distribuição espacial de adultos e ninfas de D. citri e das plantas com greening foi agregada...

Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs: An ultrastructural study of the integument and midgut

Oliveira, Patricia Rosa de; Calligaris, Izabela Braggiao; Bechara, Gervasio Henrique; Camargo Mathias, Maria Izabel
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 834-840
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.05%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Processo FAPESP: 10/50827-0; This is an ultrastructural study of two important organs of ticks: the integument, covering the body and involved in the molting process, and the midgut, the first organ to have contact with the ingested host blood. The integument of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato freshly engorged nymphs consists of a layer of epidermal cells rich in organelles and a cuticle, subdivided in epicuticle and procuticle. The latter presents two distinct regions: the exocuticle (with several pore canals) and the endocuticle (secreted in highly organized overlaid lamellae). The midgut of R. sanguineus sensu lato freshly engorged nymphs consists of an epithelial wall formed by two types of cells: the generative cells, with few organelles; and the digestive cells, with several endosomes, digestive vacuoles, hematin residual bodies, and small drops of lipid. (C) 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

Sexual distinction between 5th instar nymphs of six species of Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae)

Rosa,João Aristeu da; Barata,José Maria Soares; Barelli,Nilso; Santos,Jair Licio Ferreira; Belda Neto,Francisco Miguel
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/1992 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.22%
The aim of this paper is to present the analysis of sexual morphological differences observed in 5th instar nymphs of the following species: Panstrongylus megistus; Rhodnius neglectus; Triatoma brasiliensis; T. infestans; T. matogrosensis and T. tibiamaculata. Male and female nymphs were examined and photographed with a Scanning Electron Microscope. The 9th segment dimensions of dorsal and ventral faces were determined through a Profile Projector. Results and statistical analysis showed significant differences: the 9th sternite is significantly broader in male than female nymphs, while in five species; tergites in female nymphs are broad and in male are narrow.

Prognosing the sex of adults of Amblyomma auricularium through evaluating the biological parameters of engorged nymphs

Pinheiro,Michele da Costa; Sá,Iwine Joyce Barbosa de; Ribeiro,Carla Carolina Dias Uzedo; Martins,Camila Dantas; Raia,Vanessa de Almeida; Famadas,Kátia Maria
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.32%
Maintaining tick colonies under laboratory condition, as well as carrying out experimental studies on these arthropods may be more successful with better knowledge of some basic biological parameters. In this study, we evaluated how the weight, engorgement period and premolt period of Amblyomma auricularium nymphs (N=600) correlated with the sex of the adults that subsequently emerged. The experiment was carried out in the W.O. Neitz Parasitological Research Station, Ixodology Laboratory of the Department of Animal Parasitology, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, located in Seropédica, state of Rio de Janeiro. The average weight of the nymphs was 5.1±1.51mg among those that originated males and 8.2±2.5mg among those that originated females. The engorgement period for the nymphs that originated males was 8.3±1.5days while it was longer for the nymphs that originated females, with an average of 8.8±1.8days to complete their diet. The premolt period was shorter for nymphs that originated males (17.2±0.93days) than for nymphs that originated females (17.7±1.00days). Despite an area of overlapping between the weights of engorged nymphs that originated adult males and females, this is the most reliable parameter for predicting the sex of adults of A. auricularium.

Horizontal and vertical movements of host-seeking Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs in a hardwood forest

Lane, Robert S.; Mun, Jeomhee; Stubbs, Harrison A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.38%
The nymph of the western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus) is an important bridging vector of the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) to humans in the far-western United States. The previously unknown dispersal capabilities of this life stage were studied in relation to logs, tree trunks, and adjacent leaf-litter areas in a mixed hardwood forest using mark-release-recapture methods. In two spatially and temporally well-spaced trials involving logs, the estimated mean distances that nymphs dispersed ranged from ≈0.04 to 0.20 m/day on logs vs 0.11 to 0.72 m/day in litter. Prior to recapture in either trial and within the confines of the sampling grids, the greatest estimated dispersal distances by individual nymphs released on logs, and in litter 0.5 m or 1.5 m from logs, were 2.4, 3.0, and 3.0 m, respectively. Nymphs released on logs or litter tended to remain within the same biotopes in which they were freed while host-seeking. In two simultaneous trials involving trunks spaced close-at-hand, nymphs released at the trunk/litter interface on all four aspects collectively dispersed a mean of 0.353 m/day on trunks vs 0.175 m/day in litter. In either trial, the greatest distances that recaptured nymphs climbed trunks, or dispersed in litter in an encircling 3-m grid...

A spatially-explicit model of acarological risk of exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi-infected Ixodes pacificus nymphs in northwestern California based on woodland type, temperature, and water vapor

Eisen, Rebecca J.; Eisen, Lars; Girard, Yvette A.; Fedorova, Natalia; Mun, Jeomhee; Slikas, Beth; Leonhard, Sarah; Kitron, Uriel; Lane, Robert S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/03/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.38%
In the far-western United States, the nymphal stage of the western black-legged tick, Ixodes pacificus, has been implicated as the primary vector to humans of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (hereinafter referred to as B. burgdorferi), the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis in North America. In the present study, we sought to determine if infection prevalence with B. burgdorferi in I. pacificus nymphs and the density of infected nymphs differ between dense-woodland types within Mendocino County, California, and to develop and evaluate a spatially-explicit model for density of infected nymphs in dense woodlands within this high-incidence area for Lyme borreliosis. In total, 4.9% (264) of 5431 I. pacificus nymphs tested for the presence of B. burgdorferi were infected. Among the 78 sampling sites, infection prevalence ranged from 0 to 22% and density of infected nymphs from 0 to 2.04 per 100 m2. Infection prevalence was highest in woodlands dominated by hardwoods (6.2%) and lowest for redwood (1.9%) and coastal pine (0%). Density of infected nymphs also was higher in hardwood-dominated woodlands than in conifer-dominated ones that included redwood or pine. Our spatial risk model, which yielded an overall accuracy of 85%, indicated that warmer areas with less variation between maximum and minimum monthly water vapor in the air were more likely to include woodlands with elevated acarological risk of exposure to infected nymphs. We found that 37% of dense woodlands in the county were predicted to pose an elevated risk of exposure to infected nymphs...

Behavioral, Ultrastructural and Chemical Studies on the Honeydew and Waxy Secretions by Nymphs and Adults of the Asian Citrus Psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

Ammar, El-Desouky; Alessandro, Rocco; Shatters Jr, Robert G.; Hall, David G.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/06/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.35%
The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is the primary vector of the bacterium causing citrus huanglongbing (citrus greening), the most serious disease of citrus worldwide. Psyllids and other hemipterans produce large amounts of honeydew, which has been used previously as an indicator of phloem sap composition and insect feeding or metabolism. Behavioral, ultrastructural and chemical studies on ACP, its honeydew and waxy secretions showed important differences between nymphs, males and females, and suggested some mechanisms by which the psyllids, especially nymphs and adult females, can minimize their contamination with honeydew excretions. The anal opening in ACP, near the posterior end of the abdomen, is on the ventral side in nymphs and on the dorsal side in adult males and females. Video recordings showed that adult males produce clear sticky droplets of honeydew gently deposited behind their body on the leaf surface, whereas adult females produce whitish honeydew pellets powerfully propelled away from the female body, probably to get their excretions away from eggs and newly hatched nymphs. ACP nymphs produce long ribbons or tubes of honeydew that frequently stay attached to the exuviae after molting...

Different Populations of Blacklegged Tick Nymphs Exhibit Differences in Questing Behavior That Have Implications for Human Lyme Disease Risk

Arsnoe, Isis M.; Hickling, Graham J.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; McElreath, Richard; Tsao, Jean I.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/05/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.35%
Animal behavior can have profound effects on pathogen transmission and disease incidence. We studied the questing (= host-seeking) behavior of blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) nymphs, which are the primary vectors of Lyme disease in the eastern United States. Lyme disease is common in northern but not in southern regions, and prior ecological studies have found that standard methods used to collect host-seeking nymphs in northern regions are unsuccessful in the south. This led us to hypothesize that there are behavior differences between northern and southern nymphs that alter how readily they are collected, and how likely they are to transmit the etiological agent of Lyme disease to humans. To examine this question, we compared the questing behavior of I. scapularis nymphs originating from one northern (Lyme disease endemic) and two southern (non-endemic) US regions at field sites in Wisconsin, Rhode Island, Tennessee, and Florida. Laboratory-raised uninfected nymphs were monitored in circular 0.2 m2 arenas containing wooden dowels (mimicking stems of understory vegetation) for 10 (2011) and 19 (2012) weeks. The probability of observing nymphs questing on these stems (2011), and on stems, on top of leaf litter, and on arena walls (2012) was much greater for northern than for southern origin ticks in both years and at all field sites (19.5 times greater in 2011; 3.6–11.6 times greater in 2012). Our findings suggest that southern origin I. scapularis nymphs rarely emerge from the leaf litter...

Secondary Kill of Adult Male German Cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) Via Cannibalism of Nymphs Fed Toxic Baits

Gahlhoff, J. E.; Miller, D. M.; Koehler, P. G.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.35%
Five commercially available bait formulations were evaluated for primary kill of 1st- and 2nd-instar German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.), and secondary kill of adult male German cockroaches via cannibalism of bait-fed nymphs. Chlorpyrifos and fipronil baits killed 1st- and 2nd-instar cockroaches significantly faster than hydramethylnon, boric acid, or abamectin baits. Secondary kill was observed for all baits tested. Adults that consumed bait-treated nymphs had significantly higher mortality than those fed untreated nymphs. The LT50 values calculated for secondary kill of adult male cockroaches were 1.84 d for adults consuming fipronil-fed nymphs, 6.69 d for hydramethylnon-fed nymphs, 7.21 d for boric acid-fed nymphs, 7.94 d for abamectin-fed nymphs, and 8.48 d for chlorpyrifos-fed nymphs. Adult LT50 values for boric acid, abamectin, and chlorpyrifos were not significantly different. Because secondary kill was observed for all bait formulations tested, it is possible that the importance of toxicant transmission via cannibalism has been underestimated in laboratory and field evaluations.

Influence of temperature and relative humidity on the moulting success of Amblyomma limbatum and Aponomma hydrosauri (Acari: Ixodidae) larvae and nymphs

Chilton, Neil B.; Andrews, Ross Hector; Bull, Christopher Michael
Fonte: Pergamon-Elsevier Science Publicador: Pergamon-Elsevier Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2000 EN
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This study compared the duration of the moulting periods of engorged larvae and nymphs of the ixodid ticks, Amblyomma limbatum and Aponomma hydrosauri, at different temperature/relative humidity regimes, and examined the relationships between the engorged weight of ticks and their weights after moulting. The results showed that for each species, there was a significant relationship between the weights of unfed nymphs and engorged larvae, and the weights of unfed adults and engorged nymphs. The weight of engorged nymphs was also a good indicator of their sex, with female ticks having heavier weights as engorged nymphs. Temperature and relative humidity had a marked effect on the moulting success of engorged ticks of both species. Aponomma hydrosauri larvae and nymphs were able to moult at lower temperatures than Amb. limbatum but most ticks, except Ap. hydrosauri larvae, failed to moult at 13°C. Additionally, there was a marked decrease in the pre-moult times of ticks at higher temperatures, with larvae taking less time to moult than nymphs. At temperatures greater than 21°C, Amb. limbatum took less time to moult than Ap. hydrosauri but this interspecific difference was less marked for nymphs. The interspecific differences in the responses of engorged larvae and nymphs to different temperatures and relative humidities correlated with interspecific differences in off-host behaviour and with the different climates the two species experience throughout most of their distributional range.; http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00207519; Copyright © 2000 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

Spatial distribution of Plecoptera nymphs in streams of a mountainous area of Central Brazil

BISPO,P. C.; FROEHLICH,C. G.; OLIVEIRA,L. G.
Fonte: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia Publicador: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2002 EN
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In this paper the spatial distribution of Plecoptera nymphs in the Almas' River basin, Pirenópolis, GO, was studied. Two Surber samples, each comprising 20 sampling units and totalling 2 m², were taken in each of the 13 stations, one during the rainy season (January 1994) and the second during the dry season (July 1994). In 5 of these stations, monthly samplings were made from June 1993 to July 1994; in these, temperature, velocity, discharge, electrical conductivity and pH were measured. Regional rainfall was also obtained. To ascertain the distribution of nymphs in the habitat, a separate sample was taken. Of the factors considered, the most important affecting the spatial distribution of the stonefly nymphs were altitude, stream order, and anthropic influence. Locally, the genera Anacroneuria and Kempnyia showed clumped distributions, but the data for Gripopteryx and Tupiperla were inconclusive due to low numbers.