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Incentives for Better Performance in Health Care

Abduljawad, Asaad; Al-Assaf, Assaf F.
Fonte: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, College of Medicine & Health Sciences Publicador: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, College of Medicine & Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
Incentives for better performance in health care have several modes and methods. They are designed to motivate and encourage people to perform well and improve their outcomes. They may include monetary or non-monetary incentives and may be applied to consumers, individual providers or institutions. One such model is the Pay-for-Performance system. In this system, beneficiaries are compared with one another based on a set of performance indicators and those that achieve a high level of performance are rewarded financially. This system is meant to recognise and primarily to reward high performers. Its goal is to encourage beneficiaries to strive for better performance. This system has been applied in several countries and for several recipients and settings. Early indications show that this system has had mixed effects on performance.

Endogenous cortisol levels are associated with an imbalanced striatal sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary cues in pathological gamblers

Li, Yansong; Sescousse, Guillaume; Dreher, Jean-Claude
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/03/2014 EN
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56.18%
Pathological gambling is a behavioral addiction characterized by a chronic failure to resist the urge to gamble. It shares many similarities with drug addiction. Glucocorticoid hormones including cortisol are thought to play a key role in the vulnerability to addictive behaviors, by acting on the mesolimbic reward pathway. Based on our previous report of an imbalanced sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary incentives in the ventral striatum of pathological gamblers (PGs), we investigated whether this imbalance was mediated by individual differences in endogenous cortisol levels. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and examined the relationship between cortisol levels and the neural responses to monetary versus non-monetary cues, while PGs and healthy controls were engaged in an incentive delay task manipulating both monetary and erotic rewards. We found a positive correlation between cortisol levels and ventral striatal responses to monetary versus erotic cues in PGs, but not in healthy controls. This indicates that the ventral striatum is a key region where cortisol modulates incentive motivation for gambling versus non-gambling related stimuli in PGs. Our results extend the proposed role of glucocorticoid hormones in drug addiction to behavioral addiction...

No margin, no mission? : a field experiment on incentives for public service delivery

ASHRAF, Nava; BANDIERA, Oriana; JACK, B. Kelsey
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Outros Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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46.06%
We conduct a field experiment to evaluate the effect of extrinsic rewards, both financial and non-financial, on the performance of agents recruited by a public health organization to promote HIV prevention and sell condoms. In this setting: (i) non-financial rewards are effective at improving performance; (ii) the effect of both types of rewards is stronger for pro-socially motivated agents; and (iii) both types of rewards are effective when their relative value is high. The findings illustrate that extrinsic rewards can improve the performance of agents engaged in public service delivery, and that non-financial rewards can be effective in settings where the power of financial incentives is limited.; The lecture was delivered by Oriana Bandiera on 19 November 2014.

Integrating monetary and non-monetary reenlistment incentives utilizing the Combinatorial Retention Auction Mechanism (CRAM)

Zimmerman, Brooke Maura
Fonte: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.39%
This research addressed the potential retention and cost impacts of providing an optimal individualized portfolio of non-monetary and monetary incentives to influence reenlistment and retention behavior in enlisted Sailors by exploring three mechanisms for administrating enlisted retention: a purely monetary auction, a Universal Incentive Package (UIP) auction, and the Combinatorial Retention Auction Mechanism (CRAM). The mechanisms were simulated, their outcomes compared and their respective strengths and weaknesses were explored. CRAM clearly outperformed the monetary and UIP auctions. Cost savings to the Navy ranged from 25 to 80% over monetary incentives alone. Additionally, this research addressed the force-diversifying potential of CRAM. It was shown, for the sample used, that offering certain non-monetary incentives changed the demographic mix of Sailors retained. By allowing Sailors to choose only those benefits, which suit them, the Navy can eliminate the waste associated with unwanted benefits while at the same time empowering its members.

Variability of valuation of non-monetary incentives motivating and implementing the Combinatorial Retention Auction Mechanism

Ellis, Jason Blake
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.48%
Approved for public release, distribution unlimited; This thesis explores the concept of preference variability relative to non-monetary and monetary incentives in the Combinatorial Retention Auction Mechanism (CRAM). CRAM offers a mix of monetary and non-monetary incentives to encourage retention behavior. Recent research demonstrated the utility of non-monetary incentives as part of a military retention program. While CRAM was shown to cost effectively motivate retention, variability in valuation of non-monetary incentives as part of CRAM introduces complexity in eliciting preferences to implement the model. Making certain complexity decreasing assumptions regarding the personal valuation of incentives potentially affects the model cost and retention outcomes. These assumptions could potentially increase costs and retain the "wrong" sailors. This thesis examines an operational version of the CRAM, which assumes additive personal preferences across combinations of nonmonetary incentives to decrease complexity of the model. The outcomes of this "simplified" model are compared to the "more complex" previous research findings. The simplified CRAM model continues to produce cost saving, with no significant changes to the mix of personnel retained. Overall...

Integrating monetary and non-monetary retention incentives for the U.S. Navy Dental Corps officers utilizing the Combinatorial Retention Auction Mechanism (CRAM)

Kumar, Sandeep
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.35%
This research focused on the Navy Dental Corps community because of the retention challenges encountered, especially at the senior Lieutenant and Lieutenant Commander Ranks. The Dental Corps has retention goals by accession cohort and specialty mix to support the correct number of specialty trained officers to meet billet requirements in support of Navy and Marine Corps Dental Readiness. The requirement is to retain a healthy number of Dental Officers by specialty and pay grade to meet both clinical needs, and maintain senior leadership capability in the future. This research used the Universal Incentive Package (UIP) auction and Combinatorial Retention Auction Mechanism (CRAM) to identify the cost savings opportunities for the Navy, while retaining the optimal number of Dental Corps officers. Additionally, this research summarized the importance of creating a balance between monetary and non-monetary incentives. The Oracle Crystal Ball Monte Carlo simulation indicated that CRAM outperformed monetary only and universal auction mechanisms with an average savings between 24 and 30 percent. This research concluded that 61 percent retention level could be achieved by offering CRAM with an average savings of 24 percent over monetary only and UIP. The research concludes that CRAM provides an opportunity to individualize benefits that are not only valued by Dental Corps officers...

Simulation of enlisted sailor assignment process to explore the cost of non-monetary incentives

Buelow, Andreas
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.21%
The attractiveness of an employer became more important for employees over time. It influences the decision to reject a job or to stay in the job. Incentives are useful to motivate employees to do their job and to stay with their employer. The U.S. Navy uses many different incentives to motivate sailors to stay in the Navy. The Navy spends the biggest amount of money to motivate enlisted sailors to stay in the Navy for the reenlistment bonuses. The budget for this reenlistment bonus increased over time, but it is still difficulty to meet the endstrength goals. The use of Non-Monetary Incentives (NMIs) becomes more interesting to stop the increasing in budget of reenlistment bonuses. The use of NMIs only makes sense if the sailor values these incentives higher than it costs the Navy. Therefore, the Navy has to know how much an NMI cost. To identify the cost of NMIs that are related to the assignment process, this research uses a simulation model. The simulation model simulates the assignment process and is used to identify differences in assignment-related costs. In different scenarios, the single and combined use of NMIs was tested.

Monetary and non-monetary SWO retention bonuses: an experimental approach to the Combinatorial Retention Auction Mechanism (CRAM)

Browning, Amanda G.; Burr, Clinton F.
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
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Approved for public release, distribution unlimited; MBA Professional Report; This purpose of this project was to use an experimental approach to examine the behavior patterns in the decision-making process when choosing between monetary and non-monetary bonuses related to retention. We expected to observe that experimental subjects would choose incentives that maximize their personal retention value. The experiment is a retention mechanism that optimally combines monetary and non-monetary incentives to achieve desired SWO retention. The goal is to develop combinations of incentives that minimizing retention bonus costs while maximizing individual self-interests.

One Size Does NOT Fit All: Personalized Incentives in Military Compensation

Coughlan, Peter J.; Gates, William R.; Myung, Noah
Fonte: Monterey, California : Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California : Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.15%
A critical element in implementing a compensation scheme including non-monetary incentives (NMIs) is recognizing that preferences vary widely across service members. There are at least three sources of variability: variability across population classes (e.g., preferences vary across Services, professional communities, rank/pay grade, etc.); variability across individuals within a population class (e.g., preferences vary across people in similar circumstances); and variability across NMI packages for a particular individual (e.g., values for an individual NMI may depend on the package of NMIs offered). Surveys across different military communities, ranks, and years of service, show the difficulty of identifying any NMI that has significant value for even 50% of the active duty force. At the same time, approximately 80% of the surveyed service members expressed a significant positive value for at least one NMI. As a result, one-size-fits-all incentive packages will not be nearly as effective as more individually tailored incentive packages. This paper discusses variability in service member NMI preferences and outlines an approach to implementing personalized NMI packages in military compensation through a sealed-bid reverse auction...

The combinatorial retention auction mechanism (CRAM): integrating monetary and non-monetary reenlistment incentives

Coughlan, Peter J.; Gates, William R.; Zimmerman, Brooke M.
Fonte: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.42%
This research addresses the potential retention and cost impacts of providing an optimal individualized portfolio of non-monetary and monetary incentives to influence reenlistment and retention behavioral in enlisted Sailors. Specifically, it explores three mechanisms for administrating enlisted retention: a purely monetary auction, a Universal Incentive Package (UIP) auction, and the Combinatorial Retention Auction Mechanism (CRAM). In this text, the mechanisms are simulated, their outcomes compared and their respective strengths and weaknesses explored. The findings of this research confirm that CRAM clearly outperformed the monetary and UIP auctions. Cost savings to the Navy reanged from 25 to 80% over monetary incentives alone. Additionally, this research addresses the force-diversfying potential of CRAM. It is shown, for the sample used, that offering certain non-monetary incetives changed the demographic mix of Sailors retained. By allowing Sailors to choose only those benefits which suit them, the Navy can eliminate the waste associated with unwanted benefits, while at the same time empowering its members.

Evaluation of aviation career pay incentives among the Naval Aviation enterprise utilizing auction mechanisms

Williams, Brett M.
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.91%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; Naval Aviation utilizes the Aviation Career Continuation Pay (ACCP) as a means to retain qualified aviators to meet manpower requirements. However, the current program has failed to meet targeted retention across communities while overpaying nearly $5,300,000 during FY-2013, according to Eric Kelso. This thesis examines the potential improvements of applying uniform-price auction, Quality Adjusted Discount (QUAD), and CombiNATOrial Retention Auction Mechanism (CRAM) compensation programs to replace the current bonus system. Incorporating survey results from 2,316 naval officers across Navy Aviation, we analyzed the impact that market-based mechanisms would have on quantity, quality, and cost for retained naval aviators. Using these responses, we developed individual quality scores and reservation prices to apply three auction mechanisms to the retention goals and costs of the FY-2013 ACCP program. Our research shows that a market-based auction could include improvements in cost, quality, and particularly quantity of aviators eligible for the Department Head Screen Board. The uniform-price auction meets all retention objectives across Navy Aviation, while reducing costs in some communities by $1...

Combinatorial auction theory applied to the selection of Surface Warfare Officer retention incentives

Zegley, Christopher R.; Lewis, Chavius G.; Johnson, Derek N.; Denmond, Constance M.
Fonte: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xvi, 104 p. : ill.; 28 cm.
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
MBA Professional Report; The purpose of this project is to find the optimal combination of retention base incentives offered by the Surface Warfare Officer (SWO) community. The SWO community has experienced the lowest junior officer retention rate of all Unrestricted Line Officer (URL) communities since the early 1990's. The community is required to maintain at least 275 junior officers annually, in order to fill operational Department Head billets, in support of sustaining maritime mission requirements. Due to numerous community dissatisfiers, the SWO community has been unable to produce the required force strength of 275 Department Heads. Induction of a monetary bonus was the SWO community's answer to addressing its critical junior officer retention rates. But retention rates are still critically low and are viewed negatively by many junior officers, because the monetary bonus doesn't address the reasons junior officers are dissatisfied with the community. Several non-monetary incentives have been identified by junior SWO as possible tools to increase retention rates. This project will build a Combinatorial Auction Model to include both monetary and non-monetary incentives to determine which combination offers the greatest value to officers...

Review of Quality as a Factor in Sailor Selection of Monetary and Non-Monetary Incentives

Rendon, Frank; Wilson, Robert; Colston, Robert; RWC Manpower Consulting
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.47%
EMBA Project Report; EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: Today's Navy is faced with a number of challenges in attracting and retaining the officers and enlisted personnel required to operate and maintain the technical equipment required to achieve mission success. Investment of time and dollars in training and qualifying individuals to drive ships, operate and maintain weapons systems, fly aircraft, operate nuclear power plants, and manage people can average several hundred thousand dollars by the completion of an initial four-year tour of duty. In some cases, it is not unusual to exceed a million dollar investment in training and development of a Sailor with very specialized skills. It is clearly in the Navy’s best interest to retain the skills and capabilities of the highly trained individuals for a career rather than invest in retraining personnel every four to six years. The research focused on the issue of quality of the officer or enlisted service member as determined by their fitness report rating of Early Promote (EP = 5), Must Promote (MP = 4) or Promotable (P = 3) and related that data to their selection of a monetary or non-monetary incentive at significant career decision points. The goal was to determine if the quality of the individual was related to whether they selected a monetary incentive or a non-monetary incentive. A limited number of these incentives were looked at in the research...

Identifying the Cost of Non-Monetary Incentives (ICONIC)

Stitt, Ryan D.
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xvi, 75 p.; 28 cm.
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Approved for public release, distribution unlimited; MBA Professional Report; There is growing research that explores using an array of non-monetary incentives (NMIs) to attract and retain quality Sailors. Non-monetary incentives used in this paper are: homeport choice, billet choice, platform choice and geographic stability. This research experiments with the cost of non-monetary incentives for potential reenlistment by using a linear programming assignment optimization model. The ICONIC (Identifying the Cost of Non-monetary Incentives) model was developed as a proof-of-concept mechanism to identify the cost for non-monetary incentives. Forty-five Sailors and sixty billets was the sample size used to test the assignment model. Forty-one different scenarios were run with 50 percent weight on both Navy preferences and Sailor preferences that included a variety of NMI offerings. The same forty-one scenarios were run with 100 percent weight on Navy preference and 0 percent weight on Sailor preferences, and vice versa, for a total of one-hundred twenty-three different scenarios. The number of NMIs offered in each scenario was incremented as follows: five, ten, fifteen, twenty-five, and thirty-five. PCS, training, and fit costs were used to calculate the cost of the NMIs. In general...

Analysis of bidding behaviors in non-monetary incentivized, real-time uniform auctions

Tiley, Joshua H.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xvi, 73 p. : ill.; 28 cm.
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.44%
MBA Professional Report; The Navy continually fights economic surge and recession, budget constraints, and natural personnel turnover to maintain personnel levels at desired "end-strength." Forecasting retention bonus levels based on these socio-economic factors is extremely difficult. Current forecasting techniques are less precise than retention auctions because auctions provide the market clearing price to retain the desired end strength. This research examines bidding strategies adopted within a retention auction incorporating monetary and non-monetary retention incentives in a competitive bidding environment. This research compared user inputs across several subjects and determined which subjects to retain. Previous experiments compared participants' bids to computer simulated "optimal" bids; it was hard to say how or if bidding strategies would change if competing with other live players. There are two issues when dealing with optimal bidding strategies. The first is correct choosing non-monetary incentives. We found that 70% of these choices were made correctly. The second involves the salary requested after choosing non-monetary incentives. The salary requests were above the optimal bids. Coupled with the fact that non-monetary incentives were generally chosen correctly...

Auction mechanisms for allocating individualized non-monetary retention incentives in complex decision environments evaluation via laboratory experimentation

Hahn, Kyle P.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xviii, 155 p.
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.28%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; Interest in non-monetary incentives (NMIs) as a retention tool in the military services is increasing; however, prior research indicates that providing the same NMIs to all retainees is an expensive and inefficient approach. This research used an experimental methodology to investigate the use of auction mechanisms that create individualized retention bonuses combining both monetary and non-monetary incentives. Specifically, the experiment examined individuals' behavior patterns in using these auction mechanisms while including NMIs with independent and combinatorial qualities (complements and substitutes). Prior research with NMIs has assumed an additive relationship; however, this is often not the case. Hypotheses suggested that experimental subjects would choose NMI combinations that maximize their personal compensation value and then appropriately adjust their bid to the optimal level. The experimental results of the study support the hypotheses. In all auction formats, individuals appropriately selected the optimal NMI combinations 70 percent of the time. Those choices that were considered complex were still chosen correctly 66 percent of the time, suggesting individuals do behave rationally when dealing with various combinations of NMIs. These results provide support for the practical use of such auction mechanisms for incorporating NMIs in the retention process.; US Marine Corps (USMC) author

What about money? Effect of small monetary incentives on enrollment, retention, and motivation to change behaviour in an HIV/STD prevention counselling intervention. The Project RESPECT Study Group

Kamb, M. L.; Rhodes, F.; Hoxworth, T.; Rogers, J.; Lentz, A.; Kent, C.; MacGowen, R.; Peterman, T. A.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.41%
OBJECTIVES: We studied the effect of small monetary incentives and non-monetary incentives of similar value on enrollment and participation in clinic based HIV/STD prevention counselling. We examined incident STDs to try to assess whether participants offered money may be less motivated to change risky behaviours than those offered other incentives. METHODS: Patients from five US STD clinics were invited to enroll in a multisession risk reduction counselling intervention and, based on their enrollment date, were offered either $15 for each additional session or non-monetary incentives worth $15. The two incentive groups were compared on participants' enrollment, completion of intervention sessions, and new STDs over the 24 months after enrollment. RESULTS: Of 648 patients offered money, 198 (31%) enrolled compared with 160 (23%) of 696 patients offered other incentives (p = 0.002). Enrollees in the two incentive groups had similar baseline characteristics, including condom use. Of the 198 participants offered money, 109 (55%) completed all sessions compared with 59 (37%) of the participants offered other incentives (p < 0.0001). Comparing those offered money with those offered other incentives STD rates were similar after 6...

Incentivos não-pecuniários dos gestores de topo

Toma, Bianca Petrina
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em 11/12/2015 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.38%
Mestrado em Políticas de Desenvolvimento dos Recursos Humanos. / Classificação JEL: M12; M52; Nos dias de hoje, tem-se revelado muito importante para as organizações a qualidade do empenho profissional dos seus gestores de topo. Como tal, o tema referente à compensação e à motivação dos executivos de topo tem gerado várias discussões académicas e empresariais. Este trabalho tem como objetivos perceber qual o impacto dos incentivos não-pecuniários na motivação dos gestores de topo e qual a articulação entre os incentivos pecuniários e não-pecuniários. Precisamente porque a base salarial destes profissionais é bastante acima da média, torna-se interessante compreender quais os incentivos não-pecuniários que as organizações oferecem, ou deveriam oferecer, e que podem marcar a diferença para um gestor de topo. Esta pesquisa apresenta, em primeiro lugar, uma revisão de literatura da psicologia social e organizacional e também alguma literatura em economia sobre temas como a motivação, os sistemas de incentivos pecuniários e não-pecuniários e os seus efeitos, tendo-se procurado literatura que trata mais especificamente da categoria profissional dos executivos de topo. Em segundo lugar, na pesquisa empírica entrevistámos onze gestores de topo de várias organizações. Em termos metodológicos...

Incentivos não-pecuniários dos gestores de topo

Toma, Bianca Petrina
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2015 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.38%
Mestrado em Políticas de Desenvolvimento dos Recursos Humanos. / JEL Classification: M12; M52; Nos dias de hoje, tem-se revelado muito importante para as organizações a qualidade do empenho profissional dos seus gestores de topo. Como tal, o tema referente à compensação e à motivação dos executivos de topo tem gerado várias discussões académicas e empresariais. Este trabalho tem como objetivos perceber qual o impacto dos incentivos não-pecuniários na motivação dos gestores de topo e qual a articulação entre os incentivos pecuniários e não-pecuniários. Precisamente porque a base salarial destes profissionais é bastante acima da média, torna-se interessante compreender quais os incentivos não-pecuniários que as organizações oferecem, ou deveriam oferecer, e que podem marcar a diferença para um gestor de topo. Esta pesquisa apresenta, em primeiro lugar, uma revisão de literatura da psicologia social e organizacional e também alguma literatura em economia sobre temas como a motivação, os sistemas de incentivos pecuniários e não-pecuniários e os seus efeitos, tendo-se procurado literatura que trata mais especificamente da categoria profissional dos executivos de topo. Em segundo lugar, na pesquisa empírica entrevistámos onze gestores de topo de várias organizações. Em termos metodológicos...

Non-monetary rewards could be used to incentivise blood donation

Costa-Font, Joan; Jofre-Bonet, Mireia; Yen, Steven T.
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/08/2012 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
Joan Costa-Font, Mireia Jofre-Bonet and Steven T Yen present research into incentivising blood donation. Classic research has found that monetary incentives to blood donors may crowd out blood supply as purely altruistic donors may feel less inclined to donate if a reward is involved. However it is argued that there would be no supply displacement of altruistic donors if non-monetary rewards were offered instead.