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Análise de programas de segurança alimentar e nutricional no município de São Paulo: o conjunto dos programas compõe uma política de segurança alimentar e nutricional promotora da saúde?; Programs analysis for Food Security and Nutrition in the city of São Paulo: the set of the programs make up a Policy of Food and Nutrition Security health-promoting?

Rocha, Nayara Côrtes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/08/2011 PT
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A Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional (SAN) é a realização do direito de todos ao acesso regular e permanente a alimentos de qualidade, em quantidade suficiente, sem comprometer o acesso a outras necessidades essenciais, tendo como base práticas alimentares promotoras de saúde, que respeitem a diversidade cultural e que sejam social, econômica e ambientalmente sustentáveis. Nos últimos anos esta temática tem se destacado no cenário político nacional, principalmente após sua institucionalização por meio da Lei Orgânica de Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional (LOSAN 11.346/06) que cria o Sistema de Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional. Considerando os esforços para a implantação deste Sistema, nacionalmente, e a proximidade entre as proposições deste campo e o ideário da Promoção da Saúde, este estudo objetivou analisar um conjunto de programas de segurança alimentar e nutricional, desenvolvidos no município de São Paulo, sob a perspectiva da Promoção da Saúde, buscando verificar se ele compõe uma política de SAN promotora da saúde. A pesquisa, de caráter qualitativo, contou com análise de documentos referentes aos programas e entrevistas, por meio de questionários semi-estruturados, junto aos profissionais responsáveis por estas iniciativas. Verificou-se que os programas são distribuídos em todos os eixos de SAN (produção...

Políticas de alimentação e nutrição : monografia : food and nutrition policy: Brazil and Portugal : Brasil e Portugal

Gregório, Maria João
Fonte: Porto : edição de autor Publicador: Porto : edição de autor
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 2 vols.(tese + relatório); 30 cm
POR
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Resumo da tese:A alimentação e a nutrição constituem direitos humanos fundamentais consignados na Declaração Universal dos Direitos Humanos e são requisitos básicos para a promoção e protecção da saúde. No Brasil, os temas alimentação e nutrição desde meados do século passado, estão presentes na agenda política, enquanto que em Portugal só mais recentemente (década de 90 do século passado) são considerados como alvo da implementação de políticas, acompanhando as directrizes da União Europeia (UE). O Brasil apresentou o primeiro Programa Nacional de Alimentação e Nutrição em 1972, sendo que em 1999 foi implementada a Política Nacional de Alimentação e Nutrição (PNAN). Esta política marcou um grande avanço na ampliação e aperfeiçoamento do Sistema de Vigilância Alimentar e Nutricional (SISVAN), que representa a melhor fonte de informação de consumo alimentar e do estado nutricional da população brasileira. O Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar (PNAE) expressa a preocupação do Brasil para com a alimentação escolar. Portugal, na actualidade, não possui uma politica de alimentação e nutrição, desenvolvendo apenas alguns programas relacionados com esta temática que actuam de forma isolada...

Healthier Choices and Increased Participation in a Middle School Lunch Program: Effects of Nutrition Policy Changes in San Francisco

Wojcicki, Janet M.; Heyman, Melvin B.
Fonte: © American Journal of Public Health 2006 Publicador: © American Journal of Public Health 2006
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2006 EN
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In order to address overall nutritional health, including increases in numbers of overweight children and adolescents, the San Francisco Unified School District implemented a progressive nutrition policy beginning in August 2003. We review this policy and focus on its impact on school and district revenues and students’ participation in the federally subsidized school lunch program.

Change in Dietary Energy Density after Implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy

Mendoza, Jason A; Watson, Kathy; Cullen, Karen Weber
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2010 EN
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The consumption of energy-dense foods has been associated with rising obesity rates and the metabolic syndrome. Reducing dietary energy density (ED) is an important strategy to address obesity, but few studies have examined the effect of nutrition policies on children’s ED. The study’s objective was to assess the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on children’s ED by using a pre- and post-policy evaluation. Analysis of variance/covariance and nonparametric tests compared ED after the Texas policy change to intakes at baseline. Two years of lunch food records were collected from middle school students in Southeast Texas at three public middle schools: baseline (2001–2002) and one year after implementation of the Texas Policy (2005–2006). Students recorded the amount and source of foods consumed. The Texas Public School Nutrition Policy was designed to promote a healthy school environment by restricting 1) portion sizes of high fat and sugar snacks and sweetened beverages, 2) the fat content of foods, and 3) the serving of high fat vegetables like French fries. Energy Density (kcal/g): ED1 was the energy of foods only (no beverages) divided by the gram weight and has been previously associated with obesity and insulin resistance; ED2 included all food and beverages to give a complete assessment of all sources of calories. Following implementation of the Texas Policy...

Prioritizing Nutrition in India, The Silent Emergency : A Strategy for Commitment Building and Advocacy

CARE India
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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This report provides a background of the situation of nutrition in India and the rationale of the initiative presents an overview of the initiative, details the activities accomplished and the achievements in the state of Jharkhand, and at the national level and finally presents the recommendations and lessons learnt at the state and national level. The primary objectives of the initiative was to demonstrate a set of strategic activities to build commitment for nutrition, raise the level of public discourse about nutrition, build a better understanding of the critical gaps and issues to be addressed and advocate for policy and program directions to address these and enhance the commitment for nutrition. The prioritizing nutrition initiative is situated against the above backdrop. It recognizes that policies which aim to increase nutrition level of Indians are developed at the national level, hence to create conducive environment to achieve the goal of nutrition secure nation it is important to have informed and sensitized political leaders...

Political Economy Analysis for Food and Nutrition Security

Reich, Michael R.; Balarajan, Yarlini
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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The overall goal of this paper is to promote the use of political economy analysis in advancing more effective food and nutrition policies. The paper reviews the field of applied political economy for the food and nutrition sector, and offers practical guidance on how to conduct political economy analysis to better navigate the policy reform process. The paper is presented in three parts. Part I reviews the literature on political economy analysis (PEA) and its application in the food and nutrition fields, focusing on the applied literature in development. Three kinds of PEA are discussed: In-depth, Stakeholder, and Rapid Assessment PEA, which serve different purposes. The paper then introduces a structured qualitative method for conducting an in-depth PEA, based on four stages of the policy cycle: agenda-setting, policy design, policy adoption, and implementation. Part II provides an illustrative case study of an in-depth PEA for a specific food and nutritionrelated policy of India, the Integrated Child Development Services scheme. The analysis explains how the agenda was set and its consequences. Part III presents a newly developed tool to conduct a rapid assessment PEA for food and nutrition policy. This tool uses a questionnaire approach to evaluate the level of political commitment for food and nutrition security and opportunities for change...

Carrots and Sticks : The Political Economy of Nutrition Policy Reforms

Natalicchio, Marcela; Garrett, James; Mulder-Sibanda, Menno; Ndegwa, Steve; Voorbraak, Doris
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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The World Bank and other development partners have been involved in the implementation of nutrition programs for over 30 years. While a number of these programs have become successful and sustainable large-scale operations, many others have been hindered by political and administrative obstacles. The disparate results of these nutrition programs suggest that generating technically sound knowledge about nutrition and providing it to policymakers is not enough to ensure good results. It is also crucial to understand the political context, and the constraints and motivations of politicians, public officials, and other relevant players to initiate, implement, and sustain sound policies. In May 2007 the World Bank held an international workshop on these issues to help increase the impact of nutrition programs and policies at the country level. This paper summarizes the results of that workshop. Drawing from the political economy literature, it presents two frameworks for understanding how to undertake action to put nutrition on the agenda and move it forward...

Mainstreaming Nutrition in Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers : What Does It Take? A Review of the Early Experience

Shekar, Meera; Lee, Yi-Kyoung
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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This paper reviews 40 full poverty reduction strategy papers (PRSPs) with regard to whether these strategy papers (1) recognize under-nutrition as a development problem in the country, (2) whether they use nutrition information for poverty analysis, and (3) whether the PRSP includes specific nutrition activities (policies, strategies, and programs) to deal with the unique nutrition problems in each country. The review shows that three quarters of the PRSPs recognize that under-nutrition is a development problem that leads to loss of human capital and/or productivity. Also, many PRSPs, either explicitly or implicitly, include country nutrition profiles in their poverty analysis. Consequently, a majority of PRSPs include strategies and specific actions to mitigate the effects of malnutrition. However, there appears to be little prioritization or sequencing of proposed actions. More importantly, the strategies and actions included in PRSPs often do not reflect an appropriate response to the nature of the nutrition problem in the country. In a quarter of countries with macronutrient deficiencies and about 40% of countries with micronutrient deficiencies...

Costed Plan for Scaling Up Nutrition

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
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This paper estimates country-specific costs and benefits of scaling up key nutrition investments in Nigeria. Building on the methodology established in the global report scaling up nutrition: what will it cost? Authors first estimate the costs and benefits of a nationwide scale up of ten effective nutrition-specific interventions. This will require an annual public investment of $837 million and would yield enormous benefits: over 8.7 million DALYs and 183,000 lives would be saved annually, while more than 3 million cases of stunting among children under five will be averted. As it is unlikely that the Government of Nigeria or its partners will find the $837 million necessary to reach full national coverage, authors also consider five potential scale-up scenarios based on considerations of burden of stunting, potential for impact, resource requirements and capacity for implementation in Nigeria. Using cost-benefit analyses authors propose scale-up scenarios that represent a compromise between the need to move to full coverage and the constraints imposed by limited resources and capacities. This analysis takes an innovative approach to nutrition costing by not only estimating the costs and benefits of nutrition-specific interventions...

Scaling Up Nutrition for a More Resilient Mali

Shekar, Meera; Mattern, Max; Eozenou, Patrick; Dayton Eberwein, Julia; Kweku Akuoku, Jonathan; Di Gropello, Emanuela; Karamba, Wendy
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
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This paper builds on the global experience and Mali s context to identify an effective nutrition approach as well as costs and benefits of key nutrition programs, as part of a resilience agenda after the crisis. It is intended to help guide the selection of the most cost-effective interventions as well as strategies for scaling these up. The paper looks at both relevant nutrition-specific interventions, largely delivered through the health sector, and at multisectoral nutrition-sensitive interventions delivered through other sectors such as agriculture, social protection, and water and sanitation that have the potential to strengthen nutritional outcomes in Mali. We first estimate that the costs and benefits of implementing 10 nutrition-specific interventions in all regions of Mali would require a yearly public investment of $64 million. The expected benefits are large: annually about 480,000 Disability-adjusted Life Years (DALYs) and more than 14,000 lives would be saved and over 260,000 cases of stunting among children under five would be averted. However...

Nutrition and health II : nutrition and health revised with a study of the impact of nutritional health considerations on food policy

United States -- Congress. -- Senate. -- Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs
Fonte: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.; U.S. Govt. Print. Off. ( Washington ) Publicador: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.; U.S. Govt. Print. Off. ( Washington )
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: xii, 378 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Publicado em //1976 ENGLISH
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(Bibliography) Bibliography: p. 69-72.; At head of title: 94th Congress, 2d session. Committee print.; (Statement of Responsibility) prepared by the staff of the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs, United States Senate, July 1976.

Action Plan for the Provision of Vitamins and Minerals to the Tanzanian Population through the Enrichment of Staple Foods

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The United Republic of Tanzania has a severe vitamin and mineral deficiency problem. Every year deficiencies in iron, vitamin A and folic acid cost the country over US$ 518 million, around 2.65 % of the country's GDP. Beyond the economic losses, vitamin and mineral deficiencies are a significant contributor to infant mortality, with over 27,000 infant and 1,600 maternal deaths annually attributable to this cause.2 In fact, if all of these deaths could be avoided, the infant mortality rate (IMR) in Tanzania could be reduced to 41.5 per 1,000 population, which would virtually ensure achievement of the MDG goal for IMR (40/1,000). To reduce this huge annual loss, an integrated national vitamin and mineral deficiency control programme is needed which is embedded in the national nutrition policy. Food fortification or enrichment should be an integral but not the only part of such a programme.

Angola Nutrition Gap Analysis

McDonald, Christine; Hyder, Ziauddin; Albino Cossa, Humberto
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Despite remarkable economic growth in the past decade, undernutrition remains a serious public health problem in Angola. High rates of child stunting and micronutrient deficiencies are contributing to an under-five mortality rate of 161 deaths per 1,000 live births, limiting the growth and development of children, hindering productivity, and preventing the country from reaching millennium development goals one and four. In response to this situation, the objectives of this report are to: a) synthesize available information on the nutrition situation in Angola; b) discuss the three main determinants of undernutrition using the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) conceptual framework; c) summarize existing nutrition policies and programs in the country; and d) propose next steps for action. Nutrition policy agenda is slowly gaining momentum in the country. The national food security and nutrition strategy released in 2009 include nutrition actions for children under five. The national nutrition policy is in the process of being finalized. High priority problems include the dearth of up-to-date...

Good Work--But Not Enough of It : A Review of the World Bank's Experience in Nutrition

Heaver, Richard
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The World Bank has been a leader in nutrition policy analysis, and many of the nutrition projects it has supported have been innovative and successful. But though the Bank has developed the economic justification for large-scale investment in nutrition, and has the experience needed to scale up, it has failed to do so. Nutrition lending is an insignificant proportion of the Bank's business, no more than 2.5 per cent of its lending for human development. This level of effort is inconsistent with what the Bank's analytical work has found--that nutrition lending is one of the best economic investments, and critical to progress toward the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). There are significant institutional constraints to scaling up in nutrition. The paper therefore recommends that, if nutrition is to be put higher on the Bank's agenda, its top management will need to be involved in changing the institutional signals, through: (1) emphasizing that, as a precondition of faster progress toward the MDGs, improving nutrition is a Bank-wide responsibility...

Strengthening the Education Sector Response to School Health, Nutrition and HIV/AIDS in the Caribbean Region : A Rapid Survey of 13 Countries

O'Connell, Tara; Venkatesh, Mohini; Bundy, Donald
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Education Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Recent studies point to a number of current and emerging concerns in the health and nutrition of school-age children in the Caribbean region. Critical among them are: infectious diseases including HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs); non-communicable diseases (NCDs); and violence. Common health conditions including diabetes, hypertension and heart disease in the adult population can be positively linked to unhealthy lifestyles in youth. These health challenges, combined with a large school-age population, which in some countries may be a sizable third of the overall population, make a strong national response to the health and nutritional needs of school-age children particularly vital. As lifelong patterns of behavior and thinking are established during youth, it is critical to ensure early and widespread promotion of healthy practices related to sexual behavior, nutrition and a healthy lifestyle in general in the school-age population, resulting in a healthier adult population in the future. The rapid survey and this resulting report contribute to the collection of locally relevant evidence...

Do school based food and nutrition policies improve diet and reduce obesity?

JAIME, Patrícia Constante; LOCK, Karen
Fonte: Amsterdam Publicador: Amsterdam
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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OBJECTIVE: To review the effectiveness of school food and nutrition policies world wide in improving the school food environment, student's dietary intake, and decreasing overweight and obesity. METHODS: Systematic review of published and unpublished literature up to November 2007 of three categories of nutrition policy; nutrition guidelines, regulation of food and/or beverage availability, and price interventions applied in preschools, primary and secondary schools. RESULTS: 18 studies met the inclusion criteria. Most evidence of effectiveness was found for the impact of both nutrition guidelines and price interventions on intake and availability of food and drinks, with less conclusive research on product regulation. Despite the introduction of school food policies worldwide few large scale or national policies have been evaluated, and all included studies were from the USA and Europe. CONCLUSION: Some current school policies have been effective in improving the food environment and dietary intake in schools, but there is little evaluation of their impact on BMI. As schools have been proposed worldwide as a major setting for tackling childhood obesity it is essential that future policy evaluations measure the long term effectiveness of a range of school food policies in tackling both dietary intake and overweight and obesity.

Policy approach to nutrition and physical activity education in health care professional training1234

Levy, Matthew D; Loy, Lisel; Zatz, Laura Y
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Nutrition and physical activity are key risk factors for a host of today's most prevalent and costly chronic conditions, such as obesity and diabetes; yet, health care providers are not adequately trained to educate patients on the components of a healthy lifestyle. The purpose of this article is to underscore the need for improved nutrition and physical activity training among health care professionals and to explore opportunities for how policy can help support a shift in training. We first identify key barriers to sufficient training in nutrition and physical activity. Then, we provide an overview of how recent changes in the government and institutional policy environment are supporting a shift toward prevention in our health care system and creating an even greater need for improved training of health care professionals in nutrition and physical activity. Last, we outline recommendations for additional policy changes that could drive enhanced training for health care professionals and recommend future directions in research.

State and market: adversaries or allies in the implementation of the National Food and Nutrition Policy? Some reflections on regulation measures; Estado e mercado: adversários ou aliados no processo de implementação da Política Nacional de Alimentação e Nutrição? Elementos para um debate sobre medidas de regulamentação

Pinheiro, Anelise Rizzolo de Oliveira; Carvalho, Denise Bomtempo Birche de
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2008 POR
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A alimentação e a nutrição constituem requisitos básicos para a promoção e a proteção da saúde, possibilitando a afirmação plena do potencial de crescimento e desenvolvimento humano, com qualidade de vida e cidadania. As mudanças na relação do Estado, sociedade civil e mercado têm trazido uma série de conseqüências sociais adversas, especialmente no campo da saúde e nutrição. Este artigo tem como propósito provocar algumas reflexões relativas à necessidade de pactuação entre Estado, sociedade e mercado para a efetivação de medidas capazes de atuar positivamente no controle da obesidade e conseqüentemente melhorar as condições de saúde e nutrição da população brasileira. Apresenta uma breve descrição de contexto histórico sobre política social no Brasil e seus reflexos específicos na temática de alimentação e nutrição; identifica aspectos políticos principais para uma análise das diretrizes da Política Nacional de Alimentação e Nutrição; destaca o fortalecimento de medidas de regulamentação como estratégia de enfrentamento do problema de excesso de peso / obesidade na sociedade, identificando suas raízes a partir do modo de viver urbano, globalizado e neoliberal das ultimas décadas...

Micronutrient recommendations and policies in Spain: the cases of iodine, folic acid and vitamin D

Brito Garrfa,N.; Serra Majem,L.
Fonte: Nutrición Hospitalaria Publicador: Nutrición Hospitalaria
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/10/2012 ENG
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Introducción: As part of the work carried out within the EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned (EURRECA) Network of Excellence in Spain, we conducted a series of semi-structured interviews with decision makers and relevant scientific institutions in the field of nutrition and public health. The information gathered was collated with national relevant official and unofficial documents and subsequently analysed. Aim: To describe the current situation about nutrition policy in Spain, with special focus on the process of setting micronutrient recommendations and the development of subsequent policies. 3 cases will be detailed: iodine, folic acid and vitamin D. Methods: Information from 9 interviews was contrasted with the available official and unofficial documents on micronutrients recommendations setting and subsequent policy applications to help the population to achieve their requirements. Results and discussion: Common topics and themes were identified in the interviews and desk research. They describe a heterogenic picture of isolated initiatives and timid measures regarding micronutrients recommendations and subsequent policy instruments. Several recommendations coexist but none of them is the result of an official request by the government or competent authority. Iodine...

Mapping the nutrition transition in Peru: evidence for decentralized nutrition policies

Chaparro,M. Pia; Estrada,Leobardo
Fonte: Organización Panamericana de la Salud Publicador: Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2012 EN
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The study objectives were to map the different stages of the nutrition transition for each department within Peru, and to determine the nutrition policy needs for each geographic area based on their current stage in the nutrition transition. Results show that most of the country is suffering from a double-burden of malnutrition, with high rates of stunting among children less than 5 years of age and high rates of overweight and obesity among women of reproductive age. Currently, Peru has only country-wide nutrition policies, administered by the Ministry of Health, that are primarily focused on stunting prevention. This study argues for the need to have decentralized nutrition policies that vary according to what type of malnutrition is being experienced in each geographic area.